International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 2834-7919   |  e-ISSN: 1554-5210

Original article | International Journal of Progressive Education 2023, Vol. 19(6) 34-49

How does Students with and without Disabilities Perceive Student–Teacher Relationship in Inclusive Elementary Classrooms?

Aysegul Sukran Oz

pp. 34 - 49   |  DOI: https://doi.org/10.29329/ijpe.2023.615.3   |  Manu. Number: MANU-2311-17-0005

Published online: December 12, 2023  |   Number of Views: 30  |  Number of Download: 87


Abstract

This investigation aims to examine the differences in perceived Student–Teacher Relationship (STR) among students with mild intellectual disabilities (SMID), low academic achievement (SLAA) and high academic (SHAA) achievement in Turkish inclusive elementary classrooms. Student participants were interviewed to complete a scale. Teacher participants completed teacher demographic information, student and classroom information forms. The findings indicate that except students’ gender, teachers and students demographic characteristics do not affect the students’ perceptions of the STR. Girls appear to be more satisfied in STRs than boys. SMID and SLAA are less satisfied in STRs than high achieving group. The satisfaction levels of the child participants in the emotional, informational and closeness dimensions of the STR were significantly different for SMID. The results demonstrate that the participants’ ratings of closeness significantly differ from the emotional and informational support dimensions.

Keywords: Student–teacher Relationship, Inclusive Classroom, Intellectual Disability, Academic Achievement, Student Perception


How to Cite this Article?

APA 6th edition
Oz, A.S. (2023). How does Students with and without Disabilities Perceive Student–Teacher Relationship in Inclusive Elementary Classrooms? . International Journal of Progressive Education, 19(6), 34-49. doi: 10.29329/ijpe.2023.615.3

Harvard
Oz, A. (2023). How does Students with and without Disabilities Perceive Student–Teacher Relationship in Inclusive Elementary Classrooms? . International Journal of Progressive Education, 19(6), pp. 34-49.

Chicago 16th edition
Oz, Aysegul Sukran (2023). "How does Students with and without Disabilities Perceive Student–Teacher Relationship in Inclusive Elementary Classrooms? ". International Journal of Progressive Education 19 (6):34-49. doi:10.29329/ijpe.2023.615.3.

References
  1. Al‐Yagon, M., & Mikulincer, M. (2004). Patterns of close relationships and socioemotional and academic adjustment among school‐age children with learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 19(1), 12–19. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5826.2004.00085.x [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  2. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5®). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association Publication. Retrieved from http://mevzuat.meb.gov.tr/html/66.html.  [Google Scholar]
  3. Baker, J. A. (2006). Contributions of teacher–child relationships to positive school adjustment during elementary school. Journal of School Psychology, 44(3), 211–229. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsp.2006.02.002 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  4. Bowe, F. (2005). Making inclusion work. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill/Prentice Hall. [Google Scholar]
  5. Brattesani, K. A., Weinstein, R. S., & Marshall, H. H. (1984). Student perceptions of differential teacher treatment as moderators of teacher expectation effects. Journal of Educational Psychology, 76(2), 236.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.76.2.236 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  6. Cacioppo, J. T., Berntson, G. G., Larsen, J. T., Poehlmann, K. M., & Ito, T. A. (2000). The psychophysiology of emotion.  In  R Lewis & J M Haviland-Jones (Eds.), Handbook of Emotions, (2nd ed.). (pp.173–191). Guilford Press. [Google Scholar]
  7. Cornelius-White, J. (2007). Learner-centered teacher-student relationships are effective: A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 77(1), 113–143. https://doi.org/10.3102/003465430298 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  8. De Boer, A., Pijl, S. J., & Minnaert, A. (2011). Regular primary schoolteachers’ attitudes towards inclusive education: A review of the literature. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 15(3), 331–353. https://doi.org/10.1080/13603110903030089 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  9. Eisenhower, A. S., Baker, B. L., & Blacher, J. (2007). Early student–teacher relationships of children with and without intellectual disability: Contributions of behavioral, social, and self-regulatory competence. Journal of School Psychology, 45(4), 363–383. [Google Scholar]
  10. Emmer, E. T. (1994, April). Teacher emotions and classroom management. In annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, L.A. [Google Scholar]
  11. Fraire, M., Claudio, L., Prino, L. E., Sclavo, E., & Settanni, M. (2013). Examining the student-teacher relationship scale in the italian context: Afactorial validity study. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology,11(3),851-882. http://dx.doi.org/10.14204/ejrep.31. [Google Scholar]
  12. Hallahan, D.P, & Kauffman, J.M. (2003). Exceptional learners: Introduction to [Google Scholar]
  13. special education (9th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. [Google Scholar]
  14. Hamre, B. K., & Pianta, R. C. (2001). Early teacher–child relationships and the trajectory of children's school outcomes through eighth grade. Child Development, 72(2), 625–638. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00301 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  15. Hamre, B. K., & Pianta, R. C. (2005). Can instructional and emotional support in the first‐grade classroom make a difference for children at risk of school failure? Child Development, 76(5), 949–967. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2005.00889.x [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  16. Hargreaves, A. (2000). Mixed emotions: Teachers’ perceptions of their interactions with students. Teaching and Teacher Education, 16(8), 811–826. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0742-051X(00)00028-7 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  17. Hughes, J. N., Cavell, T. A., & Willson, V. (2001). Further support for the developmental significance of the quality of the teacher–student relationship. Journal of School Psychology, 39(4), 289–301. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-4405(01)00074-7 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  18. İpek, C. (1999). Resmi liseler ile özel liselerde örgütsel kültür ve öğretmen-öğrenci ilişkisi. Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Yönetimi Dergisi, 5(3), 411–442. [Google Scholar]
  19. Jordan, A., & Stanovich, P. (2001). Patterns of teacher‐student interaction in inclusive elementary classrooms and correlates with student self-concept. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, 48(1), 33–52. https://doi.org/10.1080/10349120120036297 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  20. Kesner, J. E. (2000). Teacher characteristics and the quality of child–teacher relationships. Journal of School Psychology, 38(2), 133–149. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-4405(99)00043-6 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  21. Klang, N., Göransson, K., Lindqvist, G., Nilholm, C., Hansson, S., & Bengtsson, K. (2020). Instructional practices for pupils with an intellectual disability in mainstream and special educational settings. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, 67(2), 151-166.  https://doi.org/10.1080/1034912X.2019.1679724 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  22. Kline, R. B., & Santor, D. A. (1999). Principles & practice of structural equation modeling. Canadian Psychology, 40(4), 381-383. [Google Scholar]
  23. Koomen, H. M., Verschueren, K., van Schooten, E., Jak, S., & Pianta, R. C. (2012). Validating the student-teacher relationship scale: Testing factor structure and measurement invariance across child gender and age in a dutch sample. Journal of School Psychology, 50(2), 215–234. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsp.2011.09.001 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  24. Lynch, M., & Cicchetti, D. (1997). Children's relationships with adults and peers: An examination of elementary and junior high school students. Journal of School Psychology, 35(1), 81–99. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-4405(96)00031-3 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  25. Mantzicopoulos, P., & Neuharth-Pritchett, S. (2003). Development and validation of a measure to assess head start children's appraisals of teacher support. Journal of School Psychology, 41(6), 431–451. [Google Scholar]
  26. Ministry of National Education, General Directorate of Special Education and Guidance Services. (2013). Strengthening special education in Türkiye project: schools without boundaries model road map. https://orgm.meb.gov.tr/meb_iys_dosyalar/2013_09/04115200 _engelsizokulmodeliyolharitas.pdf [Google Scholar]
  27. Montague, M., & Rinaldi, C. (2001). Classroom dynamics and children at risk: A follow up. Learning Disability Quarterly, 24, 75–83. https://doi.org/10.2307/1511063 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  28. Murdock, T. B. (1999). The social context of risk: Status and motivational predictors of alienation in middle school. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91, 62-75. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.91.1.62 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  29. Murray, C., & Greenberg, M. T. (2001). Relationships with teachers and bonds with school: Social emotional adjustment correlates for children with and without disabilities. Psychology in the Schools, 38(1), 25–41. https://doi.org/10.1002/1520-6807(200101)38:1<25::AID-PITS4>3.0.CO;2-C [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  30. Murray, C., & Malmgren, K. (2005). Implementing a teacher-student relationship program in a high-poverty urban school: Effects on social, emotional and academic adjustment and lessons learned. Journal of School Psychology, 43(2), 137–152. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsp.2005.01.003 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  31. Murray, C., & Pianta, R. C. (2007). The importance of teacher-student relationships for adolescents with high incidence disabilities. Theory into Practice, 46(2), 105–112. https://doi.org/10.1080/00405840701232943 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  32. Murray, C., Murray, K. M., & Waas, G. A. (2008). Child and teacher reports of teacher–student relationships: Concordance of perspectives and associations with school adjustment in urban kindergarten classrooms. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 29(1), 49–61. [Google Scholar]
  33. Olson, D. H. (1977). Insiders’ and outsiders’ views of relationships: Research studies. Close relationships: Perspectives on the meaning of intimacy, Massachusetts: University of Massachusetts Press.115–135. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2007.10.006 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  34. Oz, A. S. , Dolapcioglu, S. (2019). Evaluating the student-teacher relationship in elementary schools:" My Teacher & I-Child". Asian Journal of Education and Training, 5(1), 8-17.  [Google Scholar]
  35. Özdamar, K. (1999). Paket programlar ile istatistiksel veri analizi (2nd Ed.). Eskişehir: Kaan Kitabevi. [Google Scholar]
  36. Pianta R. C. (2001). The Student–Teacher Relationship Scale: Professional manual. Psychological Assessment Resources. Charlottesville: University of Virginia. https://education.virginia.edu/ documents/ehdstrs-professional-manualpdfPianta, R. C. (1999). Enhancing relationships between children and teachers. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.  [Google Scholar]
  37. Pianta, R. C., & Steinberg, M. (1992). Teacher–child relationships and the process of adjusting to school. In R. C. Pianta (Ed.), Beyond the parent: The role of other adults in children's lives (pp. 61–80). Jossey-Bass. [Google Scholar]
  38. Pianta, R. C., Nimetz, S. L., & Bennett, E. (1997). Mother-child relationships, teacher-child relationships and school outcomes in pre-school and kindergarten. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 12(3), 263–280. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0885-2006(97)90003-X [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  39. Pieratt, J. R. (2011). Teacher-student relationships in project based learning: A case study of high tech middle north county. (Publication No. 3487717) [Dissertation thesis, The Claremont Graduate University]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global. https:// search.proquest.com/docview/913385913?accountid=16599 [Google Scholar]
  40. Pigott, R. L., & Cowen, E. L. (2000). Teacher race, child race, racial congruence and teacher ratings of children's school adjustment. Journal of School Psychology, 38(2), 177–195. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-4405(99)00041-2 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  41. Planalp, S. (1999). Communicating emotion: Social, moral and cultural processes. Cambridge University Press. [Google Scholar]
  42. Prino, L. E., Pasta, T., Gastaldi, F. G. M., & Longobardi, C. (2016). The effect of autism spectrum disorders, down syndrome, specific learning disorders and hyperactivity and attention deficits on the student-teacher relationship. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 14(38), 89–106. http://dx.doi.org/10.14204/ejrep.38.15043 [Google Scholar]
  43. Reddy, R., Rhodes, J. E., & Mulhall, P. (2003). The influence of teacher support on student adjustment in the middle school years: A latent growth curve study. Development and Psychopathology, 15(1), 119–138. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579403000075 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  44. Reid, M., Landesman, S., Treder, R., & Jaccard, J. (1989). ‘ My Family and Friends’: Six-to-Twelve-Year-Old Children’s Perceptions of Social Support. Child Development, 896–910. [Google Scholar]
  45. Rivkin, S. G., Hanushek, E. A., & Kain, J. F. (2005). Teachers, schools and academic achievement. Econometrica, 73(2), 417–458. [Google Scholar]
  46. Robertson, K., Chamberlain, B., & Kasari, C. (2003). General education teachers’ relationships with included students with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 33(2), 123–130. [Google Scholar]
  47. Roorda, D. L., Koomen, H. M., Spilt, J. L., & Oort, F. J. (2011). The influence of affective teacher–student relationships on students’ school engagement and achievement: A meta-analytic approach. Review of Educational Research, 81(4), 493–529. https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654311421793 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  48. Rosenfeld, L. B., Richman, J. M., & Bowen, G. L. (2000). Social support networks and school outcomes: The centrality of the teacher. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 17(3), 205–226. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1007535930286 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  49. Sakiz, G. (2017). Perceived teacher affective support in relation to emotional and motivational variables in elementary school science classrooms in Turkey. Research in Science & Technological Education, 35(1), 108–129. https://doi.org/10.1080/02635143.2017.1278683 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  50. Salend, S. J. (2005). Creating inclusive classrooms: effective and reflective classrooms. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill/Prentice Hall. [Google Scholar]
  51. Smith, J. D. (1998). Inclusion: Schools for all students. Auburn, WA: Wadsworth Publishing Company. [Google Scholar]
  52. Stage, S. A., & Galanti, S. B. (2017). The therapeutic mechanisms of check, connect and expect. School Psychology Review, 46(1), 3–20. [Google Scholar]
  53. Stronge, J. H., Ward, T. J., & Grant, L. W. (2011). What makes good teachers good? A cross-case analysis of the connection between teacher effectiveness and student achievement. Journal of Teacher Education, 62(4), 339–355. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022487111404241 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  54. Sutton, R. E. & Wheatley, K. F. (2003). Teachers’ emotions and teaching: A review of the literature and directions for future research. Educational Psychology Review, 15(4), 327–358. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1026131715856  [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  55. Tekinarslan, I. C. & Kucuker, S. (2015). Examination of the Psychometric Properties of the Children’s Loneliness Scale for Students with and without Special Needs in Inclusive Classrooms. Educational Sciences: Theory And Practice, 15(3), 709–721. [Google Scholar]
  56. Thijs, J. & Koomen, H. M. (2009). Toward a further understanding of teachers’ reports of early teacher–child relationships: Examining the roles of behavior appraisals and attributions. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 24(2), 186–197. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2009.03.001 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  57. Thomas, J. A., & Montomery, P. (1998). On becoming a good teacher: Reflective practice with regard to children's voices. Journal of Teacher Education, 49(5), 372–380. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022487198049005007 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  58. Tsigilis, N. & Gregoriadis, A. (2008). Measuring teacher–child relationships in the Greek kindergarten setting: a validity study of the Student–Teacher Relationship Scale–Short Form. Early Education and Development, 19(5), 816–835.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10409280801975826  [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  59. U.S. Department of Education. (1994). Fourteenth annual report to Congress on the implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Washington, DC. Government Printing Office. U.S. [Google Scholar]
  60. Ullman, J.B. (2001). Structural equation modeling In Tabachnick, B. G. & Fidell, L. S. (2001). Using multivariate statistics (Fifth Edition). (pp. 653–771.)Boston: Allyn and Bacon.  [Google Scholar]
  61. Wentzel, K. R. (1998). Social relationships and motivation in middle school: The role of parents, teachers and peers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90(2), 202-209. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.90.2.202 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  62. Williams, S. (2012). Examining the qualities of the homeroom teacher/student relationship, (Publication No. 29050493) [Master’s thesis, Bilknent University]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global. https://www.proquest.com/openview/ e9366c4b605051b370b7ff3a4d1ff90b/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=2026366&diss= [Google Scholar]