International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 2834-7919   |  e-ISSN: 1554-5210

Original article | International Journal of Progressive Education 2024, Vol. 20(1) 1-12

Predictors of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Adolescents: Loneliness and Self-Compassion

Çiğdem Sesli & Ali Çekiç

pp. 1 - 12   |  DOI: https://doi.org/10.29329/ijpe.2024.646.1   |  Manu. Number: MANU-2307-28-0001

Published online: February 05, 2024  |   Number of Views: 93  |  Number of Download: 48


Abstract

This study investigated the associations between adolescents' self-compassion, loneliness, and post-traumatic stress levels. The study also revealed the predictive role of self-compassion and loneliness on post-traumatic stress. Additionally, post-traumatic stress levels in adolescents were compared by gender, exposure to or witnessing trauma, and whether the individuals previously sought psychological assistance. Adopting a correlational design, the study population included adolescents aged 14-18 living in Türkiye. On the other hand, the study group consisted of 351 adolescents who were reached through simple random sampling. The participants lived in various parts of Türkiye and were exposed to or witnessed traumatic experiences. They responded to the scales online. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for DSM-5, Self-compassion Scale for Adolescents, UCLA Loneliness Scale and Demographic Survey Form were used as data collection tools. The significance level was .05. The study concluded that higher levels of self-compassion indicate lower post-traumatic stress. Additionally, lower levels of loneliness indicate higher levels of post-traumatic stress. Self-compassion and loneliness significantly predicted post-traumatic stress in adolescents. The findings suggested that females had significantly higher levels of post-traumatic stress. Lastly, it was concluded that adolescents who sought psychological assistance and had exposure to trauma had significantly higher levels of post-traumatic stress.

Keywords: Adolescence, Posttraumatic Stress, Self-compassion, Loneliness.


How to Cite this Article?

APA 6th edition
Sesli, C. & Cekic, A. (2024). Predictors of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Adolescents: Loneliness and Self-Compassion . International Journal of Progressive Education, 20(1), 1-12. doi: 10.29329/ijpe.2024.646.1

Harvard
Sesli, C. and Cekic, A. (2024). Predictors of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Adolescents: Loneliness and Self-Compassion . International Journal of Progressive Education, 20(1), pp. 1-12.

Chicago 16th edition
Sesli, Cigdem and Ali Cekic (2024). "Predictors of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Adolescents: Loneliness and Self-Compassion ". International Journal of Progressive Education 20 (1):1-12. doi:10.29329/ijpe.2024.646.1.

References
  1. Abenhaim,L., Dab, W., & Salmi, L. R. (1992). Study of civilianvictims of terrori stattacks (France 1982–1987). Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 45(2), 103-109. https://doi.org/10.1016/0895-4356(92)90002-5 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  2. Akyol, S. U. (2013). Examınıng lonelıness, lıfe satısfactıon, socıal support, and some varıables of adolescents wıth dıvorced parentsand non-dıvorced parents (Thesis No:357111) (Master's thesis , Pamukkale Üniversitesi-Denizli) . [Google Scholar]
  3. Ashraf, F.,Niazi, F., Masood, A., & Malik, S. (2019). Gender comparisons and prevalence of child a buse and post-traumatic stres disorder symptoms in adolescents. JPMA. TheJournal of the Pakistan Medical Association, 69(3), 320-324. [Google Scholar]
  4. Barlow, M. R., Turow, R. E. G., & Gerhart, J. (2017). Trauma appraisals, emotion regulation difficulties, and self compassion predict posttraumatic stress symptoms following child hood a buse.  Child a buse & neglect, 65,37-47:https:// doi.org /10.1016/ j.chiabu.2017. 01.006 [Google Scholar]
  5. Başoğlu, E. (2019). The role of child a buse and gender on lonelinessamong university students (Thesis No:575344) (Master's thesis, Middle East Technical University-Ankara). [Google Scholar]
  6. Baştuǧ,Ö.F.,& Arslantaş, H. (2021). Post-traumatic stress symptoms and related factors in high school student adolescents. Current Approaches in Psychiatry, 13, 110-121. [Google Scholar]
  7. Baştuğ, Ö. F. (2017). Post-traumatıc stress symptoms and related factors ın terms of hıgh-school adolescents ın South eastern anatolıa (Thesis No:490017) (Master's thesis, (Adnan Menderes University- Aydın). [Google Scholar]
  8. Bluth, K.,Roberson, P. N., Gaylord, S. A., Faurot, K. R., Grewen, K. M., Arzon,S.,&Girdler,S.S.(2016).Does self compassion protect adolescents from stress?. Journal of Child And Family Studies, 25(4), 1098-1109. doi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2013.12.018 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  9. Boysan, M., Guzel Ozdemir, P., Ozdemir, O., Selvi, Y., Yilmaz, E., & Kaya, N. (2017). Psychometric properties of theTurkish version of the PTSD Checklistfor Diagnosticand Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, (PCL-5). Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 27(3), 300-310. https://doi.org/10.1080/24750573.2017.1342769 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  10. Brennan, T. (1982). Loneliness at adolescence. Loneliness: A source book of current theory, research and therapy, 269-290. [Google Scholar]
  11. Bulut, S. (2009). Comparing children posttraumatic stress reactions in terms of age and gender after an earthquake. Turkish Psychological Counseling and Guidance Journal, 4(31), 43-51. https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12491/3443 [Google Scholar]
  12. Büyüköksüz, E.,& Erözkan, A. (2019). Self-compassion scale-short form (sss-sf):scale adaptation in adolescent sample study Journal of Cognitive Behavioral Psychotherapy and Research, 10 (Supplement 1), 17. [Google Scholar]
  13. Cauberghe, V., Van Wesenbeeck, I., De Jans, S., Hudders, L., &Ponnet, K. (2021).How adolescents use social media to cope with feelings of loneliness and anxiety during COVID-19 lock down. Cyber Psychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 24(4), 250-257. https://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2020.0478 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  14. Cohen,J.A.(2003).Treating a cute posttraumatic reactions in children and adolescents. Biological Psychiatry, 53(9), 827833. https://doi.org/10.1016/S00063223(02)01868-1 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  15. Çivitci, N., Civitci, A., & Fiyakali, N. C. (2009). Loneliness and life satisfaction in adolescents with divorced and non-divorced parents. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 9(2), 513-525. [Google Scholar]
  16. Demir, A. (1989). Validity and reliability of the ucla loneliness scale. Turkish Journal of Psychology, 7(23), 14-18. [Google Scholar]
  17. Dürü, Ç. (2006). Exploring posttraumatic stress sysmptoms and posttraumatic growth with respect to some variables and proposing a model.( Thesis No: 159594) (Doctoral Thesis Hacettepe University-Ankara)  [Google Scholar]
  18. Ediz, K & Gülbahçe A. (2019). Investigation of post-traumatic stress disorder levels of students living in van earthquake. Atatürk University, Journal Of the Social Sciences Institute  23(3), 957-972. [Google Scholar]
  19. Erden, G.,& Gürdil, G. (2009). Trauma reactions observed at children and adolescents in pursuit of war experiences and psycho-social help suggestions. Turkish Psychological Articles, 2009, 12 (24), 14-1512(24), 1-13. [Google Scholar]
  20. Erözkan, A. (2009). The predictors of loneliness in adolescents. Elementary Education Online, 8(3), 1-11. [Google Scholar]
  21. Gavranidou, M., & Rosner, R. (2003). The weaker sex? Gender and post‐traumatic stress disorder. Depression and Anxiety, 17(3), 130-139. https://doi.org/10.1002/da.10103 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  22. Gibson, R. L., & Hartshorne, T. S. (1996). Childhood sexual abuse and adult loneliness and network orientation. Child Abuse & Neglect, 20(11), 1087-1093. https://doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134(96)00097-X [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  23. Gökmen, G.,& Deniz, M. E. (2020). Self-compassion and forgiveness as the predictors of the post-trauma growth. International Journal of Social Sciences in Turkish Cultural Geography, 5(2), 72-93. [Google Scholar]
  24. Güler Yılmaz, M. (2012). The aim of this research is to analyse the correlation between loneliness and shyness among high school students.( Thesis No:322475) (Master's thesis Yeditepe University- İstanbul.) [Google Scholar]
  25. Haskan Avcı, Ö. ,& Yıldırım, İ. (2014). Violence tendency, loneliness and social support among adolescents. Hacettepe University Journal of The Faculty Of Education, 29(29-1), 157-168. [Google Scholar]
  26. Hemmati, M. A., Shokoohi, H., Masoumi, M., Khateri, S., Soroush, M., Modirian, E., & Mousavi, B. (2015). Mentalhealthdisorders in child and adolescent survivors of post-war landmine explosions. Military Medical Research, 2(1), 1-6. [Google Scholar]
  27. Hoffart, A.,Øktedalen, T., &Langkaas, T. F. (2015). Self-compassion influences PTSD symptoms in theprocess of change in trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapies: a study of with in-person processes. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 1273.     https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01273 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  28. Karakaya I, Ağaoğlu B, Coşkun A, Şişmanlar Ş, Ö (2004). The symptoms of ptsd, depression and anxiety in adolescent students three and a half years after the marmara earthquake. Turkish Journal of Psychiatry, 15(4), 257 - 263. [Google Scholar]
  29. Karalalı, B. (2021). The relationship of post-traumatic cognitions, post-traumatic stress and forgiveness .( Thesis No:697364) (Master's thesis Marmara University- İstanbul.)  [Google Scholar]
  30. Karaoğlu, M &Erzi, S.. (2019). Eating attitudes and traumatic experiences: the mediator role of self- compassion and emotion regulation. Cyprus Turkish Journal of Psychiatry and Psychology, 1(3), 145-151. https://doi.org/10.35365/ctjpp.19.1.18 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  31. Karasar, N. (1999). Scientific research method: concepts. principles, techniques, Ankara: Nobel Yayınevi. [Google Scholar]
  32. Kilpatrick, D. G., Acierno, R., Saunders, B., Resnick, H. S., Best, C. L., & Schnurr, P. P. (2000). Risk factors for adolescent substance abuse and dependence: data from a national sample. Journal Of Consulting And Clinical Psychology, 68(1), 19. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/0022-006X.68.1.19 [Google Scholar]
  33. Leary, M. R., Tate, E. B., Adams, C. E., Batts Allen, A., & Hancock, J. (2007). Self-compassion and reactions to unpleasant self-relevant events: the implications of treating oneself kindly. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92(5), 887. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/0022-3514.92.5.887 [Google Scholar]
  34. Lehavot, K., Katon, J. G., Chen, J. A., Fortney, J. C., & Simpson, T. L. (2018). Post-traumatic stress disorder by gender and veteran status. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 54(1), e1-e9. https://doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.amepre.2017.09.008 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  35. Liu, A., Wang, W., & Wu, X. (2020). Understanding the relation between self-compassion and suicide risk among adolescents in a post-disaster context: Mediating roles of gratitude and posttraumatic stress disorder. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 1541. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01541 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  36. Liu, A., Wang, W., & Wu, X. (2021). The mediating role of rumination in the relation between self-compassion, posttraumatic stress disorder, and posttraumatic growth among adolescents after the Jiuzhaigou earthquake. Current Psychology, 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.1996.tb00948.x [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  37. MacBeth, A., & Gumley, A. (2012). Exploring compassion: A meta-analysis of the association between self-compassion and psychopathology. Clinical Psychology Review, 32(6), 545-552. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2012.06.003 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  38. Maheux, A., & Price, M. (2016). The indirect effect of social support on post-trauma psychopathology via self-compassion. Personality and Individual Differences, 88, 102-107. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2015.08.051 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  39. Meydan, B. ve Lüleci, B. (2013). Prıor help-seekıng experıence, perceıved socıal support, and lonelıness as the predıctors of attıtudes toward seekıng psychologıcal help among school of educatıon students. Pegemjournal of Education and Instruction, 3(4), 45-56 [Google Scholar]
  40. Neff, K. D., Rude, S. S., & Kirkpatrick, K. L. (2007). An examination of self-compassion in relation to positive psychological functioning and personality traits. Journal of Research in Personality, 41(4), 908-916. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2006.08.002 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  41. Olff, M. (2017). Sex and gender differences in post-traumatic stres disorder: an update. Europeanjournal of psychotraumatology, 8(sup4), 1351204. [Google Scholar]
  42. Qllguard, R. (2012). Based on Psychological First Aid Training Manual for Child Practitioners:Two-day programme by Pernille Terlonge. Save the Children [Google Scholar]
  43. Şahin, Ş., Altındağ, Ö., Elboga, G., Elçiçek, S., Akaltun, M. S., Altındağ , A.,& Doğan İ. (2020). The relations of traumatic life events with depression, loneliness, anxiety, posttraumatic growth, and pain in refugee university students. Acta Medica Alanya, 4(3), 264-269. https://doi.org/10.30565/medalanya.738966 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  44. Tabachnick, B. G.,&Fidell, L. S. (2013). Using multivariate statistics (sixth ed.) Boston: Pearson. [Google Scholar]
  45. Tedeschi, R. G.,&Calhoun, L. G. (2004). " Posttraumatic growth: conceptual foundations and empirical evidence". Psychological İnquiry, 15(1), 1-18. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1207/s15327965pli1501_01 [Google Scholar]
  46. Tekcan, E. E. (2018). The moderator role of self-compassion in the relation between post-traumatic stress symptoms and post-traumatic growth in adults .( Thesis No:495595) (Master's thesis Maltepe University- İstanbul.)  [Google Scholar]
  47. Teke,E.,& Avşaroğlu, S. (2021). A review of studies on post-traumatic stress and growth carried in Turkey. OPUS International Journal of Society Researches, 18(43), 6980-7004. [Google Scholar]
  48. Thompson, B. L., & Waltz, J. (2008). Self‐compassion and PTSD symptom severity. Journal of Traumatic Stress: Official Publication of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, 21(6), 556-558. https://doi: 10.1002/jts.20374 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  49. Trickey, D., Siddaway, A. P., Meiser-Stedman, R., Serpell, L., & Field, A. P. (2012). A meta-analysis of risk factors for post-traumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents. Clinical Psychology Review, 32(2), 122-138. [Google Scholar]
  50. Shevlin, M., McElroy, E., & Murphy, J. (2015). Loneliness mediates the relationship between childhood trauma and adult psychopathology: Evidence from the adult psychiatric morbidity survey. Social Psychiatry And Psychiatric Epidemiology, 50, 591-601. https://doi: 10.1007/s00127-014-0951-8 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  51. Ünver, H.,& Karakaya, I. (2019). Specialized trauma outpatient clinic experience in child and adolescent psychiatry Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 22(3), 298-303. https://doi: 10.5505/kpd.2019.36025 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  52. Valdez, C. E., & Lilly, M. M. (2016). Self-compassion and trauma processing outcomes among victims of violence. Mindfulness, 7, 329-339. https://doi.10.1007/s12671-015-0442-3 [Google Scholar]
  53. Verger, P., Dab, W., Lamping, D. L., Loze, J. Y., Deschaseaux-Voinet, C., Abenhaim, L., & Rouillon, F. (2004). The psychological impact of terrorism: an epidemiologic study of posttraumatic stress disorder and associated factors in victims of the 1995–1996 bombings in France. American Journal of Psychiatry, 161(8), 1384-1389. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.161.8.1384 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  54. Xue, C., Ge, Y., Tang, B., Liu, Y., Kang, P., Wang, M., & Zhang, L. (2015). A meta-analysis of risk factors for combat-related PTSD among military personnel and veterans. Plos one, 10(3), e0120270. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0120270 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  55. Yelpaze, I. (2016). The investigation of university students' psychological help seeking attitudes .(Thesis No:438242) (Doctoral thesis Anadolu University- Eskişehir.)  [Google Scholar]
  56. Zara, A. (2011). Crises and traumas. Included in Psychological Problems and Ways of Coping as You Live (Zara A., Ed.), Imge Bookstore Publications, İstanbul, 91-121. [Google Scholar]