International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 1554-5210

Original article | International Journal of Progressive Education 2014, Vol. 10(3) 86-96

The Role of Policy in the Development of Special Education

Mary W. Kiarie

pp. 86 - 96   |  Manu. Number: ijpe.2014.040

Published online: October 15, 2014  |   Number of Views: 2  |  Number of Download: 19


Abstract

In terms of the number of students served and the overall quality of special education services provided, it is clear that special education has, from its early beginnings in the late seventeenth century, advanced at various rates in the different countries of the world. Data from the United States Department of Education (2007) indicates that 12% of the school age population (6-17 year olds) in the nation are children with disabilities in special education. Kenya’s population of students with disabilities in the schools now stands a little over 221,995 (Ministry of Education, 2008) in a country where 25% of the estimated 3.2 million people with disabilities are school age children. This paper provides a comparative overview of the role of government policy in the progress of special education in both the United States of America and in Kenya with the aim of emphasizing the role of comprehensive policy, follow-through, oversight, and accountability to achieve targeted results in the field of special education in Kenya.

Keywords: Special education, educational policy, comprehensive policy development


How to Cite this Article?

APA 6th edition
Kiarie, M.W. (2014). The Role of Policy in the Development of Special Education . International Journal of Progressive Education, 10(3), 86-96.

Harvard
Kiarie, M. (2014). The Role of Policy in the Development of Special Education . International Journal of Progressive Education, 10(3), pp. 86-96.

Chicago 16th edition
Kiarie, Mary W. (2014). "The Role of Policy in the Development of Special Education ". International Journal of Progressive Education 10 (3):86-96.

References
  1. Alper, S., & Ryndak, D.L. (2002). Curriculum content for students with moderate and severe disabilities in inclusive settings (2nd ed.). Needham Heights, Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. [Google Scholar]
  2. Berman, S., Davis, P., Kauffman-Frederick, A., & Orion, D. (2001). The rising costs of special education in Massachusetts: Causes and effects. In C.E. Finn, Jr., A.J. Rotherham, and C. [Google Scholar]
  3. R.Hokanson, Jr., (Eds.), Rethinking special education for an new century. (pp. 183-212). Washington, D.C: Thomas B. Fordham Foundation and the progressive Policy Institute. [Google Scholar]
  4. Cherono, M. (2003). National plans of education: How can the rights and needs of persons with disabilities be catered for? Paper presented at the East African Regional Workshop on education for persons with disabilities. [Google Scholar]
  5. Finn, Jr., C.E., Rotherham, A.J., & Hokanson, Jr., C.R. (Eds.). (2001). Rethinking special education for a new century. Washington, D.C: Thomas B. Fordham Foundation and the Progressive Policy Institute. [Google Scholar]
  6. Gargiulo, R.M. (2012). Special Education in Contemporary Society (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. [Google Scholar]
  7. Government of Kenya. (2010). Laws of Kenya. Downloaded from https://www.kenyaembassy.com/pdfs/The%20Constitution%20of%20Kenya.pdf on 3/10/2014. [Google Scholar]
  8. Hallahan, D. P.,& Kauffman, J. M. (2006). Exceptional Learners (10th ed.). An Introduction to Special Education. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. [Google Scholar]
  9. Hardman, M.L., Drew, C.J., & Egan, M.W. (2005). Human Exceptionality: School, community, and family (8th ed.).Boston, MA: Allyn &Bacon. [Google Scholar]
  10. Heward, W. L. (2009). Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education (9th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. [Google Scholar]
  11. Jimenez, T.C. & Graf, V.L. (2008). Education for all: Critical issues in the education of children and youth with disabilities. Jossey-bass. [Google Scholar]
  12. Kenya Ministry of Education and Ministry of Education, Science and Technology. (2012). Special Needs Education: Author. [Google Scholar]
  13. Kenya Society for Deaf Children. (1987). Kenya Society for Deaf Children Annual Statistics report, 1987. Author. [Google Scholar]
  14. Kiarie, M.W.(2005). Teaching students with Disabilities in Kenya: Changing Trends. Journal of International Special Needs Education, 8, 39-44. [Google Scholar]
  15. Kiarie, M. W. (2006). Plans for Inclusive Education in Kenya: A Comparative Overview. Journal of International Special Needs Education, 9, 27-33. [Google Scholar]
  16. Kiarie, M.W. ( 2007 ). Student with hearing impairments in Kenya: Services, obstacles, and future trends. Journal of International Special Needs Education, 1, 41-47. [Google Scholar]
  17. Lewit, E.M., & Baker, S.L. (1996). Special Education for Students with Disabilities. The Future of Children, 6(1)139-151. [Google Scholar]
  18. Lyon, G. R.,Fletcher, J.M., Shaywitz, B.A., Torgesen, J.K.,Wood, F.B., Schulte, A., & Olson, R. (2001). Rethinking learning disabilities. In C.E Finn, Jr., A.J. Rotherham, and C.R . Hokanson, Jr., (Eds.). Rethinking special education for a new century (pp. 259-288). [Google Scholar]
  19. Washington, D.C: Thomas B. Fordham Foundation and the Progressive Policy Institute. [Google Scholar]
  20. Martin, E.W., Martin, R., & Terman, D.L. (1996). The legislative and litigative history of special education. The future of children, 1, 25-39. [Google Scholar]
  21. Ministry of Basic Education. (1981). Policy for Special Education. Revised Draft. Nairobi, Kenya. [Google Scholar]
  22. Ministry of Education (1987). Education in Kenya Information Handbook, Nairobi, Jomo Kenyatta [Google Scholar]
  23. Foundation. [Google Scholar]
  24. Ministry of Education (2008). Special Needs Enrolment, special education section, MOE. http://washinschoolsmapping.com/projects/pdf/kenyafacts.pdf.  Downloaded on 3/14/14. [Google Scholar]
  25. Murdick, N.L.,Gartin, B. C., & Crabtree, T. (2007). Special Education Law (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill/Prentice Hall. [Google Scholar]
  26. National Center for Education Statistics. (2011). Grade 8 national results. Retrieved on March 26, 2014 from http://www.nationsreportcard.gov/math_2009 and http://www.nationsreportcard.gov/reading_2009. [Google Scholar]
  27. Mwangi, L. (2013). Special Needs Education (SNE) in Kenyan public primary schools: exploring government policy and teachers’ understandings. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Brunel University, London. United Kingdom. [Google Scholar]
  28. Muuya, J. (2002). The aims of special education schools and units in Kenya: A survey of head teachers. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 17(3), 229-239. [Google Scholar]
  29. Ndurumo, M. (1993).Exceptional Children: Developmental consequences and intervention. Longman. Nairobi, Kenya. [Google Scholar]
  30. Patterson, T. J. (2001). Brown V. Board of Education: A civil rights milestone and its troubled legacy. Oxford University Press. [Google Scholar]
  31. Republic of Kenya. (1964). Kenya Education Commission Report, the Ominde Report. Nairobi, Kenya: Government press. [Google Scholar]
  32. Republic of Kenya. (1964). The Committee on Care and Rehabilitation of the Disabled, the Ngala Mwendwa Report. Nairobi, Kenya. Government printer. [Google Scholar]
  33. Republic of Kenya. (1976). Report of the National Committee on Educational Objectives and policies, the Gachathi Report. Nairobi, Kenya: Government printer. [Google Scholar]
  34. Republic of Kenya.(1988). The presidential working party on education and manpower, the Kamunge Report. Nairobi, Kenya: Government Printer. [Google Scholar]
  35. Republic of Kenya. (1988). Report of the Presidential Working Party on Education and Manpower Training for the next Decade and Beyond. Nairobi, Kenya: Government printer. [Google Scholar]
  36. Republic of Kenya. (1999). Totally integrated quality education and training-TIQET: Report of the Commission of Inquiry into the Education System of Kenya. Nairobi, Kenya: Government printer. [Google Scholar]
  37. Townsend, B.L., & Patton, J. M. (2001). The disclosure on ethics, power, and privilege and African American Learners: Guest editor’s post notes. Teacher Education and Special Education, 24, 48-49. [Google Scholar]
  38. Turnbull, A., Turnbull, R., Wehmeyer, M.L., & Shogren, K.A. (2013). Exceptional Lives: Special Education in Today’s Schools (7th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson [Google Scholar]
  39. U.S. Department of Education. (2007). Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Washington, DC: Author. [Google Scholar]
  40. U.S. Department of Education. (2010).IDEA data. Retrieved from: https://www. Ideadata.org/ PartReport. Asp [Google Scholar]
  41. U.S               Department of Education ( 2011). IDEA data. https://www. Ideadata.org/ PartReport. Asp. Wanyama, H. (2012). Special education fund to be increased. Downloaded from http://www.the-star.co.ke/news/article-17650/special-education-fund-be-increased on July 18, 2014. [Google Scholar]
  42. Wilson, P.E. (1995). A time to loose: Representing Kansas in Brown v Board of Education. University Press of Kansas. [Google Scholar]
  43. World Data on Education. UNESCO (2010/2011). Downloaded from http://www.ibe.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Publications/WDE/2010/pdf- versions/Kenya.pdf on 3/8/2014. [Google Scholar]
  44. World Report on Disability. (2011) http://www.who.int/disabilities/world_report/2011/world_report_disability_easyread.pdf?ua=1 [Google Scholar]