International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 2834-7919   |  e-ISSN: 1554-5210

Original article | International Journal of Progressive Education 2022, Vol. 18(6) 194-209

The Adaptation of the Individual Entrepreneurship Perception Scale to Secondary School Level

Süleyman Yaman, Aslı Sarışan Tungaç & Belgin Bal İncebacak

pp. 194 - 209   |  DOI: https://doi.org/10.29329/ijpe.2022.477.13   |  Manu. Number: MANU-2111-20-0003.R1

Published online: December 11, 2022  |   Number of Views: 21  |  Number of Download: 73


Abstract

This study aimed to adopt a measurement tool with high validity and reliability to determine the entrepreneurship perceptions of middle school students. Within the scope of the study, validity and reliability studies were carried out to adapt the "Individual Entrepreneurship Perception Scale" developed by Yalçın İncik and Uzun (2017) for the sample of middle school students. The study sample comprised 5-8th-grade students in 12 different secondary schools. It consisted of a total of 486 students. Exploratory factor analysis was applied to the data obtained to test the construct validity of the scale. These results showed that the adapted scale has a 4-factor structure. In testing the construct validity, the scores for the upper and lower groups were compared with the independent group t-test. The sub-factors on the scale were named “self-competence”, “planning”, “determination,” and “openness to learning.” The internal coefficient of consistency was determined to be .90 based on reliability analysis on the final state of the scale, which was determined after factor analysis. This study shows that the scale has suitable reliability and validity and can be used especially at the secondary school level.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Entrepreneurship Perceptions, Scale Adaptation


How to Cite this Article?

APA 6th edition
Yaman, S., Tungac, A.S. & Incebacak, B.B. (2022). The Adaptation of the Individual Entrepreneurship Perception Scale to Secondary School Level . International Journal of Progressive Education, 18(6), 194-209. doi: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.477.13

Harvard
Yaman, S., Tungac, A. and Incebacak, B. (2022). The Adaptation of the Individual Entrepreneurship Perception Scale to Secondary School Level . International Journal of Progressive Education, 18(6), pp. 194-209.

Chicago 16th edition
Yaman, Suleyman, Asli Sarisan Tungac and Belgin Bal Incebacak (2022). "The Adaptation of the Individual Entrepreneurship Perception Scale to Secondary School Level ". International Journal of Progressive Education 18 (6):194-209. doi:10.29329/ijpe.2022.477.13.

References
  1. Adekiya, A. A., & Ibrahim, F. (2016). Entrepreneurship intention among students. The antecedent role of culture and entrepreneurship training and development. The International Journal of Management Education, 14(2), 116-132.  [Google Scholar]
  2. Aker, S., Dündar, C., & Pekşen, Y. (2005). Ölçme araçlarında iki yaşamsal kavram: Geçerlik ve güvenirlik [Two vital concepts in measurement tools: validity and reliability]. Journal of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, 22(1), 50-60. Allen, K. R. (2006).  [Google Scholar]
  3. Growing and managing a small business: An entrepreneurial perspective. New York:Houghton Mifflin. Aytaç, Ö. (2006). Entrepreneurship: A socio-cultural perspective. Dumlupınar University Journal of Social Sciences, (15), 139-160.  [Google Scholar]
  4. Barba-Sánchez, V., & Atienza-Sahuquillo, C. (2018). Entrepreneurial intention among engineering students: The role of entrepreneurship education. European Research on Management and Business Economics, 24(1), 53-61.  [Google Scholar]
  5. Brown, T. A. (2015). Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research (2nd ed.). New York: The Guilford Press. Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2002). Factor analysis: Basic concepts and using to development scale. Educational Administration: Theory and Practice, 32(32), 470-483.  [Google Scholar]
  6. Büyüköztürk, Ş., Çakmak, E. K., Akgün, Ö. E., Karadeniz, Ş., & Demirel, F. (2017). Bilimsel araştırma yöntemleri [Scientific Research Methods]. Ankara: Pegem Publishing.  [Google Scholar]
  7. Caird, S. (2013). General measure of Enterprising Tendency test. Retriewed from: http://oro.open.ac.uk/5393/2/Get2test_guide.pdf. Comrey, A. L., & Lee, H. B. (1992). Interpretation and application of factor analytic results. Hillsdale, NJLawrence.  [Google Scholar]
  8. Çakmur, H. (2012). Measurement-reliability-validity in research. TAF Preventive Medicine Bulletin, 11(3), 339-344.  [Google Scholar]
  9. Çetinkaya Bozkurt, Ö, & Alparslan, A. M. (2013). Characteristics, must be included entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship education: Opinions of entrepreneurs and students. Journal of Entrepreneurship and Development, 8(1),7-28.  [Google Scholar]
  10. Çokluk, Ö., Şekercioğlu, G., & Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2012). Sosyal bilimler için çok değişkenli istatistik: SPSS ve LISREL uygulamaları (Vol. 2) [Multivariate statistics for social sciences: SPSS and LISREL applications]. Ankara: Pegem Publishing.  [Google Scholar]
  11. Dilsiz, İ., & Kölük, N. (2005). Girişimcilik [Entrepreneurship]. Ankara: Detay Publishing. Dollinger, M. (2008). Entrepreneurship. Lombert: Marsh Publications.  [Google Scholar]
  12. Field, A. (2009). Discovering statistics using SPSS (3rd Ed). London: Sage Publishing. Fineman S. (1977). The achievement motive construct and its measurement: Where are we, now?, British Journal of Psychology, 68, 1-22.  [Google Scholar]
  13. Girginer, N., & Uçkun, N. (2004). İşletmecilik eğitimi alan lisans öğrencilerinin girişimciliğe bakış açıları: Eskişehir Osmangazi Üniversitesi İİ BF işletme bölümü öğrencilerine yönelik bir uygulama [Perspectives of business administration undergraduate students on entrepreneurship: An application for Eskişehir Osmangazi University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Department of Business Administration], 3. Ulusal Bilgi, Ekonomi ve Yönetim Kongresi Bildiriler Kitabı, 25-26.  [Google Scholar]
  14. Gözüm, S., & Aksayan, S. (2002). Kültürlerarası ölçek uyarlaması için rehber II: Psikometrik özellikler ve kültürlerarası karşılaştırma [Guidelines for crosscultural scale adaptation II: Psychometric properties and cross-cultural comparison]. Hemşirelikte Araştırma Geliştirme Dergisi, [Journal of Research and Development in Nursing ] 4(2), 9-20.  [Google Scholar]
  15. Güngör, D. (2016). Psikolojide ölçme araçlarının geliştirilmesi ve uyarlanması kılavuzu.[Measurement tools in psychology development and adaptation guide] Türk Psikoloji Yazıları [Turkish Psychology Writings], 19(38), 104-112.  [Google Scholar]
  16. Haines Jr, G. H. (1988). The ombudsman: teaching entrepreneurship. Interfaces, 18(5), 23-30.  [Google Scholar]
  17. Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., & Black, W. C. (1998). Multivariate data analysis (5th ed.). New York: Prentice Hall.  [Google Scholar]
  18. Hansemark, O. C. (2000). Predictive validity of TAT and CMPS on the entrepreneurial activity,“start of a new business”: a longitudinal study. Journal of Managerial Psychology.  [Google Scholar]
  19. Heinonen, J., & Poikkijoki, S. A. (2006). An entrepreneurial ‐directed approach to entrepreneurship education: mission impossible?. Journal of management development, 25(1), 80-94.  [Google Scholar]
  20. İncik, E. Y., & Uzun, N. B. (2017). Individual entrepreneurship perception scale: Validity and reliability study. Mustafa Kemal University Institute of Social Sciences Journal, 14(39), 471-485.  [Google Scholar]
  21. Kalaycı, Ş. (2005). SPSS uygulamalı çok değişkenli istatistik teknikleri [SPSS applied multivariate statistical techniques]. Ankara: Asil Publishing.  [Google Scholar]
  22. Karakoç, D. Y., & Dönmez, L. (2014). Basic principles of scale development. Tıp Eğitimi Dünyası [World of Medical Education], 40, 39-49.  [Google Scholar]
  23. Knight, F. H. (1921). Risk, uncertainty and profit (Vol. 31). New York: Houghton Mifflin.  [Google Scholar]
  24. MacCallum, R. C., Widaman, K. F., Zhang, S., & Hong, S. (1999). Sample size in factor analysis. Psychological methods, 4(1), 84-99. [Google Scholar]
  25.  Murphy, K. R., & Davidshofer, C. O. (1998). Psychological testing (4th ed). New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Nitko, A. (2004). Educational assessments of students (4th ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Education. Eleventh Development Plan. (2019). Retriewed from: https://www.sbb.gov.tr/wpcontent/uploads/2019/07/OnbirinciKalkinmaPlani.pdf  [Google Scholar]
  26. Oosterbeek, H., Van Praag, M., & Ijsselstein, A. (2010). The impact of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurship skills and motivation. European economic review, 54(3), 442-454.  [Google Scholar]
  27. Osborne, J. W., & Fitzpatrick, D. C. (2012). Replication analysis in exploratory factor analysis: what it is and why it makes your analysis better. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 17(15), 1-8  [Google Scholar]
  28. Özdamar, K. (2004). Paket programlar ile istatistiksel veri analizi I [Statistical data analysis with package programs I] (5th edition). Eskişehir: Kaan Bookstore.  [Google Scholar]
  29. Seçer, İ. (2018). Psikolojik test geliştirme ve uyarlama süreci: SPSS ve LISREL uygulamaları.[Psychological test development and adaptation process: SPSS and LISREL applications] Ankara: Anı Publishing.  [Google Scholar]
  30. Seo, S. (2006). A review and comparison of methods for detecting outliers in univariate data sets, Unpublished Doctoral dissertation, USA, University of Pittsburgh. Sharma, S. (1996). Applied multivariate techniques. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.  [Google Scholar]
  31. Şeker, H ve Gençdoğan, B. (2014). Psikolojide ve Eğitimde Ölçme Aracı Geliştirme.[ Measurement Tool Development in Psychology and Education] Ankara: Nobel Publishing.  [Google Scholar]
  32. Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2014). Using multivariate statistics (New International Ed.). Harlow: Pearson.  [Google Scholar]
  33. Tanrıverdi, H., Bayram, G. N., & Alkan, M. (2016). A study for examining the effect of entrepreneurship training on entrepreneurship tendency. Journal of Entrepreneurship & Development, 11(1), 1-26.  [Google Scholar]
  34. Tavşancıl, E. (2002). Tutumların ölçülmesi ve SPSS ile veri analizi.[Measuring attitudes and data analysis with SPSS] Ankara: Nobel Publishing.  [Google Scholar]
  35. Turgut, M. F., & Baykul, Y. (2012). Ölçme ve değerlendirme [Measuring and evaluation] (4th edition). Ankara: Pegem Academy.  [Google Scholar]
  36. Uygun, M., Mete, S., & Güner, E. (2012). The relationships between entrepreneurship intention and characteristics of young entrepreneur candidates. Organizasyon ve Yönetim Bilimleri Dergisi [Journal of Organization and Management Sciences], 4(2), 145-156.  [Google Scholar]
  37. Yaman, S. (2012). Ölçme araçlarının temel özellikleri: Geçerlik, güvenirlik ve kullanışlılık.[Main features of measurement tools: Validity, reliability and usefulness.] Ed. M. Küçük, & Y. Geçit, Eğitimde ölçme ve değerlendirme [Measuring and assessment in education], (s. 21-37), Ankara: Nobel Publishing.  [Google Scholar]
  38. Yaşlıoğlu, M. M. (2017). Factor analysis and validity in social sciences: application of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. İstanbul Business Research, 46, 74- 85.  [Google Scholar]
  39. Yılmaz, E., & Sünbül, A. M. (2009). Developing scale of university students entrepreneurship. Selçuk University the Journal of Institute of Social Sciences, (21), 195-203. [Google Scholar]