International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 2834-7919   |  e-ISSN: 1554-5210

Volume 18 Issue 6 (December 2022)

Issue Information

Issue Information

pp. i - vi   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.477



Original Articles

Analysis of Values in Rwanda Lower Primary Grade Children’s Storybooks

Sylvestre Ntabajyana, Gabriel Nizeyimana & Wenceslas Nzabalirwa

pp. 1 - 14   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.477.1


This study examined the values embedded in Rwanda lower primary grade children’s storybooks accredited by Rwanda Basic Education Board (REB).  The data sources are the stories in grade one, grade two and grade three. Sixty storybooks were analyzed qualitatively using content analysis. The data were analyzed in frequency (f) and percentage (%). The findings show that there are 40 values contained in the 60 analyzed storybooks. The results also show that many books contain human characters compared to non human characters.  The percentages of the mostly presented values in the stories are as follows: ‘forgiveness’ (9.4%), ‘environment protection’ (7.8%), ‘friendship’ and ‘dignity of manual work’ (4% each), ‘cleanliness’ and ‘self-study’ (5.5% each), ‘house work duty’ (4.7%) and ‘happiness’, ‘peace’ and ‘helpfulness’ (3.9 % each). The least presented values in the stories, with the percentage of 0.8% each, are: ‘curiosity’, ‘flexibility’ ‘appreciation of cultural values’, ‘reverence of old age’; ‘justice’, ‘self-respect, ‘animal love’, ‘love of mother tongue’, ‘play’, courtesy’, ‘love’, ‘simple living’, ‘respect’, ‘prayer’, ‘courage’, and ‘democratic decision making’. However, there are some core values to be taught in Rwanda schools which were found absent in the studied stories: ‘patriotism’, ‘tolerance’ and ‘solidarity’. It was suggested that these core values absent as well as the least presented values be more presented in future storybooks since they are needed for helping Rwandan children to shape their identity as Rwandans.

Keywords: Lower Primary Grade, Values, Value Education, Children’s Storybooks, Stories, Rwanda

Association between Self-Compassion and Demographics of University Students Adjusted by Gratitude

Hermeet Kohli, Donna Wampole, Amarpreet Kohli, Cheng Peng & Dasha Polyakova

pp. 15 - 28   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.477.2


The purpose of this quantitative research was to assess the association between self-compassion and demographics adjusted by gratitude for university students. A convenience sample of 104 social work students at a public northeastern in the United States completed an online survey that included Self-Compassion Scale Short Form (SCS-s), Gratitude Questionnaire, and demographic information. Increased gratitude was associated with increased self-compassion in all the tested models. Individuals aged 23 or younger, from larger households, leaning independents/moderate democrats, and higher spirituality, had a higher level of self-compassion. Students from rural areas had a higher level of self-compassion than those from suburban regions, but lower self-compassion than those residing in urban areas. Participants with advanced degree had relatively low self-compassion compared with those with a two-year or a four-year degree. Implications of the findings are discussed, including the potential value of incorporating self-compassion and gratitude training in curricular and extracurricular activities in universities.

Keywords: Demographics, Gratitude, Gratitude Practices, Self-Compassion, Self-Compassion Practices, University Students

Investigating how School Ecologies Mediate Sexuality Education: A Cybernetic Analysis Within the Free State Province, South Africa

Eben Swanepoel & Christa Beyers

pp. 29 - 41   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.477.3


Sexuality education has become the cornerstone to curbing risky adolescent behaviour as a means to decrease the spread of unsafe sexual practices and prevent the spread of HIV and AIDS. While the implementation thereof has shown effectiveness in practice, the desired change at the community level remains a challenge, especially in relation to multicultural norms and disparities with which educators are faced in different school contexts in Southern Africa. This paper raises the question: How do schools mediate sexuality education in Free State provincial schools to accommodate contextual challenges? In order to investigate how schools mediate uniform national- and curriculum-based benchmarks, 10 participants from five schools within the Free State province were purposefully sampled. Data from semi-structured interviews with participants were coded and themed, with this paper specifically reflecting on the theme of school and community boundaries influencing the implementation of sexuality education. Through a First and Second Order Cybernetic perspective, it was found that challenges of gender and race are among the barriers prohibiting positive feedback within school structures, as well as the need to allow communities and parents to become stakeholders in tailoring sexuality education to be relevant to expected national standards as well as contextual and relevant cultural and traditional values.

Keywords: Cybernetics; Sexuality Education; Social Justice; Systems; First Order Cybernetics

The Perceptions of Prospective Primary Education Teachers on “Teaching to Read and Write” and “A Literate Child”

Ömür Sadioğlu & Gülşah Teke

pp. 42 - 62   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.477.4


In this study, it is aimed to reveal the perceptions of prospective primary education teachers on teaching to read and write, and a literate child through metaphors. The study group consists of 178 prospective primary education teachers, who study at the Department of Primary Education of a state university in the 2018-19 academic year in Turkey. The research was carried out by the phenomenological method, a qualitative research design. The data of the research were collected using a form including expressions such as "Teaching to read and write is like ......... Because ………." and "A literate child is like ……. Because ……….". The data analyzed by the content analysis were collected under nine conceptual categories of 127 metaphors generated on "teaching to read and write", and also 127 metaphors generated under nine conceptual categories on "a literate child". As a result, the study reveals the metaphors produced by prospective primary education teachers, show that they are aware of the importance of the process of teaching to read and write, and the experiences that the child gains during this process will be significant gains both for himself/herself and his/her environment 

Keywords: Metaphor, Teaching to Read and Write, Literate Child

The Mediating Role of Attachment Styles in the Relationship Between Rejection Sensitivity and Marriage Expectation in University Students

Mesküre Hülya Unal Karaguven & Derya Aslan

pp. 63 - 75   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.477.5


University years are the years of intense anxiety about the future for university students. A young person is worried about what kind of life (s)he will have in the future and who (s)he will marry. Because one of the most important events in human life is marriage and having a happy marriage is an important life goal of individuals. Spouses have many expectations from each other, such as friendship, intimacy, compatibility, and equality. However, failure to meet expectations in marriage has been identified as an important factor in the termination of a marriage. These expectations became clear in the years coinciding with the university period. The present study aims to investigate the mediating role of attachment styles in the relationship between rejection sensitivity and marriage expectation. The sample group for this study included 365 university students, 265 females and 100 males. A questionnaire form, the Marriage Expectancy Scale, the Three-Dimensional Attachment Styles Scale, and the Rejection Sensitivity Scale were used to collect data. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, and mediator analysis methods. The analyses revealed that secure attachment has a partial mediating role in the relationship between rejection sensitivity and marriage expectation. However, avoidant attachment and fearful attachment were found to have no mediating role. In line with the findings from this study, it is recommended that seminars be delivered on this issue and that similar studies be conducted with different groups.

Keywords: University Students, Marriage Expectation, Rejection Sensitivity, Attachment Styles

Investigating Content Teachers’ Opinions on Inclusive Education of Visually Impaired Students

Salih Çakmak

pp. 76 - 95   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.477.6


This qualitative study aimed to examine middle school content teachers’ opinions about the inclusive education processes of visually impaired students. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews to have a deeper understanding of teachers’ practices and the problems they face during the inclusive education process for visually impaired students. Participants were teachers of science (n=8), social studies (n=8), and mathematics (n=8). The data were analyzed using content analysis. It was found that science, mathematics and social studies teachers who have visually impaired inclusive students in their classes need support to increase their professional competence in preparing tactile or visual teaching materials during the instructional planning process, teaching according to both normal and visually impaired students, using technology to make the learning process of the visually impaired student easy and permanent, supporting visually impaired students to socialize with their sighted peers, assessing visually impaired students, and learning about visually impaired children and their education.

Keywords: Visually Impaired Students, Inclusive Education, Content Teacher, Middle School, Special Education

The Mediating Role of Self-Control in the Relationship between Nomophobia and Basic Psychological Needs in University Students

Aykut Günlü & Aslı Uz Bas

pp. 96 - 110   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.477.7


This research aims to determine the mediating role of self-control in the relationship between basic psychological needs and nomophobia. The study employed a relational survey method in which the relations between the variables are examined within the framework of the structural equation model. The sample of the study consists of 688 students selected according to stratification and convenient sampling. Personal information form, Nomophobia Scale, Need Satisfaction Scale, and Self Management scale was used in the study. The data were analysed using the SPSS 22 and AMOS 20 programs. According to research results, 0.4% of university students did not have a nomophobic tendency, 65.7% had a mild nomophobic tendency, 30.8% moderate nomophobic tendency, and 3.1% had an extreme nomophobic tendency. In addition, need satisfaction predicted self-control positively, while self-control predicted nomophobia negatively. With the inclusion of the self-control variable as a mediator in the model, the predictive power of need satisfaction of nomophobia lost its significance. Need satisfaction predicts nomophobia on self-control significantly. It can indicated that the coefficients of the direct and indirect paths that emerged as a result of the Bootstrap analysis are significant and that it assumes the role of a full mediator of self-control.

Keywords: Basic Psychological Needs, Nomophobia, Self-Control, Self-Determination Theory

The Relationship Between Rumination about Interpersonal Offense and Psychological Well-Being: The Mediation Effect of Forgiveness

Ahmet Buğa

pp. 111 - 124   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.477.8


The present study set out to explore the mediating role of forgiveness between the levels of rumination about interpersonal offense and psychological well-being in university students. The research utilized a correlational research design. The participant group consisted of a total of 342 students who were studying in the teaching departments of Gaziantep University in the 2020-2021 academic year. The Turkish versions of the Psychological Well-Being Scale, the Rumination about an Interpersonal Offense Scale, and the Heartland Forgiveness Scale were used as data collection tools. Structural equation modeling was performed on the data using the AMOS 20.0 program to analyze the direct effect of the rumination about interpersonal offense variable and the mediating effect of the forgiveness variable on the variable of psychological well-being. The results of the research revealed a significant negative correlation between rumination about interpersonal offense and forgiveness as well as rumination about interpersonal offense and psychological well-being, while forgiveness and psychological well-being were detected to be positively correlated. Finally, according to the SEM analysis, it was concluded that forgiveness is a partial mediator in the relationship between rumination about interpersonal offense and psychological well-being. Individual and group counseling or psycho-education programs may be prepared based on cognitive-behavioral therapy. These counseling activities or programs should focus on context-specific rumination rather than general rumination and forgiveness and cognitions about forgiveness.

Keywords: Rumination About Interpersonal Offense, Forgiveness, Psychological Well-Being

Investigation of Life Science Course Outcomes in Terms of Philosophy for Children Approach

Celal Boyraz

pp. 125 - 139   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.477.9


The study aims to examine the suitability of the Philosophy for Children approach to the learning outcomes of the Life Science course. In the study, the learning outcomes of the Life Science course, in which the Philosophy for Children approach can be applied, were determined, and a lesson plan example was presented. In the study, an analytical research method was adopted. 2018 Life Science Curriculum outcomes were accepted as documents, and document analysis was used as a data collection method. The researcher created a checklist that includes the outcomes of the Life Science course. The list evaluated whether or not the outcome is suitable for the Philosophy for Children approach and which philosophical concept it might be associated with was reviewed by a different Philosophy for Children instructor other than the researcher. The obtained data were analyzed by descriptive analysis. The evaluations of the researcher and the field expert revealed that Philosophy for Children practices could be done in 72 learning outcomes out of a total of 148 outcomes. The philosophical concepts that emerged after the examination were divided according to the units. Emerging concepts were; rule, responsibility, punishment, friendship, respect, communication, care, love, respect, belonging, time, diligence, freedom, individual and society, good-bad, nature-human, life-death, kindness, and balance. While a single concept can be handled for outcomes, more than one can also be addressed. When the concepts are examined and the Life Science course is thought to be an interdisciplinary course, the course offers important opportunities for the use of the P4C approach. These opportunities cover a wide area such as values education, moral education, citizenship education, science education, and media literacy. It is suggested that the P4C approach should be applied in the Life Science course, taking into account the relationship between outcome and philosophical concepts. Limitations of the P4C approach were mentioned, and a lesson plan example was prepared for one of the Life Science course outcomes.

Keywords: Philosophy for Children, Life Science Course, Learning outcomes, Primary School

Development of Argumentation-Based Material for Learning the Chemical Equilibrium and Its Micro World

Nagihan Yıldırım & Çi̇ğdem Çakmak

pp. 140 - 165   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.477.10


The aim of the study is to determine the effects of the argumentation-oriented guide material on the academic success of pre-service teachers on chemical equilibrium and their thoughts about the process. In the study, the "Technical/scientific/collaborative action research" pattern, which is one of the action research types, was used due to its compatibility with the nature of the research subject. 33 pre-service teachers studying in the first year of the Science Teaching program of a state university in the Eastern Black Sea Region participated in the research. The subject of Chemical Equilibrium with pre-service teachers was covered using 14 activities developed based on argumentation. Chemical Equilibrium Academic Achievement Test and semi-structured interview were used as data collection tools. The Chemical Equilibrium Academic Achievement Test, which was applied as a pre-posttest in the study, and were analyzed using the SPSS 21.0 statistical program. The data obtained from the interviews were analyzed through content analysis. According to the findings, it was determined that the activities prepared based on argumentation were effective in learning the chemical balance and the micro world of chemical balance. In addition, in the interviews, pre-service teachers stated that the activities used kept the students' attention alive and provided permanent and effective learning, and saved the classroom environment from boredom. The study was concluded with suggestions that activities based on argumentation could be done for different chemistry subjects and concepts, or for subjects and concepts in biology and physics.

Keywords: Development of Argumentation-Based Material for Learning the Chemical Equilibrium and Its Micro World

Development of Specific Learning Disability Screening Scale

Serdal Deni̇z

pp. 166 - 179   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.477.11


It is known that students with Specific Learning Disability (SLD) are noticed because of the difficulties they experience in academic lessons, especially in primary school years. Especially the difficulties they experience in reading, spelling mistakes, problems in arithmetic skills, attention problems, inability in taking responsibility and communication skills attract attention. The scale, which was developed in Turkey in order to identify students suspected of having SLD during the primary school years and between the ages of 8-11, by their teachers, is a five-points Likert type, 7-factors and 39-items measurement tool. The study was carried out with teachers working with students with Special Learning Disability in Ministry of Education and Special Education and Rehabilitation Centers in the 2019-2020 academic year. A total of 401 classroom teachers and special education teachers from Adana, Ankara, Antalya, Bursa, Çorum, Erzurum, Gaziantep, Isparta, İzmir, İstanbul, Kayseri, Konya, Sivas and Trabzon provinces participated in the study. In data analysis, Exploratory Factor Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis were performed and a seven-factors structure was found. It was determined that seven-factors explained 73,224% of the total variance. The factors were as follows:  writing process, communication skills, literacy skill, taking responsibility, attention skills, arithmetic skills and skill of recognition the numbers. The Cronbach Alpha coefficient of the scale was 0.963 and the RMSEA value was 0,063.

Keywords: Specific Learning Disability, Scan Scale, Teacher, Scale Development, Validity and Reliability

Analytical Rubric Development Study for Assessment of the Speaking and Writing Skills at Primary School Level

Berker Bulut

pp. 180 - 193   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.477.12


The purpose of this research is to develop an analytical rubric for the assessment of speaking and writing skills of primary school students. The study was designed according to the survey model. The sample of the study consisted of third-grade primary school students who were studying in Aydın Province, Turkey in the 2020-2021 academic year. 34 primary school third-grade students, 19 girls and 15 boys, involved in the studies carried out throughout the research. Field experts were consulted to define content validity of the analytical rubrics improved for speaking and writing skills. The content validity indexes obtained from the field experts’ opinions on each item show that the content validity of the analytical rubrics is provided. For reliability of the analytical rubrics, analysis of variance and Kendall's W test were carried out. According to the reliability analysis, the rubrics were found to be reliable. These findings are strong evidence showing that analytical rubrics for speaking and writing skills are valid and reliable.

Keywords: Analytical Rubric, Primary School Students, Speaking, Writing

The Adaptation of the Individual Entrepreneurship Perception Scale to Secondary School Level

Süleyman Yaman, Aslı Sarışan Tungaç & Belgin Bal İncebacak

pp. 194 - 209   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.477.13


This study aimed to adopt a measurement tool with high validity and reliability to determine the entrepreneurship perceptions of middle school students. Within the scope of the study, validity and reliability studies were carried out to adapt the "Individual Entrepreneurship Perception Scale" developed by Yalçın İncik and Uzun (2017) for the sample of middle school students. The study sample comprised 5-8th-grade students in 12 different secondary schools. It consisted of a total of 486 students. Exploratory factor analysis was applied to the data obtained to test the construct validity of the scale. These results showed that the adapted scale has a 4-factor structure. In testing the construct validity, the scores for the upper and lower groups were compared with the independent group t-test. The sub-factors on the scale were named “self-competence”, “planning”, “determination,” and “openness to learning.” The internal coefficient of consistency was determined to be .90 based on reliability analysis on the final state of the scale, which was determined after factor analysis. This study shows that the scale has suitable reliability and validity and can be used especially at the secondary school level.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Entrepreneurship Perceptions, Scale Adaptation

Ideal Drama Classroom Design From the Perspective of Preservice Teachers

Ayşegül Oğuz Namdar

pp. 210 - 224   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.477.14


The objective of this research is to determine the opinions of preservice teachers about the ideal drama classroom. For this purpose, a descriptive study was conducted within the scope of qualitative research. The study included 71 preservice teachers from different branches taking drama courses in the spring semester of the 2019-2020 academic year in the education faculty of a public university in Turkey. The researcher developed a data collection tool to determine preservice teachers' opinions about the ideal drama classrooms. In this context, preservice teachers designed their ideal drama classrooms, noted the objects that should be present, and wrote their opinions about the drama classroom they designed. The obtained data were analyzed by using content analysis. Frequency, code, and theme tables were created, and direct quotations were used to reflect participant opinions. Preservice teachers stated that an ideal drama classroom should be suitable for movement and spacious, and the floor should be appropriate for walking barefoot. In addition, they noted that in an ideal drama classroom, equipment such as stationery, costumes, cushions, sound system, board, and computer should be available. Suggestions were presented based on the opinions of preservice teachers.

Keywords: Preservice Teacher, Drama, Drama Classroom, Ideal Drama Classroom

Views of Teachers and Principals for Intellectual and Developmental Disabled Students in Quarantine

Ali̇ Kaya & Gi̇zem Yıldız

pp. 225 - 238   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.477.15


The Covid-19 pandemic affected all areas of life, including the education system. Extraordinary conditions induced by the pandemic necessitated a sudden transition to distance education, which had significant effects on students, parents, and teachers. While all students were negatively affected by this development, the difficulties experienced by students with developmental disabilities were different from their peers with typical development. It has been reported that the individuals with developmental disabilities experienced the highest difficulty in the management of the negative effects of the Covid-19 pandemic, and their needs were primarily ignored in distance education. The current study was conducted with a phenomenological and qualitative approach to investigate the related data in depth. The study participants included 10 special education teachers and 10 special education school principals. The study findings revealed that it was extremely difficult to conduct special education online; schools were not only a learning environment for the students with developmental disabilities, but also a sphere of socialization.

Keywords: Developmental Disabilities, Pandemic, Covid-19, Teacher, Principal

Investigation of the Relationship Between Problem Solving Skills and Student-Related Social Stress of Teachers Working in High Schools 

Veysi̇ Erzen & İsmail Kinay

pp. 239 - 252   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.477.16


This study aims to examine the relationship between the teachers’ problem-solving skills in high schools and their student- related social stress. The population of this research consists of 1574 teachers working in high schools in the city center of Batman in the 2019-2020 academic year. The sample of the study consists of the 615 teachers selected randomly from the high schools in the city center of Batman. As data collection tools, “Problem Solving Inventory” developed by Heppner and Peterson (1982) and adapted into Turkish by Şahin, Şahin and Heppner (1993) and the “Student Related Social Stress Scale” developed by Taddei, Contena, and Venturini (2017) and adapted into Turkish by İlhan and Kinay were used (2018). As a result of the study, no statistically significant relationship was found between teachers' problem solving skills and student- related social stress. On the other hand, while there was no significant difference in the perceptions of teachers' problem solving skills according to the variable of professional seniority, they differ in terms of age and educational status variables. While no significant difference was found in terms of teachers' student- related social stress, educational status and age variables, a significant difference was found according to the seniority variable.

Keywords: Problem-Solving Skills, Student- Related Social Stress, Stress

Investigation of the Relationship Between Academic Staff’s Life Satisfaction, Job Satisfaction and Academic Ethical Values with Structural Equation Model

Cüneyd Çeli̇k, Uğur Doğan & Şendil Can

pp. 253 - 267   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.477.17


The purpose of the current study is to determine the extent to which academic staff’s attitudes towards ethic values and academic ethic value-focused behaviours are predicted by their life satisfaction and job satisfaction. The study employed the eexploratory sequential mixed methods design. The qualitative data of the current study were collected from the academic staff working in the Education Faculty of Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University in the spring term of the 2017-2018 academic year and quantitative data were collected from 103 academicians to verify the findings obtained from the analysis of the qualitative data. In the quantitative dimension of the study, three different measurement tools called The Academic Ethics Values Scale, Job Satisfaction Scale for Academicians, The Satisfaction with Life Scale were used. The analysis of the qualitative data revealed that adherence to academic ethic values fosters both the job satisfaction and life satisfaction of the academic staff. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was implemented to verify this finding and academic ethic values were found to predict both life satisfaction and job satisfaction.

Keywords: Academic Ethic Value, Structural Equation Modelling, Job Satisfaction, Life Satisfaction, Academic Staff

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