International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 2834-7919   |  e-ISSN: 1554-5210

Volume 17 Issue 3 (June 2021)

Issue Information

Issue Information

pp. i - vi



Original Articles

The Development and Validation of the Spatial Anxiety Scale for Secondary School Students

Özlem Özcakir Sumen

pp. 1 - 13   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.346.1


This study aims to develop a scale for determining the anxiety levels of secondary school students in situations that require them to use their spatial skills.  The scale was developed in three stages. In the first stage, after expert assessments, a pilot study was conducted.  In the second stage, the scale was applied to all students (N=348) studying in a secondary school selected by random sampling for exploratory factor analysis, and results supported a structure with two sub-dimensions consisting of 14 items. For confirmatory factor analysis, the scale was applied to a different group of students (N=206), and analysis results confirmed the two-factor structure of the scale. The first factor, including spatial relations and orientation items, was named Anxiety of Spatial Relations and Orientation, and the second was named Anxiety of Spatial Visualization. In the third stage, Cronbach’s alpha reliability of the scale was found to be ,82 for the whole scale and ,81 and ,72 for sub-dimensions. The McDonald’s omega was also calculated as ,97 for the whole scale and ,96 and ,91 for sub-dimensions of it. The results revealed that the scale measures the spatial anxiety level of students validly and reliably.

Keywords: Secondary School Students, Spatial Anxiety, Spatial Orientation, Spatial Relations, Spatial Skills, Spatial Visualization

Digital Simulation Experiences of Pre-service Science Teachers: An Example of Circuits

Gülşah Uluay

pp. 14 - 30   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.346.2


The purpose of this study is to investigate the self-efficacy levels of pre-service science teachers who participated in a workshop about physical laboratory implementations supported by digital simulations and also to determine their views on digital simulations. For this purpose, a 6-week workshop was designed based on a digital simulation program called Crocodile Physics. The participants in the research were 16 university students who were studying in the science education department of a public university. This study includes quantitative and qualitative data. The Science Learning Self-Efficacy (SLSE) scale was used to collect quantitative data. Qualitative data was collected with a structured interview form. According to analysis results for quantitative data, self-efficacy levels towards physics of pre-service teachers were significantly developed. Analysis results of qualitative data showed that pre-service science teachers mostly have a positive tendency to integrate digital simulations into educational environments.

Keywords: Digital Simulation, Physics, Self-Efficacy, Laboratory, Pre-Service Teacher

Metaphorical Perceptions of Other Branch Teachers Towards Physical Education Teachers and Lessons

Mehmet Ulaş

pp. 31 - 48   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.346.3


This study aimed to explore the perceptions of other branch teachers towards physical education teachers and lessons through metaphors. A basic qualitative research model was used in this study. Two hundred twenty-one teachers working in various types of schools and branches in the 2018/2019 education year in Burdur, Turkey, constituted the study group. For data collection, the teachers were asked to fill in the blanks in the metaphor form, including the sentences "physical education lesson is like…, because …" and "physical education teacher is like…, because…" The data were analyzed using the content analysis method. As a result of the analysis, the teachers produced 118 metaphors for the perception of physical education lessons and 120 different metaphors for the perception of physical education teachers. Metaphors for physical education lessons were gathered under the themes of "expected and beloved lesson," "unifying factor," "disciplinary tool" "entertaining, relaxing and health-improving lesson," "gathering, discovering and directing different talents," "mobility," "free environment," and "basic lesson." The teacher produces metaphors for physical education teachers under the themes of "hard-working and versatile," "physical strength element," "exploring and guiding," "providing control and discipline," "savior," "student-friendly," "comfortable and active personality," and "health-giving." Consequently, the metaphors that the branch teachers produced both for the physical education lessons and physical education teachers were similar, and it was seen that the branch teachers had positive perceptions about both the lesson and teacher.

Keywords: Physical Education Lesson, Physical Education Teacher, Metaphorical Perception

Activity-Based Teaching with Social Studies Pre-Service Teachers for Developing the Thinking Skills of Learners

Özlem Bektaş

pp. 49 - 69   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.346.4


In this study, by helping social studies pre-service teachers develop activities for thinking skills, it was aimed to explore the effects of such activities in the context of professional competencies. The research was designed as action research. The action research group included 31 pre-service teachers (16 women and 15 men). Semi-structured interviews were conducted in final meeting with 12 volunteering participants after the application was completed. The following findings were explored in detail as; in the context of professional development, skills, values, and professional competence dimensions; in the context of lesson planning and teaching processes, lesson planning, teaching processes, material use, and contributions to activity production; and, at the end of the implementation process, evaluations of the implementation process and personal development. As a result of the research it was determined that creative thinking, critical thinking, thinking from different perspectives, original thinking, reflective thinking, high-level thinking, problem solving, scientific thinking, analytical thinking, thoughtful thinking, empathetic thinking, objective thinking, aesthetic thinking, developing broad perspective, collaborative thinking, and questioning skills were developed in the skills dimension. In the dimension of value, values such as justice, empathy, patriotism, austerity, respect, trust, self-confidence, solidarity, diligence and responsibility were developed. When the general results are evaluated, it was revealed that the pre-services improved their professional competencies in terms of lesson planning, implementation, activity development, material use, and pedagogical aspects. In order to ensure that the professional needs and competencies of pre-service teachers are met and supported, institutional educational programs that train teachers should undergo curriculum updates with the addition of the necessary theoretical and practical information to implement activity-based teaching in it successfully.

Keywords: Thinking Skills, Activity-Based Teaching, Social Studies, Pre-Service Teachers

The Relationship Between Perceived Parental Rejection and Dating Anxiety: The Mediating Role of Interpersonal Cognitive Distortions

Hatice Epli, Meryem Vural Batık, Nurdan Doğru Çabuker & Seher Balcı Çelik

pp. 70 - 85   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.346.5


The aim of this study was to examine the mediating role of interpersonal cognitive distortions between perceived parental rejection and dating anxiety in emerging adults. The study also examined whether gender and grade level also differ in terms of dating anxiety. Participants were 574 (334 women, 240 men) university students studying in a state university in Turkey who were reached with stratified sampling method. The data were collected with Adult Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire- Short Form, Dating Anxiety Scale and Interpersonal Cognitive Distortions Scale. The results of the study showed positive correlations between perceived parental rejection and dating anxiety and interpersonal cognitive distortions. According to the path analysis results, interpersonal cognitive distortions were partial mediator in relationship between perceived maternal rejection and dating anxiety. However, it was found that paternal rejection had a direct effect on dating anxiety, and cognitive distortions did not have a mediating role on this relationship. It was found that dating anxiety did not differ significantly in terms of gender, while it differed in terms of grade level. Warmth and acceptance centred parent-child relationship can be considered as a protective factor that can increase the dating anxiety by increasing the cognitive distortions.

Keywords: Parental Acceptance-Rejection, Interpersonal Cognitive Distortion, Dating Anxiety, Emerging Adult, Mediating Role

Investigation of the Effect of Different Teaching Methods on Students’ Engagement and Scientific Process Skills

Uluhan Kurt & Fatih Sezek

pp. 86 - 101   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.346.6


The aim of this study is to compare the effects of using different teaching methods in "Cell and Division" and "Force and Energy" units on students' engagement in the lesson and scientific process skills. In each of the five randomly selected groups, the lessons were taught with Multiple Intelligence, Problem Based Learning, Peer Instruction, Combined and the method proposed by MONE (2017). In the research, quasi-experimental method, one of the quantitative research approaches, was used. The sample of the study consists of 185 seventh grade students studying in two secondary schools in Yakutiye district of Erzurum province. As a data collection tool in the research; Student Engagement Scale and Scientific Process Skills Test were used. As a result of the analysis, statistical difference was determined in the engagement levels and scientific process skills of students studying in different groups. In terms of the variable of engagement to the lesson, a significant difference was statistically determined in favor of the groups in which Peer Instruction and Combined Method were used. Also in this study in terms of scientific process skills, a statistically significant difference was found in favor of Problem Based Learning and Combined Method groups.

Keywords: Students Engagement, Scientific Process Skills, Problem Based Leaning, Peer Instruction, Multiple Intelligence, Combined Method

Views of Pre-Service Mathematics Teachers and Mentor Teachers about School Practicum: A Model for Web 2.0 based Supervision

Ümit Kul, Selcen Çalık Uzun, Sedef Çelik, Salih Birişçi & Zeki Aksu

pp. 102 - 122   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.346.7


The current research was conducted to evaluate the views of mentor and pre-service teachers participating school-based practicum about the effectiveness of Web 2.0 based supervision.  The implementation process with a pilot study in the research lasted two years. In the pilot study, the evaluation of school-based practicum was made within the meetings among the lecturer and preservice teacher at the faculty. It was found that there should be an environment independent of time and place to give feedback to preservice teachers during the practicum. In this context, four of the groups of pre-service teachers were randomly selected. A responsible lecturer and mentor teacher were assigned to each group. Google Classroom environment was created to offer pre-service teachers an opportunity to receive feedback from different stakeholders such as a lecturer-mentor-preservice teacher. During the school based practicum, preservice teachers recorded their teaching practice in class and shared their teaching videos in online environment. The data obtained from tools such as video recording of classroom practice, online discussion and interviews were evaluated in the qualitative analysis program. As a result, it was determined that school based practicum in the online environment has its weaknesses and strengths. It was discovered that preservice teachers and teachers have differing views as well as overlapping views. In light of all these views, suggestions regarding school based practicum were made for a model for Web 2.0 based supervision.

Keywords: School Practicum, Web 2.0 Environment, Mathematics Teaching, Feedback, Pre-service Teachers

The Examination of the Postgraduate Theses on Models and Modelling in Science Education in Turkey

Suat Ünal & Ali İhsan Benzer

pp. 123 - 138   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.346.8


The models and modelling takes an important place in the teaching of science. The purpose of this research was to examine the postgraduate theses made in Turkey about models and modelling in the science education field by using the content analysis method. When the postgraduate theses were examined in respect to the purpose of the research, it has been determined that the number of the experimental research studies which were aimed to examine the efficiency of the model/modelling based teaching method was more than the others. In the examined theses, it has been identified that quantitative methods were more preferred as a research method. In the sense of the research sample, it has been determined that the number of research studies on the middle school level, especially those on 7th grade students was numerically more. It was seen that the most used data collection tool was conceptual test. The most examined variables in the theses were the achievement level and the mental model of the participants. The most preferred subjects were the “Atom and its structure” and the “Astronomy”. Based on the results, some suggestions were presented to future research studies related to models and modelling in science education.

Keywords: Content Analysis, Postgraduate Thesis, Models in Science Education, Modelling in Science Education

Do Paternalist Approaches of School Principals Kill Teachers' Autonomy?

Ahmet Saylık & Çiğdem Çelik Şahin

pp. 139 - 152   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.346.9


This research aims to examine the relationship between school principals' paternalist leadership behaviours and teacher autonomy. The research is a descriptive study in which causal comparison and correlational method are used together. 292 teachers were determined by using disproportionate sampling method. In this research, the Paternalist Leadership Behaviours Scale developed by Saylık & Aydın (2020), and the Teacher Autonomy Scale developed by Çolak (2016) were used. As a result, it was revealed that school principals show moderate paternalist leadership behaviours according to teacher perceptions. It is concluded that there is a moderate and negative relationship between school principals' paternalist leadership approaches and teacher autonomy. As the paternalist leadership behaviours of school principals increase, teachers' autonomous behaviour decreases. Another result of the research is that there is a positive relationship between family atmosphere and benevolence dimensions and teacher autonomy.

Keywords: Paternalist Leadership, Teacher Autonomy, School Principals

Evaluation of Competency Based Medical Education Curriculum

Elif İlhan

pp. 153 - 168   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.346.10


There is an increasing interest in competency based medical education (CBME) due to the developments and changes in medical education and many medical schools have begun to apply it recently. Although its popularity in both practice and theoretical studies, there is a lack of studies focusing on evaluation of CBME curriculum. In that study, it is aimed to evaluate competency based medical education curriculum. This qualitative study is designed as a case study. It is also a curriculum evaluation study carried out systematically via Stufflebeam’s CIPP model.  The study group consisted of fifteen faculty members and fifty students of a medical school in Turkey. The data was collected via semi-structured interview forms and analysed applying content analysis. Some of the important results reached in that study are the followings: The students have had mostly negative ideas about the competencies and the teaching-learning process while the faculty members have been satisfied with their practices. Both the students and the faculty members thought the CBME contributed to students’ academic and vocational developments. It is concluded that in order for CBME to provide the opportunities in medical education context, it needs to be developed, implemented and then evaluated in the frame of theoretical backgrounds and principals. Otherwise, because of the problems/deficiency in the development and implementation process, the efforts might end in vain. In the light of the results, it can be suggested that  the faculty members should be supported on how to determine/write the competencies and the content; on effective teaching/learning methods. Also, CBME should be evaluated and revised regularly involving the faculty members and the  students in the process.

Keywords: Competency Based Medical Education, Curriculum Evaluation, Curriculum at Higher Education

An Analysis of the Relationship between the Metaphorical Perceptions of Classroom Teacher Candidates Towards Computer-Assisted Mathematics Instruction and Their Learning Approaches

Bülent Nuri Özcan & Özlem Ateş

pp. 169 - 184   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.346.11


This study aims to reveal the perceptions that classroom teacher candidates have regarding the concept of computer-assisted mathematics instruction (CAMI), with the help of metaphors. Furthermore, the another aim of the study of this study consists of an analysis of whether these metaphors differed based on the teacher candidates’ learning approaches. The descriptive and relational survey model was employed in the study. The study group was comprised of 90 teacher candidates, who were first-year students at the Department of Primary Education of a Faculty of Education in the Aegean Region. In order to determine the metaphoric perceptions of the teacher candidates, they were initially asked to complete the sentence “Computer-assisted mathematics instruction is like ........, because ......”. The data were interpreted, using the content analysis technique. Moreover, they were subjected to a scale for the purpose of analyzing whether there were any differences between the metaphors at different levels of learning approaches. The metaphors were found to be included in the categories “CAMI with positive aspects”, “CAMI with negative aspects”, “CAMI in terms of structural aspects” and CAMI with neutral aspects”. Upon the comparison of these categories to the learning approaches, it was found that teachers, who adopted the “deep” and “strategic” learning approach, had a much more positive perception, while those adopting the “surface” learning approach had a negative perception. Additionally, it was observed that teacher candidates, who rather put emphasis on the structural aspects and conditions of CAMI, were the ones to adopt the strategic learning approach. Thus, determination of the learning approaches adopted by teacher candidates and an analysis of their perceptions towards a number of concepts are considered to be significant as they could be effective in the course of their educational lives and in the processes of becoming role models when they start the profession.

Keywords: Computer-Assisted Mathematics Instruction, Learning Approach, Classroom Teacher Candidates, Metaphor

Difficulties and Achievements Throughout Career Stages: Vice Principles’ Perspectives

İsmail Erol & İsmail Karsantık

pp. 185 - 201   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.346.12


This research aims to study vice-principals' career stages and determine their difficulties and achievements in these stages. The data in the study were obtained with semi-structured interview questions. As a result of our research, twenty school vice-principals were interviewed. As a consequence of the interviews, our data were gathered under three themes in line with qualitative research methods and techniques; sub-themes suitable for the themes were created and interpreted by content analysis. According to the results, the vice principals' main challenges in their career stages are professional competence, lack of sharing information from colleagues, sense of belonging, need for mentors, working conditions, lack of experience, inefficiency, and time management. It was revealed that some vice-principals developed and kept themselves up-to-date with in-service training to overcome the difficulties. At the same time, some received support from experienced and older administrators. Based on the interviews' data, it was resolved that the past encounters and experiences in the challenges faced affected the vice principals. It was assumed that these difficulties were easily overcome by the experienced vice directors, who worked as a principal for a long time.

Keywords: School Vice-Principals, Career Stages, Career Difficulties, Career Achievements

The Reasons for and Results of Ostracism at Schools and Recommendations for Solutions through Teacher Experiences

Selda Polat Hüsrevşahi

pp. 202 - 215   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.346.13


As in other organizations, there is ostracism also in educational organizations. Apart from the individual consequences of being ostracized, there are also undesirable organizational consequences. Considering the potential of educational organizations to transform individuals, the effect of ostracism on teachers becomes particularly important. The purpose of the study was to examine the reasons for and results of the ostracism that teachers face at schools by the school principals, and the recommendations for solutions to prevent ostracism. The study group of the study, which was structured with the phenomenology design, consisted of 12 elementary and middle primary school teachers who had personal experience with ostracism. The data collected through interviews were analyzed with content analysis. The study revealed that teachers were exposed to ostracism for political, social and/or individual reasons. Ostracized teachers experienced psychological and organizational problems. The teachers stated that preventing ostracism in schools would be possible with a more democratic and fairer organizational culture.

Keywords: Ostracism in the Workplace, School Administrator, Organizational Democracy, Organizational Culture, K-12 Teacher

Depression and Subjective Well-Being as Predictors of Pet Owner University Students’ Personality Traits

Hale Nur Kılıç-Memur & Neslihan Yaman

pp. 216 - 228   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.346.14


The pet ownership has a crucial role in individuals’ lives, which offers many beneficial effects. By examining the relationship between pet ownership and owners’ well-being, researchers have found that pets typically made their owners feel well. This study examines the ways in which pet owners’ depression and subjective well-being levels predict their personality traits. It also aims to examine the relationship between these variables and of the participants’ pet preferences. Totally, 307 pet owners participated in this study; all participants were university students living in Turkey. In addition, all participants were aged 18 and older. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was used to determine the depression levels of the participants; the Subjective Well-Being Scale (SWBS) was used to determine their subjective well-being levels, and an Abbreviated Form Of The Revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQR-A) was used to determine personality traits. Data was analyzed using path analysis. The study found that pet owners’ depression and subjective well-being scores predicted their neuroticism and extraversion scores. Subjective well-being and depression predict neuroticism and extroversion in personality traits, and goodness of fit index of this model has been found to be at acceptable levels. It is important to conduct more experimental and correlational studies involving the same variables; these studies may focus on pet owners, as well as their difference with those who do not own pets. They may also focus on specific age groups, such as children, adults, and the elderly.

Keywords: Pets, Pet Owners, University Students, Depression, Subjective Well-Being, Personality Traits

Emergency Distance Education Experience Of Primary School Teachers Teaching First-Grade Students

Derya Uysal

pp. 229 - 249   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.346.15


This study aims to ensure a better understanding of the stages ten primary school teachers have gone through after finding out that they are expected to offer online courses due to COVID-19 conditions. Contrary to the majority of articles that tend to emphasize the advantages of distance education while minimizing its difficulties, this study intends to arrive at a proper understanding of the phenomenon from the unique perspectives of practitioners. The phenomenological approach was particularly adopted to understand the experience of teachers, and the data obtained from the interviews were analyzed inductively. Study participants include 10 teachers who teach the first-grade students in a private primary school in Eskisehir, Turkey. The study results indicated four categories including “first reactions”, “adaptation period”, “ongoing process”, and “suggestions for a better distance education”. In line with the aim, the study also presents both negative and positive aspects of emergency distance education.

Keywords: Distance Education, Primary School Teachers, First Grade, COVID-19, Phenomenological Approach

Social Innovation And Lateral Thinking Tendencies Of Preservice Social Studies Teachers

Arcan Aydemir

pp. 250 - 262   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.346.16


Changes in various areas of life have increased the need for individuals who can think differently and are open to innovation. Education and training activities are important in meeting this need. This study aimed to investigate the social innovation and lateral thinking tendencies of preservice social studies teachers, who will be among the important components of educational activities in the future, in relation to various variables (gender, year of study, grand point average, and level of openness to innovation). The study used a survey research design. The working group consisted of 272 preservice social studies teachers from two different universities who volunteered to participate in the study. The data were collected using the “Social Innovation Scale” and the “Lateral Thinking Disposition Scale”. As a result of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test conducted to check the normality of the data, the data were found to be not normally distributed. Thus, the data were analysed using the nonparametric measures including Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis H test, and Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. The analysis results showed that the preservice social studies teachers’ social innovation and lateral thinking tendencies did not significantly differ according to their gender and grade point average (GPA). In contrast, their social innovation tendencies differed statistically significantly according to the year of study, while both social innovation and lateral thinking tendencies differed statistically significantly according to their level of openness to innovation. The analysis results also showed a positive significant correlation between social innovation and lateral thinking, where lateral thinking is a predictor of social Innovation. Accordingly, to promote individuals’ social innovation tendencies, the relationship between different thinking and social innovation can be explored and strategies focused on thinking skills can be developed.

Keywords: Innovation, Social Innovation, Thinking, Lateral Thinking, Social Studies

Examination of the Postgraduate Theses on Teachers’ Views of Values Education in Turkey: A Meta Synthesis Study

Sibel Cengizhan

pp. 263 - 278   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.346.17


This research study carried out to examine the postgraduate theses on teachers’ views of the values education in Turkey was designed as a meta synthesis study. Postgraduate theses were obtained from the National Thesis Center of the Council of Higher Education. During the research process, these steps were followed;(1) determining the research subject, (2) selecting the studies to be included in the study, (3) picking and presenting the data, (4) ensuring validity and reliability and (5) analyzing the data and explaining the synthesis. Content analysis was used in the analysis of the data. The qualitative findings of the 24 theses included in the study were examined singly and as a result of the examination three main themes were  determined; Applications practiced to gain values education and problems encountered, The values that should be gained by the students according to the teachers and the factors effective in gaining these values, The problems that the values education can deliver solution and the behavioral changes observed in the students after the values education practices. From the findings of the research, it was concluded that the teachers mostly used the drama method to gain of values education, that there were problems experienced caused by the family in practice, and that the practices could solve the problem of injustice the most.

Keywords: Values Education, Teachers' Opinions, Meta Synthesis

An Analysis of Teachers’ Views Toward the Teaching of Text Type and Structure

Erhan Şen & Sedat Karagül

pp. 279 - 298   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.346.18


It is important to supply students with skills about text type and structure in educational environments. To have such skills gives the student many advantages in the process of comprehending, and evaluating any text. This study aims to bring out the opinions of Turkish language teachers and elementary school teachers about teaching text type and structure. In this study, a descriptive research design was employed and the participants consisted of 55 Turkish language teachers and elementary school teachers. Content analysis was utilized for data analysis. In this study, to check reliability and validity, the statements of participants were transfered directly, participant confirmation and the percent of agreement (approximately % 0, 81) between two researchers were used. It was found that Turkish language teachers and elementary school teachers generally adopted a different teaching approach, and used the text-based, production and conversion, information transfer, and audience-centred activities. The participants stated that there are different problems in Turkish textbooks concerning the teaching. It is suggested that studies should be carried out to solve the problems that teachers have stated in the teaching of text type and structure.

Keywords: Textlinguistic, Writing Training, Text Type and Structure

Instructor Views on Technology Use and Coding Training

Bayram Gökbulut & Müzeyyen Merve Bakangöz

pp. 299 - 315   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.346.19


With the inclusion of the Information Technology and Software course in elementary and middle school curricula in Turkey, the Ministry of National Education has started to offer Technology Use and Coding courses. In this study, opinions of 12 instructors who taught Technology Use and Coding courses were consulted. The study aimed to determine the level of comprehension of the trainees through the evaluation of in-service training. The study was conducted as a case study, one of the qualitative research designs, and the data were collected using a semi-structured interview form. The data were analyzed using the MaxQDA 2020 software. As a result, it was determined that the trainees who attended the courses voluntarily were more willing to learn. The trainees who voluntarily attended these courses stated that they preferred these courses due to the popularity of coding training. While the duration of the course was found to be sufficient, it was determined that offering the courses after work hours caused a decrease in the motivation of the trainees. Inconvenience of training centers, lack of educational materials and insufficient number of instructors were stated as problems encountered in courses. It was observed that the attendees of the course liked the algorithm and block-based coding subjects, and that the instructors did not give enough importance to the subject of coding without computers.

Keywords: In-Service Training, Algorithm, Coding Without Computers, Block-Based Coding, Robotic Coding

Intervention for Social Anxiety among University Students with a Solution-Focused Group Counseling Program

Mehmet Enes Sağar

pp. 316 - 326   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.346.20


The aim of the research is to investigate the effect of a solution-focused group counseling program on reducing social anxiety of university students. The study group consists of 30 (16 female, 14 male) students who volunteered among 224 students who continue their education at Afyon Kocatepe University in the 2019-2020 academic year. The research had a 2x3 mixed pattern with experiment and control groups and pretest, posttest and follow-up measures. The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) was used as data collection tool. University students in the experimental group attended a 6-session solution-focused group counseling program about reducing social anxiety, while the control group did not participate in any study. After completing experimental processes, both groups underwent posttest and then follow-up measures at the end of 3 months. Data were analyzed with the two-way analysis of variance technique for mixed patterns. Results revealed that the solution-focused group counseling program was effective in reducing the social anxiety of university students and the efficacy continued during follow-up at the end of three months.

Keywords: Solution-Focused Group Counseling, Social Anxiety, Program, University, Student

Creating Learning Environments in Preschool Classrooms: Perspectives of Pre-service Preschool Teachers

İpek Özbay Karlıdağ

pp. 327 - 342   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.346.21


The aim of the research is to determine pre-service preschool teachers' views on creating learning environments in preschool classrooms. Qualitative research methods were used in the research. The study group was composed of 35 pre-service preschool teachers. In this study, a semi-structured interview form was chosen as data collection tool. The data of the research was evaluated using content analysis. As a result of the research, pre-service preschool teachers stated that some physical and educational features should be taken into account while creating the learning environment. Pre-service preschool teachers also state that learning centers are the most important elements in the preschool learning environment. Pre-service preschool teachers consider the existence of learning centers to be important in preschool classroom. Also, pre-service preschool teachers stated that there are points to be considered while creating learning centers. In conclusion, pre-service preschool teachers have sufficient information about creating an effective learning environment.

Keywords: Learning Environment, Learning Centers, Early Childhood Education, Pre-service Teachers’ View

Use of 3D Printers for Teacher Training and Sample Activities

Ayten Arslan & Ibrahim Erdogan

pp. 343 - 360   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.346.22


The aim of this study was to determine the effects of 3D (3-dimensional) printing activities on pre-service teachers’ self-efficacy in technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK) and their views of 3D printing activities. The study sample consisted of 39 students of science education, classroom teaching and preschool teaching departments of the faculty of education. An exploratory sequential mixed method design was used. In the quantitative part, a one group pre-test post-test design was used, and data were analysed using statistical methods. In the qualitative part, phenomenology was used, and data were analysed using content analysis. Results showed that 3D printing activities improved participants’ self-efficacy in TPCK. Participants stated that 3D printers helped them develop skills in many areas and that 3D printer teaching materials contributed to both learning and teaching. The majority of participants had positive views on the effect of 3D objects on learning. They stated that 3D objects turned abstract concepts into concrete visual representations, facilitated learning, made lessons enjoyable, provided learning retention, encouraged them to learn more about their fields, increased their interest, and helped them develop creative thinking and design skills, and thus, create different content-specific educational materials.

Keywords: 3D Printers, Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge, Teacher Training, Mixed Research Design

Seventh Graders’ Learning Strategies and Achievement Goal Orientations as Predictors of Their Achievement in Social Studies

Melek Didin & Koray Kasapoglu

pp. 361 - 380   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.346.23


It is aimed to examine the relationships among seventh-graders’ achievement goal orientations and learning strategies and achievement in Social Studies. In this quantitative study with a correlational design, the data were collected from 440 seventh-grade students studying in nine public middle schools selected by convenience sampling. As data collection tools, Learning Strategies for Social Studies Scale (Didin & Kasapoğlu, 2017), Social Studies-Oriented Achievement Goals Scale (Gezer & Şahin, 2016) and Personal Information Form were used. Seventh-graders’ achievement in Social Studies was determined based on end-of-term grades. The data were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics. The results of the hierarchical regression analysis depicted that seventh-graders’ learning strategies for Social Studies positively predicted their achievement in Social Studies, after controlling for gender. After adjustment for both their gender and learning strategies for Social Studies, the task-approach as one of the Social Studies-oriented achievement goals positively predicted their achievement in Social Studies.

Keywords: Social Studies, Achievement Goal Orientations, Learning Strategies, Academic Achievement

Determination of Pre-service Science Teachers' Conceptual Understandings about the “Solutions: Dissolving-Melting” with Predict-Observe-Explain Technique

Murat Okur & Hatice Güngör Seyhan

pp. 381 - 396   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.346.24


In the study, the effect of Predict-Observe-Explain (POE) activities carried out within the scope of argumentation-supported learning method on the detection of the conceptual understandings of the pre-service science teachers about “Solutions: Dissolving-Melting” was examined. Based on this main purpose, a case study was applied in the study, one of the qualitative research methods. The study group of the research consists of 22 pre-service science teachers. According to the data obtained at the end of the study, it was observed that pre-service teachers structured non-scientific claims and justifications, and could not use their refutation skills adequately before applications. It was observed that pre-service teachers were more willing and competent in developing scientific arguments in POE activities.

Keywords: Argumentation-Supported Learning, Predict-Observe-Explain, Pre-Service Science Teacher, Solutions, Dissolving, Melting

Student Perceptions of the Implications of a Financial Literacy Project Within a College Mathematics Course

Michelle Meadows & Sami Mejri

pp. 397 - 409   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.346.25


The purpose of this study was to investigate how students perceived their engagement in an experiential learning project with a focus on financial literacy within general education mathematics courses (skills, knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors). Specifically, the researchers were looking to investigate whether the completion of a finance project within a general education mathematics course influences students' perception of and knowledge about personal finance concerning their lives and career paths. An aggregated analysis of survey responses using Qualtrics showed approximately half of students lacked knowledge of personal finance, the skills to interpret financial information, and expressed limited knowledge of loan repayment calculations. While over half of the participants would recommend this course to other students. There was no statistical significance in the correlation between students' assessments of their pre-and-post financial literacy knowledge and whether they recommend this course for future students. However, the majority of responders indicated that they have thought about future career and personal finance before completing the project.

Keywords: Student Loan Debt, Financial Literacy, Personal Finance, Experiential Learning, Finance Project

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