International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 2834-7919   |  e-ISSN: 1554-5210

Volume 18 Issue 2 (April 2022)

Issue Information

Issue Information

pp. i - vi   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.431



Original Articles

Preschool Teachers’ Practices to Support Children’s Social Development

Sema Öngören

pp. 1 - 17   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.431.1


The aim of this study was to examine practices of teachers to support the social relations of children with their families, peers, teachers and institution personnel in the preschool period. This research was conducted with a phenomenological design, one of the qualitative research methods. The participants of the study were 24 pre-school teachers working in public schools. The study group of the study was determined by the criterion sampling method, one of the purposeful sampling methods. The research was carried out by interview method and the data were collected using a semi-structured interview form consisting of two parts. In the first part of the interview form, there are questions about the participants' age, professional experience, educational level and type of institution they work in, and the second part includes questions about the practices of the participants to support children's social relations with their families, peers, teachers and institution staff. The data collected in the study were analyzed using the content analysis method. As a result of the research, it was revealed that the family was involved in educational activities to support children's relationships with their families, various activities were carried out in and out of the classroom to support children's peer relationships, and practices were made to increase teacher-child interaction to support children's relationships with their teachers. It was determined that in order to support the relations of the children with the staff, practices for communicating with them are also carried out.

Keywords: Early Childhood, Social Relationship, Social Skills, Social Competence, Teacher, Family, Peer

Effect of Organizational Fit on Organizational Happiness: Mediating Role of Moral Commitment

Esra Töre & Orhan Kadir Uysal

pp. 18 - 33   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.431.2


This study examines the mediating role of moral commitment in the effect of teachers' organizational fit on their organizational happiness and determines teachers' organizational fit, organizational happiness, and moral commitment levels. The research was carried out in a relational screening model. The research sample consists of 396 teachers working in the Karabağlar district of İzmir, Turkey, in the 2020-2021 academic year. "Personal Information Form", "Organizational Fit Scale", "Organizational Happiness Scale" and "Moral Commitment Scale" were used as data collection tools. Pearson moment correlation coefficient and regression analysis were performed with the package statistics program for the data analysis. As a result of the research, a positive and significant relationship was determined between organizational fit and organizational happiness, between organizational fit and moral commitment, and between organizational commitment and organizational happiness. In addition, it was concluded that moral commitment has a partial mediation effect between organizational fit and organizational happiness.

Keywords: Organizational Fit, Organizational Happiness, Moral Commitment, Teacher

The Mind Map: A Tool for Exploring Children’s and Teacher Trainees’ Conceptions of School, Friendship, and Play

Özgül Polat & Ezgi Aksin Yavuz

pp. 34 - 48   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.431.3


Mind Mapping can be used in any discipline as a tool for learning and organizing information. Mind Maps can be created as a group as a means of supporting brainstorming or individually to generate ideas. The aim of the present study was to explore preschool children’s and teacher trainees’ conceptions of school, friendship, and play through Mind Maps. A phenomenological approach was employed. The participants were 18 preschoolers (M = 65.33 months; 11 girls and 7 boys) and 12 preschool teacher trainees (M = 21.31 years; 10 females and 2 males). The children and the teacher trainees constructed three Mind Maps as a group and each group’s Mind Maps were evaluated with a rubric. The results revealed that the children can be as successful as adults in Mind Mapping. The children used drawings more often compared to the teacher trainees. The children and the teacher trainees had similar scores on the Mind Maps for school and friendship. With respect to school, it is evident that teachers and physical environment were quite important to children. For friendship, it seems that the children tend to talk about play and the common activities they do with friends whereas the teacher trainees referred to more abstract and emotional aspects of friendship as expected. Lastly, the children and the teacher trainees’ conceptions of play seemed to differ significantly, and the children did not include digital play in their Mind Maps unlike the teacher trainees who referred to digital play with many associations.

Keywords: Mind Mapping, Preschoolers, Teacher Trainees, School, Friendship, Play

The Analysis of the Relation Between Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies and Critical Thinking Attiude of Pre-Service Classroom Teachers

Beste Dinçer & Güliz Çilek

pp. 49 - 70   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.431.4


The study's major goal was to analyze the relation between preservice classroom teachers' metacognitive awareness of reading practices and critical thinking attitudes. The Metacognitive awareness of reading strategies inventory (MARSI-TR), Critical thinking attitude scale (CTS), and demographics information form were utilized to collect data for the study. A total of 294 pre-service classroom teachers in the first and the fourth grades from two public universities constituted the sample. The results showed that women had both higher metacognitive awareness and critical thinking attitudes than men. As for the mother and father’s education level, significant differences were found between sub-dimensions of critical thinking attitude scores of preservice classroom teachers. All of the correlations among the factors of metacognition and critical thinking attitude showed significant values, the direction of the relationships are all positive where the use of metacognition awareness factor increases with the scores on the factors of critical thinking. Additionally, critical thinking sub-dimensions explain 11% of the change in metacognitive awareness of reading strategies.

Keywords: Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies, Critical Thinking Attitude, Metacognition

Teaching Practicum During the Covid-19 Pandemic: A Comparison of the Practices in Different Countries

Esra Tekel, Özge Öztekin Bayır & Sabiha Dulay

pp. 71 - 86   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.431.5


Today, many countries ensure that student teachers get into the real classrooms, practice in there, spend more time and translate theoretical knowledge into practice in schools during Initial Teacher Education. So that they can receive stronger support in the practicum process, and they can develop themselves. However, schools have been closed in so many countries due to the Covid-19 pandemic preventions. Therefore, countries have rearranged the teaching practicum process. The aim of this study, which was carried out with a systematic review, is to comparatively examine the teaching practicum processes of different countries during the Covid-19 pandemic. With a systematic review made according to certain criteria, teaching practicum in the Covid-19 in the countries of Australia, Canada (Ontario State), England, Greece, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Portugal, South Africa, Turkey, the United States of America (New York State) and Zimbabwe were examined. According to the findings, it has been seen that some countries have removed or stretched the teaching practicum requirement during the Covid-19, while some countries have carried out online teaching practicum (i) in K-12 schools, (ii) with peer learning, or (iii) using VR technology, and one country re-opened the schools after a short closure.

Keywords: Teaching Practicum, Initial Teacher Education, Student Teacher, Covid-19 Pandemic, Systematic Review

The Effect of the Career Psychoeducation Program on the Career Decision Self-Efficacy and Educational Outcome Expectations of Eleventh-Grade Students

Gürcan Şeker & Burhan Çapri

pp. 87 - 103   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.431.6


This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of a career psychoeducation program developed based on the social cognitive career theory in career decision self-efficacy and educational outcome expectations of eleventh grade students. The study used a quasi-experimental model with a pretest-posttest control group design. The experimental process of the study was designed according to a 2x3 mixed (split-plot) design with a control group including pretest, posttest, and follow-up measurements. This process was carried out with 36 eleventh greleventh grade students, including 18 in experimental and 18 in control groups. The study data were collected using the Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale–Short Form and the Educational Outcome Expectations Scale. During the experimental process, an eleven-week career psychoeducation program was carried out in the experimental group, and no intervention was conducted in the control group. As a result of the study, it was found that there was a significant difference in favor of the experimental group students in terms of the mean scores obtained from the career decision self-efficacy and educational outcome expectations and that this difference between the mean scores was also maintained in the follow-up measurements. The findings of the effectiveness of the career psychoeducation program on the career decision self-efficacy and educational outcome expectations of eleventh grade students were discussed in the light of the related literature.

Keywords: Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT), Career Decision Self-Efficacy, Educational Outcome Expectation, Career Psychoeducation Program

The Transition to Kindergarten for Children with and without Special Needs: Identification of Family Experiences and Involvement

Binnur Yıldırım Hacıibrahimoğlu

pp. 104 - 118   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.431.7


The transition to kindergarten is one of the significant transition steps for children in early childhood. The family, being the closest circle of the child, supports the development of the child in the transition and affects the transition process with its resources and needs. In this regard, this study examined the experiences and participation of families of children with and without special needs in the transition to kindergarten. This study is a survey research in which family experiences and involvement in the transition to kindergarten are determined.  The Family Experiences and Involvement in Transition questionnaire was used to assess family involvement in transition preparation activities and transition concerns during kindergarten entry. A total of 232 parents participated in the study. Research results show that both family groups are most concerned with are similar. The research identifies the situation that families are most concerned about as getting used to a new school. Whether they have a child with disabilities or not, the types of information that both family groups prefer were similar. In the transition process, families especially favoured meetings and visits as the types of family involvement. Upon discussing the findings in line with the relevant literature, this study makes suggestions for further research and applications.

Keywords: Transition to Kindergarten, Transition, Parent Involvement, Family Experiences, Family Concerns, Preschool

The Effect of STEM Education Integrated into Teaching-Learning Approaches (SEITLA) on Learning Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis Study

Mustafa Çevik & Büşra Bakioğlu

pp. 119 - 135   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.431.8


STEM education is an educational approach whose popularity has increased in recent years. Although numerous efforts have been made to make STEM education more effective, educators face great difficulties in finding appropriate teaching methods and strategies. Within this framework, the aim of this research is to examine the results of studies that investigate the effect of STEM education integrated into teaching-learning approaches (SEITLA) on learning outcomes and to evaluate the results obtained from these studies. For this purpose, the meta-analysis method was used in this study. In line with the aim of the study, 33 experimental studies made between the years 2015-2021 were included in the meta-analysis, and the effect sizes of these studies were calculated. It was found that the effect of these activities on individuals’ learning outcomes had an effect size ranging between 0.13 and 2.09. As a result of the meta-analysis, it was determined that among the studies examined in the research, the effect of STEM education carried out with a mastery learning approach on students’ learning outcomes was considerably large. Another interesting result determined in the study was that the effect of a technology-supported STEM approach on learning outcomes was very small. In conclusion, STEM education integrated into teaching-learning approaches such as mastery learning, evidence-based education, and blended learning can be more effective on students’ learning outcomes. At the end of the study, discussions related to the findings are also included.

Keywords: Teaching Approaches, Learning Approaches, STEM, Meta-Analysis, Learning Outcomes

The Relationship Between Resilience Degree and Perceived Parental Relationship, Cognitive Emotion Regulation and Personality Traits in the Emerging Adulthood

Lerzan Yılmaz & Özlem Tolan

pp. 136 - 153   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.431.9


This study examines the relationships between resilience level and perceived parental relationship, cognitive emotion regulation, and personality traits in emerging adulthood. The sample of the research consists of undergraduate students whose age range is 18-25. The study was conducted with 609 people, 317 (52%) female and 292 (48%) male students. Resilience Scale (RS), The Barrett-Lennard Relationship Inventory (BLRI), Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ), Big Five Inventory (BFI) and Demographic Information Form were applied to the participants. One-way ANOVA analysis, Pearson's Correlation Coefficient Analysis and Hierarchical Linear Regression analysis were used to analyse the data. In the study, resilience mean scores of female students were found to be higher than male students. A positive relationship was found between the resilience scores of university students and their perceived parental relationship scores. A significant negative relationship was found with self-blame, which is the sub-dimension of cognitive emotion regulation. A positive and significant relationship was found with the other sub-dimensions of cognitive emotion regulation, respectively; acceptance, rumination, positive refocusing, re-focus on the plan, positive reappraisal, putting into perspective, other-blame and catastrophising. At the same time, a significant positive correlation was found between resilience scores and personality traits dimensions. According to the hierarchical regression analysis findings, it was concluded that perceived parental relationship, especially perceived father relationship, the catastrophising sub-dimension of cognitive emotion regulation, and personality traits predicted resilience. The study findings were discussed according to the relevant field, and recommendations were presented.

Keywords: Resilience, Perceived Parental Relationship, Cognitive Emotion Regulation, Personality

Use of Cartoons in Children’s Rights Education: A Case Study

Selma Yel & Tuğba Dönmez

pp. 154 - 168   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.431.10


The purpose of this study was to examine the knowledge, emotions and views of grade 4 elementary school students on education via cartoons. We designed the study as a case study, which is a qualitative research design. The study group included 30 elementary school students. The study used document review as the data collection technic. The study used worksheets and educational cartoons as data collection tools. In analysis of the data the study used content analysis. As a result of the study we observed that most students expressed what they saw in the cartoons correctly. In addition, the students who expressed what they had seen in the cartoons correctly also perceived the message in the cartoons correctly. Most students stated that the cartoons were about the right to education and made supportive statements. However, the students were incapable of expressing their emotions about the intended message of the cartoons. In addition, when they were asked to interpret a specific cartoon, the details did not attract them and they made rather holistic comments. Based on this result, we think that creating classroom environments supported by cartoons may develop the ability of students to analyze and perceive their rights and their skill of expressing their emotions.

Keywords: Children’s Rights, Cartoon, Elementary School, Social Studies

Examination of the Effect of the Covid-19 Pandemic Period on Private Tutoring Tendencies of High School Students: A Longitudinal Study

Azmi Türkan

pp. 169 - 179   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.431.11


Getting insufficient efficiency from the educational system can lead individuals to supplementary tutoring such as private tutoring. Due to the fact that private tutoring is taking more part in our lives day by day and that the Covid-19 pandemic can lead individuals to private tutoring, the purpose of this study is to; longitudinally identify how the Covid-19 period affects private tutoring tendencies of high school students. In order to identify how the Covid-19 pandemic period affected high school students’ private tutoring tendencies, data concerning private tutoring tendencies of the students before the Covid-19 period and during the Covid-19 pandemic period were collected for the study. The longitudinal screening model, a quantitative design, was used in the study. The participant group consists of 133 students who took part in the first and second implementation. The “Private Tutoring Tendency Scale” was used in collecting data. According to the study, it was identified that the Covid-19 pandemic period in general increases the private tutoring tendencies of students.

Keywords: Private Tutoring, Supplementary Tutoring, Covid-19, Pandemic, Longitudinal Study

Parental Views Regarding Distance Learning of Primary School Children and Screen Time during the Covid-19 Pandemic Process

Emir Feridun Çalışkan

pp. 180 - 192   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.431.12


This research aims to explore the views of parents regarding primary school students’ distance education experiences, the difficulties they face, the support they need in this process, and their screen time during the COVID-19 pandemic period during which face-to-face education was suspended and distance education was started.  The sample of the study consisted of 400 parents whose children were attending primary school. An online questionnaire was used as a data collection tool. Findings showed that children had difficulty in completing the given learning activities during distance education, and they needed adult support to complete these activities. In general, the participants stated that they were satisfied with the given instruction during the distance education process, but they wanted make-up lessons. It was observed that schools carry out educational activities with simultaneous collective lessons during distance education, and most of the difficulties children faced were caused by a lack of interest and resources. Finally, it was investigated that most of the primary school children spend more than 2 hours a day in front of the screen without parental supervision in this process. At the end of the research, some suggestions were offered such as planning the instructional activities more appropriately by making use of the experiences gained during the pandemic, developing effective learning materials by improving the digital knowledge and skills of teachers, and providing various pieces of training for parents.

Keywords: Coronavirus, Pandemic, Parent, Primary School, Distance Education, Screen Time

Effect of Family, Friends and School Climate on School Adjustment of Middle School Students

Dilek Gençtanırım Kurt

pp. 193 - 209   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.431.13


In this study, aiming to understand the individual and environmental dynamics underlying school adjustment of students in the middle school period, the target was to reveal the direct effects of family support, peer relationships and gender and their indirect effects mediated by school climate and academic success on the school adjustment of students. The study additionally adapted the school adjustment scale developed by the Fast Track project team for middle school students to Turkish and performed validity and reliability studies. The study was completed with data from two groups. The data obtained from the first study group were used for the adaptation study, while the data obtained from the second study group were used to answer the research question. In the research, the data collection tools of the ‘school adjustment scale’, ‘perceived social support scale’, ‘peer relationships scale’, ‘school climate scale’ and ‘personal information form’ were used. With the aim of finding the answer to the basic problem in the research, path analysis was performed for data obtained from 474 middle school students. The results of the study revealed that school climate, academic grade, gender, family support and peer relationships have significant direct effects in explaining the school adjustment of middle school students. Additionally, the gender and family relationships variables mediated by school climate, and the peer relationships variable mediated by academic grade, had significant effects on school adjustment.

Keywords: Middle School Students, School Adjustment, School Climate, Family Support, Peer Relationships, Path Analysis

Implementation of Technology-Supported Self-Regulated Strategy Development Model in the Education of Gifted and Talented Students

Serkan Demir

pp. 210 - 225   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.431.14


The aim of this study is to determine the effect of writing education carried out according to the self-regulation strategy development model on the self-regulation writing skills, self-efficacy perceptions, and creative thinking skills of gifted and talented students. In this study, a pre-test and post-test design with a control group was utilized, which is among the experimental designs. The study group consisted of 42 students aged 10-11 years who were diagnosed as gifted and talented and were studying at the same science and art center in Istanbul. In this research, the Self-Regulated Writing Scale, Self-Efficacy Writing Scale, and Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking Figural Form A were applied. Information about the scales is presented. Within the scope of the study, a 6-stage self-regulated strategy development model was enhanced with Web 2.0 digital tools for gifted and talented students. The research showed that writing instruction focused on the creation of self-regulation strategies reinforced with Web 2.0 resources had a beneficial impact on self-regulation writing skills, perceptions of self-efficacy, and the creative thinking skills of gifted and talented students.

Keywords: Technology, Self-Regulated Writing, Writing Self-Efficacy, Gifted and Talented Students

Occupational Choices and Career Orientations of Students in Girls Anatolian Imam Hatip High Schools

Gülsu Naiboğlu & Ali Özdemir

pp. 226 - 248   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.431.15


This study aims to determine the factors affecting the occupational choice and career orientation of senior students in Girls Anatolian Imam Hatip High Schools (Religious Vocational High School) and reveal what the students who turn to different occupation groups are affected. The study was conducted using the "phenomenology" pattern, which is one of the qualitative approaches. The research was conducted with 25 students studying in five different Girls Anatolian Imam Hatip High Schools selected from Istanbul in the 2019-2020 academic year. Twenty-five students were selected using "criterion sampling", one of the purposive sampling methods.  The data of the study were collected using the "interview" method, and a "semi-structured interview form" was used during the interview. The data were analyzed by the "descriptive analysis" method. This study has been guided by the fact that teachers, families, and policymakers clearly know whether the students in Imam Hatip High Schools, which were established to raise religious officials; make their choices in line with their own interests, abilities, skills, wishes, and desires or are influenced by their environment and that they have made different occupational orientations and preferences in recent years. It was determined that students have found common ground in the lifelong development process besides individual differences in their career and occupational choices. It is seen that students' occupational thoughts, which develop in the form of dreams at an early age, progress from abstract to more realistic and concrete as they grow up and develop; changes and even indecisions occur with the increasing number of effective factors and the predominance of personal desires. It is thought that it will help restructure the studies to be conducted in Turkey since the research is a study to discover "factors affecting the occupational choice and career orientation".

Keywords: Occupational Choice, Career Orientation, Imam Hatip High Schools

Montessori Method of Education in Terms of Philosophical Anthropology

Zeynep Başerer Berber, Dilek Başerer & Mehmet Ali Dombaycı

pp. 249 - 258   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.431.16


Since its existence, the subject of man has been difficult and painful to understand. Philosophical anthropology comes to the fore as the field that deals with the essence and function of man to make sense of him. Philosophical anthropology tries to evaluate man from his birth to death. By doing so, philosophical anthropology draws on various philosophers. The process of understanding man, which started with Kant, is shaped by names such as Scheler, Cassirer, Mengüşoğlu, and Hartmann. In philosophical anthropology, besides these names, Maria Montessori, who assessed man as a child, is also significant. She contributed to philosophical anthropology by actualizing theoretical structures with the Montessori method of education, which is based on the understanding of a child who stands on his/her own feet and which presents a new perspective on the man. This study is considered important in terms of grounding the aforementioned contribution and guiding future studies on the subject.

Keywords: Montessori, Philosophical Anthropology, Education, Child

Development of a Self-Efficacy Scale for Supporting Early Literacy Skills

Burak Delican & Seyit Ateş

pp. 259 - 274   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.431.17


The aim of this study is to develop a measurement tool for self-efficacy perception to support early literacy skills. In the study, an item pool of 60 items was created by considering the relevant literature. The form was presented to the field experts who had studies in the relevant fields, and 5 items in the item pool of the scale were removed from the scale in line with the expert opinions. After taking expert opinions, the 60-item form was filled in by 493 pre-school teacher candidates at Sivas Cumhuriyet and Tokat Gaziosmanpaşa Universities. Before the analysis, extreme, deviating, missing or erroneous values were corrected. As a result of the corrections made, validity and reliability studies were carried out in line with the responses from 467 students.  As a result of the exploratory factor analysis, it was determined that the scale consists of 40 items and 6 sub-dimensions. The form consisting of 40 items and 6 sub-dimensions explains 65.10% of the total variance. These dimensions are named as Visual Reading, Listening / Monitoring, Phonological Awareness, Print Awareness, Basic Writing Skills and Assessment of Progress in accordance with the literature. As a result of the confirmatory factor analysis, it was determined that the fit indices of the 6-factor structure were within acceptable limits. The Cronbach alpha reliability coefficient for the whole scale is 0.96, and the Cronbach alpha reliability coefficient for the sub-dimensions is between 0.84 and 0.91. As a result of these findings, it was revealed that the scale measures the self-efficacy perception to support early literacy skills in a valid and reliable way.

Keywords: Early Literacy, Self-Efficacy, Scale Development

The Investigation of Mindfulness, Cognitive Flexibility and Mental Symptoms of Teacher Trainess

Aybala Ceylin Gürpınar & Fatma Ebru İkiz

pp. 275 - 290   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.431.18


In this study, mindful attention awareness (MAA) and cognitive flexibility (CF) were considered as structures that protect the mental health of teacher trainees. The main purpose of the study is to examine the relationships between mindful attention awareness, cognitive flexibility levels, and mental symptoms of teacher trainees. The sample is consisted of 396 teacher trainees from Turkey. Data were collected by Mindful Attention Awareness Scale, Cognitive Flexibility Inventory, Brief Symptom Inventory. The model was predictive associational survey model. Data analyses were made by Pearson correlation coefficients and multiple linear regression techniques. Significant negative correlations were found between  mental symptoms and both mindful attention awareness and  cognitive flexibility, especially its control sub-dimension. As a result of regression analysis mindful attention awareness and cognitive flexibility control sub-dimensions together explain 31% of mental symptoms. MAA co-operates with CF as mental health protective structures, and the growth of mindful attention awareness creates positive effects on cognitive flexibility.

Keywords: Mindful Attention Awareness, Mindfulness, Cognitive Flexibility, Mental Symptoms, Emerging Adulthood

Investigating the Scientific Research Inception Process From the Perspectives of Physicists

Sezen Apaydın, Ayhan Karaman & Hüsnü Baysal

pp. 291 - 308   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.431.19


The aim of the present study was to explore how physicists start their research studies, how they identify their research questions and what factors influence their involvement in studying a specific research problem. The grounded theory methodology was adopted in the study by considering the qualitative nature of the research questions. The study was completed in two stages. At the initial stage of the study, face-to-face interviews were conducted with physicists to elicit the diversity of their views about the research inception process. At the second stage, an empirically-based multiple-choice survey was prepared on the basis of the themes generated from the responses of the interviewees. 140 physicists working in several Turkish universities completed the survey to reveal how common the diverse views, which were extracted from the interviews, among other physicists. The study results indicated that although physicists started their research studies mostly with a problem, they did not necessarily look actively for a problem when starting a new research study because new problems had already been identified during their previous research. According to the participant physicists, the research inception process was affected by a number of factors related with the available resources and the individual scientist conducting a given research study. These obtained results were discussed in terms of nature of science and nature of scientific inquiry, which are critical issues in science education.

Keywords: Scientists, Scientific Research Inception, Nature of Science

The Relationship Between Power Sources Used by Lecturers and The Belonging to University Status of Prospective Pre-School Teachers

Serhat Gündoğdu

pp. 309 - 324   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.431.20


The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of the power sources used by lecturers on the belonging to university levels of the prospective pre-school teachers. This study was carried out with quantitative method and correlational screening model. The participants of the study consisted of 300 prospective pre-school teachers (262 female, 38 male) who were studying at 3rd and 4th year of pre-school teaching departments of universities in seven different provinces of Turkey and were accepted to participate voluntarily in this study. Teacher Power Use Scale and The Belonging to the University Scale were used in the study as data collection instrument. The data were analyzed by LISREL 8.7 and IBM SPSS Statistics 22 programs. Pearson's correlation analysis was performed to determine the relationship between power resources and the belonging to university levels. Regression Analysis was carried out to determine whether power sources used by lecturers are predictors of the belonging to university levels. The result of the study revealed that while expert power was the most used, coercive power was the least used power sources by the lecturers. In addition, prospective pre-school teachers have a high level of belonging to university, and there is a significant relationship between the power sources used by lecturers and the belonging to university levels of prospective pre-school teachers. Furthermore, coercive, reward, referent, and expert powers were found to be significant predictors of the belonging to university levels of prospective pre-school teachers. The findings of the study were discussed and suggestions were offered.

Keywords: Belonging, Lecturer, Power Sources, Prospective Pre-School Teacher

Argumentation-Based Inquiry Practices from the Perspective of Teachers Receiving and Implementing Argumentation Training

Esra Kabataş Memiş, Büşra Nur Çakan Akkaş, Elif Sönmez & Muhittin Öz

pp. 325 - 340   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.431.21


The purpose of this study was to identify the Argumentation-based Inquiry (ABI) process from the perspective of teachers implementing the approach and determine the impacts of the process on both teachers and students. The researchers conducted the study via qualitative research methods. To this end, three science teachers teaching in three different secondary schools in the province of Kastamonu took part in the study. First, the researchers provided an eight-week ABI training to the teachers. Following this training, they asked the teachers to implement the ABI practices on a science unit in the classroom. When the teachers completed these practices, the researchers conducted semi-structured interviews with the teachers. The interview questions were specified with the aim of determining the views of the teachers on the ABI process, as well as its impact on teachers and students. The interviews were recorded and then analyzed. A descriptive analysis was carried out on the data. According to the findings, the teachers stressed the importance of planning the teaching process and being prepared for the subject for the effectiveness of the ABI process. Furthermore, the teachers stated that the questions asked by both teachers and students played a key role in the ABI process. Last but not least, the teachers reported that their knowledge of the field had increased and their skills of asking questions had developed owing to the process, while the knowledge obtained by the students had become permanent and the inquiry and communication skills of the students had developed in the process.

Keywords: Science Education, Argumentation, The Argumentation-Based Inquiry (ABI) Approach, Teacher Training

Attitudes and Opinions of Vocational and Technical Anatolian High School Teachers on Distance Education: A Mixed Method Research

Tanju Demir, Çiğdem Ayanoğlu & Ömer Faruk Vural

pp. 341 - 367   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.431.22


This study aimed to determine the attitude levels of Vocational and Technical Anatolian High School teachers towards distance education and these levels in terms of various variables (gender, education status, or profession). This study, it was aimed to determine whether there was a difference between the status of being a culture teacher and professional seniority. The research is carried out with the explanatory sequential design approach, one of the mixed-method research designs that consist of teachers working in Vocational and Technical Anatolian High Schools in Sakarya in the 2020-2021 academic year. Quantitative data of the study were collected from 244 teachers. They were determined by a purposive sampling method, and qualitative data were collected from 43 teachers and is determined by the convenient sampling method. A sufficient number of samples were selected from the existing sample due to the rapid and easy accessibility of the teachers from whom quantitative data were collected. Quantitative data were obtained with the "Personal Information Form" created by the researchers to determine the demographic characteristics of the teachers, and the Distance Education Attitude Scale, developed by Ağır (2007) to determine distance education attitudes. In acquiring qualitative data, a semi-structured interview form consisting of open-ended questions prepared by the researchers was used. In the first part of the interview form, there are questions about the demographic information of the teachers participating in the research. In the second part, there are seven questions prepared by the researchers to determine the opinions of the teachers about distance education based on the results obtained from the quantitative data and the literature review on distance education. The researchers collected the data through Google Forms, created from the questions in the scale and interview forms. In the analysis of the quantitative data obtained, descriptive statistics, Shapiro-Wilk normality test, t-test, and one-way ANOVA test were used. Qualitative data were analyzed with descriptive analysis methods within the framework of the themes determined by evaluating the advantages and limitations of distance education sub-dimensions. It has been tried to reach the possible reasons underlying the quantitative results with the qualitative data obtained. As a result of the research, it has been determined that teachers disagree with the view that distance education has advantages. They believe that distance education has limitations, and their attitude levels towards distance education are below the medium level. In the study, the reasons for the teachers' attitude levels towards distance education below the medium level were evaluated by evaluating the advantages and limitations of distance education and the sub-dimensions of "student academic success," "efficiency of education," "positive and negative aspects compared to face-to-face education," "difficulties encountered," and "opportunity ."In this study, it has been tried to be revealed with the opinions of teachers within the framework of the themes of "whether it provides equality," "teacher and student motivation," and "recommendations for effective distance education."

Keywords: Distance Education, Vocational and Technical Education, Attitude

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