International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 2834-7919   |  e-ISSN: 1554-5210

Volume 14 Issue 3 (June 2018)

Original Articles

The Effects of Psychoeducation Program for Decreasing Social Appearance Anxiety on Social Appearance Anxiety Levels of High School Students

Hanife Akgül

pp. 1 - 11   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2018.146.1


The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of psychoeducation program, prepared for decreasing social appearance anxiety of high school students, on social appearance anxiety level of adolescents. In this study, an experimental model with pretest-posttest measurement and control group was used. The independent variable of the study was the psychoeducation program was applied only on experimental group between pretest and posttest. On the other hand, the dependent variable was the social appearance anxiety levels of the adolescents. The population of the study consisted of 300 high school students, whereas the sample of the study consisted of 40 students including 20 in the experimental group and 20 in the control group, all of whom received the high scores from the social appearance scale. In the study The data concerning the dependent variable were obtained by using “Social Appearance Anxiety Scale”. A seven-session psychoeducation program for decreasing the social appearance anxiety of the students was prepared and carried out for the experimental application. The program to be applied on the experimental group was structured on the principles of Cognitive Behaviorist Approach and the basis of Social Skills Training.  The hypotheses of the study were tested through the nonparametric statistical tests. While Mann Whitney U test was used for the unrelated measurements, Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test was used for related samples. As a result of the results of the study, it was found that the applied Psychoeducation Program for Decreasing the Social Appearance Anxiety decreased the social appearance anxiety levels of the students included in the experimental group. 

Keywords: Social Appearance Anxiety, Psychoeducation Program, High School Student.

Effectiveness of Discrete Trial Training Program for Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Emre Ünlü, Sezgin Vuran & İbrahim Halil Diken

pp. 12 - 31   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2018.146.2


Discrete Trial Training (DTT) is one of many scientific based practices used in the education of children with ASD. It is seen that many evidence based practices are limited to the studies conducted by universities and cannot become widespread. Involvement of parents in their children’s education processes and utilization of evidence based practices play a very important role in overcoming the problems and achieving the desired results in children with ASD. In this study, the effectiveness of a group of family training programme, which has been developed to upskill parents to present DTT, was investigated on 14 mothers and 14 fathers. The result shows that there is a significant difference between experiment and control groups’ DTT scores. On the other hand there is no significant difference between mothers and fathers’ DTT performance in experiment group. Also children whose parents in experiment group improved imitation skills during the study. The parent training program has been found effective on teaching parents how to use DTT. All the parents indicated their satisfactions about the program and they also suggested the program to the other parents.

Keywords: Autism spectrum disorder, parent training, discrete trial training, father, mother, evidence based practice

History Teaching Facilities in Ottoman Archive: Archivists’ Opinions about Student Visits

Muhammet Ahmet Tokdemir

pp. 32 - 46   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2018.146.3


Archives are the memory of society and the states and known as the kitchen of the historians. They usually serve to historians and other researchers but in context of learning history they also can to serve teaching history. The Ottoman Achieve is one of the institutions that contribute to teaching history. Ottoman Archives’ contribution to teaching history will be discussed in this study. The study includes five guiding experts’ feedback about student groups’ visit and their experience in the Ottoman Archives exhibition site. The study designed as a qualitative research and a semi-structured interview form used as data collection tool. According to the results guiding experts stated that the visits which organised under the guidance of history teachers within the framework of a plan in advance are becoming more efficient.  Students who know to read Ottoman writing are more concerned and they seem more satisfied after the visit. The sections that attract students are Ottoman modernization, firmans and berats which have an attractive manuscript. Teachers from different branches, the indifference of the students and the lack of Ottoman Turkic writing knowledge are the main problems that have been identified regarding the visits to the exhibition area

Keywords: Ottoman archive, Teaching history, Museum visits, Primary soruces.

The Views and Atitudes of The Teacher Candidates from Preschool And Elementary School Teaching Departments toward Family Participation

Pınar Bağçeli Kahraman

pp. 47 - 59   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2018.146.4


Presently the family participation, which is considered as an important part of the education, makes a huge contribution to the whole education of the children. Therefore it is necessary to know the views and the attitudes of the teacher candidates especially before they become teachers and accordingly they should be supported regarding the family participation issue. The purpose of this study is to investigate the views and the attitudes of the elementary education teacher candidates towards family participation. In addition with this research it was attempted to determine whether the grades of the teacher candidates cause a common effect on their attitudes towards family participation according to their department. Within the research descriptive scanning model was used. The sample of the research consisted of totally 300 teacher candidates, were attending Uludağ University Education Faculty Preschool Teaching Department and Primary School Teaching department. Within the research the questionnaire, which was consisted of six open ended questions and Attitude Scale Regarding Family Participation for Teacher Candidates, which was developed by Yavuz Güler (2014), were used. In order to determine the views of the students from Primary School and Preschool Teaching departments, descriptive statistics were used. It was attempted to determine whether there was a relation between the departments with t test.  According to their departments whether the grade has a significant effect on the total scores of the teacher candidates regarding family participation and the sub-dimensions was investigated with Two Factors ANOVA. The open-ended questions were given in the tables with frequency and percentages. As a result of the research teacher candidates not having adequate knowledge regarding family participation and the negative views they acquire from the environment regarding the families may cause them to develop negative attitudes and have prejudice regarding family participation. 

Keywords: Family participation, preschool, elementary school teaching, teacher candidates

A Review of Preschool Manipulative StorybooksContaining Activities

Mübeccel Sara Gönen, Mine Koyuncu Şahin, Fulya Ezmeci & Almila Elif Selçuklu

pp. 60 - 75   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2018.146.5


In this research, it is aimed to determine the status of the preschool manipulative story books containing the activities which are placed before the stories, inside of the stories or after the stories, in terms of date of publications, subject of the stories and kind of the activities in the story. For this purpose, 188 books were investigated for sale in the bookstores of Ankara and İstanbul published between the years of 2005- 2015. Data were analyzed by using a statistical analysis program and findings were presented with frequency tables. The findings of the present study indicated that in the recent years the publication of the manipulative story books has increased. The present study also showed that the place of the activities in the books, the materials of the activities, and durability of the books are appropriate. But it has been determined that the age group of the book, the development area of the activities in the book and directives such as application period of the activites are incomplete in the books.

Keywords: Children’s literature, different approaches in children's literature, manipulative story books

Teacher Preparation Programs in the United States

Ha Nguyen

pp. 76 - 92   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2018.146.6


According to Baker and Rytina’s (2014), the total number of legal immigrants coming to the United States during the ten years from 1980 to 1989 is 990,000, whereas in two more recent years from 2010 to 2012, the number rose to 2,810,000. As a country with an increasing influx of immigrants from all over the world, the United States has expressed a paramount need for the proportionately rising number of well-trained English as a Second Language (ESL) teachers. This paper presents the origin of American teacher education dated back from the nineteenth century, noticing common features and variations amongst teacher preparation programs. The significance as well as desirable goals of American teacher training programs are also discussed. Additionally, realities at teacher preparation institutions and workplace, and enormous challenges facing programs of pre-service preparation in the U.S. are demonstrated. Perceptions of qualified teacher preparation programs held by teacher educators’, teacher candidates’, school administrators’ perspectives, and the correlation amongst these three perceptions are explored. Finally, exemplars of qualified teacher education programs in the United States are demonstrated for replication.

Keywords: teacher education, teacher educators, pre-service teachers, English learners

An Analysis on School Psychological Counselors’ Dealing With Difference In Multicultural Contexts

Münevver Çetin, Feride Öksüz Gül & İsmail Erol

pp. 93 - 112   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2018.146.7


Migrations caused by wars and economic depression have become one of the most important problems of Turkey. Considering multicultural structure of the country and the migration wave from Syria, it is aimed to find out how school psychological counselors perceive difference, how they cope with conflicts and how they perceive themselves with respect to multicultural competencies. For this reason, 28 school counselors were interviewed from two cities of Turkey. This study, conducted with a qualitative research design, aims to describe the current perceptions of school counselors. In order to analyze the data, content analysis was used. According to the findings; most of the counselors perceive differences as wealth. However, it is also stated that multiculturalism causes conflict. While the counselors' schools seem to have a culture that fosters and nurtures differences in general terms, it has become clear that some schools do not welcome cultural differences. A significant amount of school counselors do not regard themselves competent, while others find themselves partially competent.

Keywords: Multicultural education, difference, multicultural competency

Early Childhood Turkish Children's Attitudes toward Science

Ahmet Simsar

pp. 113 - 122   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2018.146.8


The purpose of the study was to examine and describe the attitudes of Turkish early childhood children in science. This study explored the causal factors that influence children's attitudes toward science such as teachers’ years of teaching experiences, frequency of teaching science in a week, and teachers’ teaching style. Turkish children (N=44) who live in the United States and engage in early childhood classroom involved into the study. Preschool teachers who had Turkish children in their classroom completed survey for giving information about their Turkish children experiences in their science teaching activities. The Child’s Attitude Toward Science (CATS) survey which developed by researchers was used while collecting data. The results showed that Turkish children have positive attitudes towards science especially in Life Science Topics. The results also showed that there were statistically significant relationships between Turkish children’s attitudes towards science and their teachers years of teaching experiences and frequency of teaching science in a week. The results also showed that Turkish children’s success in other activities (language, art, math) related with their attitudes towards science. The findings also showed that using text books and hands on activities during science education also had relationship with children’s attitudes towards science. 

Keywords: Early childhood education, science, attitude, Turkish children

Examining The Prospective English Teachers’ Pedagogical Content Knowledge: Canakkale Case

Kürşat Cesur & Abdullah Ertaş

pp. 123 - 140   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2018.146.9


The study aims to investigate the pedagogical content knowledge of the prospective language teachers in the English Language Teaching Department of Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University. The mixed research method, sequential explanatory research design was used to collect and analyze the data. Quantitative data obtained from 127 prospective teachers via the questionnaire were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The researchers made use of content analysis in order to analyze the qualitative data obtained from document analysis, observation procedures, and interviews of the three participants. Themes and codes were created from the transcriptions of the qualitative data collection instruments to conduct both within-case and cross-case analyses aiming to explain the quantitative results. Results reveal that prospective teachers of English believe they do not have required knowledge of the language they teach though they see themselves competent in other knowledge domains. Though they believed they would use communicative methods to language teaching, they preferred using grammar translation method while presenting the new vocabulary items. What they believed they could do and what they actually did were also different considering their knowledge on planning lessons, knowledge of their learners, and knowledge on assessment. Last but not least, their knowledge domain was shaped not only by the teaching experience they had during the Community Service Practices Course and the private courses they had given, but also by pre-service teacher education. Bearing these results in mind, some implications for teacher education were provided at the end of the study.

Keywords: EFL Teachers’ Knowledge Base, Pedagogical Content Knowledge, Mixed Research Method, Sequential Explanatory Research Design

A Study on Social Studies Teacher Candidates’ Perception of Science, Scientific Research and Scientists 

Fitnat Gürgil

pp. 141 - 160   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2018.146.10


In this study, it is aimed to determine the perceptions of social studies teacher candidates regarding the topics of science, scientific research and scientists. In the study adopting the qualitative research approach, data was gathered through both the metaphor form and interviews. The study was conducted in a university located in Ankara. Ninety-two teacher candidates participated in the metaphor stage of the study; and 45 teacher candidates participated in the interview stage. It has been concluded that metaphors developed by teacher candidates do not contain any negative perception regarding the science. When the metaphor images of teacher candidates were examined, it was determined that in general, the concept of science is perceived as guiding and indispensable for life. According to the participants, scientists are perceived as enlightening, knowledgeable, curious and hardworking. With regard to the concept of scientific research, the participants have brought to the forefront that scientific studies are difficult, they require much effort, and they are systematic. In the analysis of the interview data, it was determined that the social studies teacher candidates do not have enough information about science, scientists and scientific research. In the analysis of the interview data, it was seen that teacher candidates have some incorrect information about the science, scientific research and scientists. Some recommendations were offered in the light of the findings of the study.

Keywords: science, scientific research, scientists, social studies, qualitative research

Reflective Teaching Practices in Teachers and Their Attitudes Toward Professional Self-development

Eman Gheith & Nahil Aljaberi

pp. 161 - 180   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2018.146.11


This study aimed to investigate the levels of teachers′ reflective practices as well as their attitudes toward professional self-development in relation to various variables, including gender, number of workshops attended and experience. The study sample consisted of 162 teachers who work as teachersat a number of private schools in Amman. Two scales have been used in this study; the first questionnaire consists of (28) items to measure teachers′ reflective practices in 6 dimensions. The second scale consists of (18) items to measure the attitudes-towards-professional-development. Results found that the level of teachers′ reflective practices on the scale as a whole were within an ′acceptable′ level; however, their practices in the subcategory of"appreciating criticism"  were below acceptable. Findings indicated that teachers′ attitudes toward professional development were positive. Findings further revealed a strong correlation of 0.485 between the reflective practices and the attitudes toward self-development in teachers.

Keywords: Reflective teaching Practices, Professional self-development, attitudes

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