International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 2834-7919   |  e-ISSN: 1554-5210

Original article | International Journal of Progressive Education 2018, Vol. 14(3) 76-92

Teacher Preparation Programs in the United States

Ha Nguyen

pp. 76 - 92   |  DOI:   |  Manu. Number: MANU-1802-13-0002

Published online: June 30, 2018  |   Number of Views: 382  |  Number of Download: 1008


According to Baker and Rytina’s (2014), the total number of legal immigrants coming to the United States during the ten years from 1980 to 1989 is 990,000, whereas in two more recent years from 2010 to 2012, the number rose to 2,810,000. As a country with an increasing influx of immigrants from all over the world, the United States has expressed a paramount need for the proportionately rising number of well-trained English as a Second Language (ESL) teachers. This paper presents the origin of American teacher education dated back from the nineteenth century, noticing common features and variations amongst teacher preparation programs. The significance as well as desirable goals of American teacher training programs are also discussed. Additionally, realities at teacher preparation institutions and workplace, and enormous challenges facing programs of pre-service preparation in the U.S. are demonstrated. Perceptions of qualified teacher preparation programs held by teacher educators’, teacher candidates’, school administrators’ perspectives, and the correlation amongst these three perceptions are explored. Finally, exemplars of qualified teacher education programs in the United States are demonstrated for replication.

Keywords: teacher education, teacher educators, pre-service teachers, English learners

How to Cite this Article?

APA 6th edition
Nguyen, H. (2018). Teacher Preparation Programs in the United States. International Journal of Progressive Education, 14(3), 76-92. doi: 10.29329/ijpe.2018.146.6

Nguyen, H. (2018). Teacher Preparation Programs in the United States. International Journal of Progressive Education, 14(3), pp. 76-92.

Chicago 16th edition
Nguyen, Ha (2018). "Teacher Preparation Programs in the United States". International Journal of Progressive Education 14 (3):76-92. doi:10.29329/ijpe.2018.146.6.


    Baker, B., & Rytina, N. (2014). Estimates of the lawful permanent resident population in the United States: January 2013. Retrieved from

    Bransford, J., Brown, A. L., and Cocking, R. R. (2000). How people learn: Brain, mind, experience, and school. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

    Cheng, M., & Cheung, W. (2004). Comparing perceptions: The competence of novice teachers and the expectations of school principals. Asia Pacific Education Review, 5(1), 188-199.

    Cooper, J. E., & He, Y. (2012). Journey of "becoming": Secondary teacher candidates' concerns and struggles. Issues in Teacher Education, 21(1), 89-108.

    Cruickshank, D. R. (1987). Reflective teaching: The preparation of students of teaching. Reston, VA: Association of Teacher Educators.

    Darling-Hammond, L. (1997). School reform at the crossroads: Confronting the central issues of teaching. Educational Policy, 11(2), 151-166.

    Emma Willard School. (2016, March 25). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved from

    Faez, F., & Valeo, A. (2012). TESOL teacher education: Novice teachers' perceptions of their preparedness and efficacy in the classroom. TESOL Quarterly: A Journal for Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages and of Standard English as a Second Dialect, 46(3), 450-471.

    Goodlad, J. (1990). Teachers for our nation’s schools. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    Holmes Group (1986). Tomorrow's teachers: A report of the Holmes Group. East Lansing: The Holmes Group.

    Ingersoll, R. M., & Smith, T. M. (2003). The wrong solution to the teacher shortage. Educational Leadership, 60(8), 30.

    Jeynes, W. (2007). American educational history: School, society, and the common good. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications.

    Lucas, T., Villegas, A., & Freedson-Gonzalez, M. (2008). Linguistically responsive teacher education: Preparing classroom teachers to teach English language learners. Journal of Teacher Education, 59(4). 361.

    Myers, S. D., McMillan, S., Price, M. A., Anderson, C. W., & Fives, H. (2007). Partnering with secondary schools to prepare highly qualified teachers: alternative certification through a professional development school model. Journal of the National Association for Alternative Certification, 2(1), 18-28.

    National Center for Education Statistics (2015). Table 208.20. Public and private elementary and secondary teachers, enrollment, pupil/teacher ratios, and new teacher hires: Selected years, fall 1955 through fall 2024. Retrieved from

    National Center for Education Statistics (2015). Trends in student performance: International trends in average scores: Mathematics literacy scale by percentiles. Retrieved from

    National Center for Education Statistics (2017). Fast facts: Back to school statistics. Retrieved from

    National Commission on Teaching and America’s Future (1996). What matters most: Teaching for America’s future. New York: Teachers College, Columbia University.

    National Commission on Teaching and America’s Future (2016). What matters now: A new compact for teaching and learning. Arlington, VA: National Commission on Teaching and America’s Future.

    Sansing, D. G. (1990). Making haste slowly: The troubled history of higher education in Mississippi. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi.

    Schubert, W. H. (2014). Perspectives on four curriculum traditions. In F. Parkay, E. Anctil, & G. Hass (Ed.), Curriculum Leadership: Readings for Developing Quality Educational Programs (10th ed.) (pp. 15-20). Pearson: Boston.

    Shaw, G. B. (2008). Maxims for revolutionists. Retrieved from

    Shulman, L. (2013). Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching. Journal of Education, 193(3), 1-11.

    Spring, J. H. (2011). The American school: A global context from the Puritans to the Obama era (8th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

    Thompson, S., & Smith, D. L. (2005). Creating highly qualified teachers for urban schools. Professional Educator, 27(1-2), 73-88.

    Villegas, A. M., & Lucas, T. (2002). Preparing culturally responsive teachers: Rethinking the curriculum. Journal of Teacher Education, 53(1), 20-32.

    Zeichner, K. (1981). Reflective teaching and field-based experience in teacher education. Interchange, 12, 1-22.

    Zeichner, K., & Liston, D. (1996). Reflective teaching: An introduction. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.