International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 2834-7919   |  e-ISSN: 1554-5210

Volume 17 Issue 2 (April 2021)

Issue Information

Issue Information

pp. i - vi   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.332



Original Articles

Investigation of the Problematic Behaviors of Preschool Students Studying in Public and Private Schools

Kamil Arif Kırkıç & Merve Aydın

pp. 1 - 16   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.332.1


This study was conducted to investigate the problematic behaviors of preschool students studying in public and private schools according to certain variables. The research was carried out with 300 students and their parents in private and public kindergartens. A demographic information form prepared by the researcher was used to collect the data. The Preschool and Kindergarten Behavior Scale was used. Pearson Correlation Analysis was used to analyze the data obtained for behavioral problems and social skills, univariate t-test for the significance of the difference between the scale scores of the groups by one-way analysis of variance, and the result was a significant negative relationship between problem behaviors and social skills. Significant differences were observed between students’ age, number of siblings, birth order, media usage, private or state education, their parent’s marital status, their family’s level of education and economic status, size of family, and students’ behavior problems and social skills sub-dimensions. However, no significant difference was observed regarding the gender of the children.

Keywords: Preschool Students, Behavior Problems, Social Skills

Developing a Mathematics Homework Evaluation Scale (MHES) for Secondary School Mathematics Teachers

Aziz İlhan, Ahmet Burak Süzen & Tayfun Tutak

pp. 17 - 28   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.332.2


This study aims to develop a valid and reliable scale that shows the secondary school mathematics teachers’ evaluations of mathematics homework. A literature review was conducted, and a pool of 41 articles have been prepared for this purpose. Five expert academicians in the field of mathematics education were consulted for the content, construct, and appearance validity of the prepared items. According to the opinions of the field experts, the number of items was reduced from 41 to 38 and applied to 492 mathematics teachers in total. The answers of 20 mathematics teachers were removed from the scope of this study since the answers were either incomplete or coded incorrectly. Therefore, scale forms collected from 472 mathematics teachers were included in this study. This form data was split, Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) were done. The construct validity was analyzed via EFA. The scale is a five-factor scale of the five-point Likert scale, which explains the 64.643% of the total variance with 21 items according to EFA results. The reliability of the scale was tested with Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient, and the coefficient was calculated as 0.737. The subscales of the scale are titled “Parent Relationship”, “Motivation”, “Control and Evaluation”, “Time” and “Source Use” respectively. CFA was carried out for the scale, and it was concluded that the fit indices are either acceptable or perfect. As a result, a reliable and valid “Teacher Approaches for Mathematics Homework Scale” has been added to the literature.

Keywords: Mathematics Education, Homework, Scale Development, Mathematics Teachers

Instructional Explanations of Class Teachers and Primary School Mathematics Teachers about Division

Ebru Korkmaz

pp. 29 - 54   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.332.3


This study is a qualitative research which was conducted in order to reveal the instructional explanations of class teachers and primary school mathematics teachers working in state schools about division. A semi-structured interview form with three open-ended questions about division, prepared for this purpose, was examined by the experts. The semi-structured interview form inluded three questions asking the teachers to solve the long division operations of 3385: 13 = ?, 1238: 12 =? and 102102: 12 =? using the mathematical table of digits with a descriptive language as if they were telling the primary school students the solutions. While the first two questions were suitable with the 5th grade learning outcomes, the third question was suitable with a high level learning outcome. The main purpose of asking the 3rd question was to evaluate the instructional explanation of the teachers in a problem of different difficulty. The study group consisted of 34 teachers, 16 of whom were primary school mathematics teachers and 18 of whom were class teachers, working at central primary schools in a province located in Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey. The content analysis of the data showed that not all of the teachers could interpret the operation of division regarding the concept of digit accurately, and their division was result and reasoning oriented. However, it was found that few teachers made generalizations in a similar way. It was also seen that teachers who were at problem-solving level according to Kinach’s (2002b) comprehension level framework could not make sense of the logic underlying the division. In addition, the reason why zero (0) was moved to the quotient and when the divisor sought in remaining number should be completed by the teachers could not be clarified because they did not know the logic of the division.

Keywords: Mathematical Knowledge, Instructional Explanations, Operation of Division, Maths Teachers, Class Teachers

Investigation of University Students' in-Class Smartphones Usage with Association Rules

Songül Karabatak & Müslim Alanoğlu

pp. 55 - 68   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.332.4


This study aimed to investigate the university students' usage of smartphones in-class and reveal the relationships among the frequency of use, the purpose of use, reasons for the smartphone using in course, and demographic variables (gender and class). To achieve this aim, we used the correlational survey model. The study sample was selected from the students studying in an Education Faculty of a University in the east of Turkey in the spring semester of 2019-2020 academic year. The sample determined by the snowball sampling method consisted of a total of 577 students. The survey technique was used to collect data. The descriptive and relation analysis were used in the analysis of the data. Frequency and percentage calculations were made for descriptive analysis. For relational analysis, the association rule, one of the data mining methods, was used. It has been revealed that most of the students use their smartphones occasionally and mostly in messages, to do research and connect to social networks. It was observed that the main reasons that motivated students to use their smartphones in the courses were doing research about the course and using them in emergencies. Besides, students gave close answers about the effect of smartphone use on academic performance, and most of the students stated that they did not have difficulty focusing when using smartphones in the courses. Some students also stated that they did not use the phone as it distracted them, and it was forbidden to use it in the course. Results revealed that the boring course, negative attitudes towards the lecturer, and the course cause students to message and connect to social media. It was concluded that the occasional use of smartphones in the courses in cases of emergency and messaging does not affect students' academic performance and does not cause any problems in focusing on the course. Besides, most people who use their smartphones for researching, reading news, and messaging in the courses stated that they use their smartphones for educational purposes. Some suggestions were developed at the end of the study based on the results.

Keywords: Smartphone, Smartphone Usage in-Class, University Student, Data Mining, Association Rules

A Study on the Turkish Adaptation, Validity, and Reliability of Two Versions of Triangular Love Scale

Müzeyyen Soyer & Cem Ali Gizir

pp. 69 - 82   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.332.5


This study aims to adapt Sternberg Triangular Love Scale (STLS) and its revised form of Sternberg Triangular Love Scale-Modified (STLS-M) to Turkish, analyze the validity and reliability of the scales, and assess the psychometric equivalence (measurement invariance) of two scales across groups. The study included two sample groups compromising of 408 (284 females, 124 male) university students who were involved in a romantic relationship and 632 (372 females, 260 male) university students who were not involved in a romantic relationship; the students were enrolled in various faculties of a public university in Turkey. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the construct validity of the two scales. The result of the analyses showed that both the STLS and STLS-M constituted three factors that are called “intimacy”, “passion”, and “commitment”. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficients of the factors for the STLS were .91 for intimacy, .88 for passion, and .93 for commitment. The reliability coefficients for the STLS-M were also .88, .83, and .89 respectively. Consequently, the findings of the study exhibited that both the STLS and STLS-M had a similar construct, indicating very good psychometric properties, and met the criteria for measurement invariance.

Keywords: Commitment, Intimacy, Passion, Romantic Relationships, Triangular Love

Investigating the Effectiveness of STAR Strategy in Math Problem Solving

Ufuk Özkubat, Alpaslan Karabulut & Ahmet Serhat Uçar

pp. 83 - 100   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.332.6


Focusing on students with mild disabilities, this study aimed to examine the effect of STAR problem solving strategy on their a) solving change problems involving one-step addition and subtraction, b) maintaining their acquisition of solving change problems involving one-step addition and subtraction after 1, 3, and 5 weeks, c) generalizing their performance in solving problems to the classroom environment. Three students with mild mental disabilities participated in the study. A multiple probe across participants design was used in the study. The number of problems that students solved correctly was determined by scoring the data. The data are shown graphically and analysed visually. Findings emphasized the effectiveness of STAR strategy for students with mild mental disabilities when solving change problems that involve a one-step addition and subtraction, indicating that those who acquired this strategy could demonstrate the same problem solving performance 1, 3, and 5 weeks after the intervention. Also, students were observed to generalize their strategy performance to the classroom environment. The findings of the research were discussed within the framework of the relevant literature and theoretical views, and suggestions were made for teachers in terms of interventions and for researchers considering further studies.

Keywords: Math Problem Solving, STAR Strategy, Cognitive and Metacognitive Strategies, Mental Disability

The Relationship Between Language Learning Strategies And Academic Self-Concept

Cemal Bıyıklı

pp. 101 - 123   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.332.7


The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between language learning strategies of secondary school students and the concept of academic self. The study was carried out with 522 students enrolled in an Anatolian high school in the central district of Ankara. In the study, Personal and Academic Self-Concept  Inventory (PASCI), which was developed by Fleming and Whalen (1984), and the Turkish version of Strategy Inventory of Language Learning (SILL), which was developed by Oxford (1990) and adapted into Turkish by Cesur & Fer (2007), were used. Canonical correlation analysis was used in the study. As a result of the study, it was concluded that the scores obtained in certain sub-dimensions of language learning strategies were predicted by the scores obtained in some of the academic self-concept sub-dimensions; however, the effect of the scores concerning some sub-dimensions remained at low levels. In the study, the relationship between the strategies in the language learning strategies sub-dimension and the academic self-concept sub-dimensions was explained through two canonical variables for the 9th, 10th, and 11th Grades. Based on this result, it could be argued that the increase in scores obtained from academic self-concept led to an increase in scores obtained from language learning strategies. In addition, it was concluded that the best predictors in explaining memory strategies were academic and verbal skills; post-cognitive strategies had low power to predict language learning strategies; and, social anxiety and family acceptance dimensions had low powers in predicting academic self-concept perception.

Keywords: Language Learning Strategies, Academic Self, Canonical Correlation

(Mis)schooling of Children with Disabilities in Post-independent Kenya

Theodoto Ressa

pp. 124 - 138   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.332.8


Kenya adopted Competency Based Curriculum to produce engaged, empowered, and ethical citizens. However, inaccessible school infrastructure is leaving behind children with disabilities. Informed by data from individuals with disabilities and Kenyan and international agencies, this study uses disability studies in education to analyze the interaction of school structures and disability to understand the locus of Kenyan children with disabilities in the society. Findings show that inaccessible school infrastructure investments exclude children with disabilities and threaten Kenya’s Vision 2030 poverty eradication goal. Needed is the reconceptualization of disability within a broader model of equity in the Kenyan education system.

Keywords: School, Inclusion, Disability, Infrastructure, Prejudice, Accessibility

Evaluation of Middle-School 6th Grade Mathematics Curriculum

Tarık Başar

pp. 139 - 154   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.332.9


This study was carried out to determine the efficacy of the 6th grade mathematics curriculum implemented in 2018 in Turkey using Tyler’s model of curriculum evaluation. The study used the survey model and the stratified sampling method. Schools included in the sample were divided into three levels, an "upper group", "middle group" and a "lower group" with regard to their level of success. The research was carried out with the participation of 266 students studying in these schools. The “Middle-School 6th Grade Mathematics Course Achievement Test” was used to determine the level of achievement of the objectives in the curriculum. In addition, the "Attitude Towards Mathematics Scale" was used to determine students' attitudes towards mathematics course. As a result of the research, in terms of the level of achievement of the objectives in the curriculum, it was determined that the students studying in the upper group schools were more successful than the students studying in the middle and lower group schools. Moreover, the upper group students' attitude scores regarding the mathematics course were significantly higher than the middle and lower group students’ scores, although the middle group students' attitude scores were significantly higher than lower group students’.

Keywords: Curriculum Evaluation; Mathematics Education; Mathematics Curriculum; Attitude Towards Mathematics

Examination of the Relationship Between Prospective Social Studies Teachers  Epistemological Beliefs and Their Attitudes Towards Learning

Nalan Altay

pp. 155 - 173   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.332.10


This study was carried out to determine relationship between prospective teachers (studying at department of social studies teaching)’ attitudes towards learning and their scientific epistemological beliefs. The study was conducted with 213 prospective (preservice) social studies teachers who were studying at Faculty of Education of a public university during 2019-2020 Academic year. Mixed method was employed in the study. Attitude scale towards learning and epistemological belief scale were used in obtaining quantitative data; and qualitative ones (data) were collected by interview form. Analysis of quantitative data was carried out by SPSS 22 statistical package program. Content analysis was applied to qualitative data, obtained as a result of the interview with 25 prospective teachers. According to findings, obtained from the study, prospective teachers’ attitudes towards learning and epistemological beliefs, are at high level and medium-level, respectively. It was found to be a significant relationship between attitude towards learning and epistemological belief.

Keywords: Social Studies, Epistemological Belief, Attitude Towards Learning, Prospective Teachers

A Study of The Life Studies Curricula Implemented Since the Foundation of the Republic in Terms of Children’s Rights

Harika Şükriye Toğrulca & Ebru Uzunkol

pp. 174 - 193   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.332.11


This study aims to examine the Life Studies Curricula which have been adopted since the proclamation of the Republic in terms of children’s rights. The 1936, 1948, 1968, 1998, 2009, 2015, and 2018 curricula were examined for this purpose. The study was designed in accordance with the scanning model. The data was collected and analyzed through document review. A form prepared using the Convention on the Rights of the Child obtained from UNICEF's official website and the study conducted by Uluç (2008) was used as the data collection tool. The data was analyzed with the descriptive analysis method, and the outcomes/objectives in the curricula were evaluated based on the prepared form. The study revealed that children's rights were included most in the 2009 curriculum and least in the 1936 curriculum. When all of the curricula were examined, it was found that the curricula included participation rights most and development rights least.

Keywords: Life Studies, Children's Rights, Curriculum

Modelling of the Attitude-Achievement Paradox in TIMSS 2015 with respect to the Extreme Response Style Using Multidimensional Item Response Theory

Munevver Ilgun Dibek & Rahime Nukhet Cıkrıkcı

pp. 194 - 209   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.332.12


This study aims to first investigate the effect of the extreme response style (ERS) which could lead to an attitude-achievement paradox among the countries participating in the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS 2015), and then to determine the individual- and country-level relationships between attitude and achievement by adjusting the effect of ERS. For the sample of this correlational study, 500 students were randomly selected from each of the 15 countries that participated in TIMSS 2015. The differences in the ERS tendency of the countries were determined by performing MANOVA. To determine the effect of ERS, two different multidimensional item response theory (MIRT) models were used: one did not include the ERS trait as a dimension while the other included this trait as a dimension. The results were analyzed with Latent GOLD 5.1 and WinBUGS software. To determine the relationship between attitudinal variables and achievement, the correlation values based on the observed scores and MIRT models were obtained. Whether there was any significant difference between these correlation values was determined by Fisher's rz transformation. The findings of this study were as follows: (a) the model in which the ERS trait was included as a dimension best fit the data and (b) the correlation values based on the observed scores were negative and those based on the MIRT models were positive, with the two statistically differing from each other. ERS is one of the factors causing the achievement-attitude paradox; however, it not sufficient to explain this paradox.

Keywords: Multidimensional Item Response Theory, TIMSS, Attitude-Achievement Paradox, Extreme Response Style

Empowering refugee children with the use of Persona Doll

Dania Al-Jubeh & Magdalını Vıtsou

pp. 210 - 227   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.332.13


This study focuses on Arabic-speaking children with a refugee or/and migrant background and its purpose is to explore if and how the Persona Doll method can influence this target group in terms of their attitudes and learning. The present study is a qualitative research in the form of action research. On the basis of data collection through participant observation, interviews and identity texts, a Persona Doll was designed that mirrored specific characteristics of the participant children and shared stories that reflected their personal experiences. The designed sessions with the Persona Doll were based on Brown’s methodology and were implemented in a non-formal education setting. In this paper, a detailed description is provided and after content analysis, the major findings are presented. Specifically, it was demonstrated that the Persona Doll generated positive attitudes, contributed to language education and empowered bicultural identity.

Keywords: Persona Doll Method, Children of Migrant or Refugee Origin, Arabic-Speakers, Identity Affirmation, Language Education

Creating Safe Schools for LGBTQIA+ Displaced Migrant Youth: A Journey Towards Anti-Oppressive Pedagogy

Diana Franco

pp. 228 - 239   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.332.14


According to research, abuse and harassment of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender/transsexual, two-spirit, queer/questioning, intersex, and asexual (LGBTQIA+) youth in US-based schools continues to rise despite the media’s attention. Although often grouped under one community, the LGBTQIA+ community is vastly diverse. As a result of laws that persecute individuals based on sexual orientation and gender identity, LGBTQIA+ displaced migrant youth are among the world’s most vulnerable populations. Post-migration stressors such as marginalization, isolation, oppression, and microaggressions by staff and students against LGBTQIA+ displaced migrant youth in schools, will be discussed. This article proposes queer theory and intersectionality theory as frameworks to inform the implementation of anti-oppressive, school-based practices in support of LGBTQIA+ displaced migrant students under the age of 21. A case composite example illustrating the experiences of a displaced migrant student identifying as a gay male is included. The role of school administrators, policy landscape, professional development, and reform to education curricula will be addressed as factors that may have significant influence in the development of anti-oppressive and safe schools.

Keywords: LGBTQIA+, Displaced Migrant Youth, Safe Schools, Anti-Oppressive Pedagogy, Intersectionality

Prospective Teachers’ Metaphoric Perceptions of Inclusive Education

Mustafa Ersoy

pp. 240 - 259   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.332.15


The need for special education stems from “a group of neurodevelopmental disorders that begin in childhood”. Today, one of the main topics discussed with regard to the education of children with special needs is inclusive education. Inclusive education, which aims to ensure that they all receive the best quality of education, is an education model based on students’ sharing experiences with their peers. The purpose of this research is to examine university students’ perceptions of inclusive education through metaphor analysis. This study aims to determine how Faculty of Education students perceive the concepts of inclusive education, inclusive students, the family of inclusive student and teacher of the inclusive student. The study group consisted a total of 200 prospective teachers from different branches, including six participants from each grade level in the 2018-2019 academic year fall semester in Faculty of Education at Sivas Cumhuriyet University. 79 of the prospective teachers were male and 121 were female. The data obtained through interviews were analysed through content analysis and descriptive analysis. 12 different metaphors for inclusive education, 11 different metaphors for inclusive student, 9 different metaphors for the family of the inclusive student, and 11 different metaphors for the teacher of the inclusive student were produced.

Keywords: Metaphoric Perceptions, Inclusive Education

Cultural Heritage in Social Studies Curriculum and Cultural Heritage Awareness of Middle School Students

Tuğba Kafadar

pp. 260 - 274   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.332.16


The present study aimed to determine the cultural heritage elements in the social studies course curriculum in Turkey and the awareness of the middle school students about cultural heritage. In the study, the case study approach, a qualitative research design, was adopted. The study group was assigned with criterion sampling method, a purposive sampling approach. The study findings demonstrated that the cultural heritage elements were prominent in 4th grade and 5th grade curricula, respectively, and the least prominent in 6th and 7th grade curricula based on the social studies course curriculum achievements in Turkey. The middle school students associated cultural heritage with historical buildings the most in the physical historical heritage category and customs and traditions in the non-physical historical heritage category. Students mostly considered mosques as physical cultural heritage elements, followed by palaces, towers, castles, madrasahs, bridges, historical buildings, historical places, fountains, and customs and traditions, traditional dishes, oral traditions, performance arts, and crafts as non-physical cultural heritage elements. Students mostly reported that cultural heritage was important since it was inherited from ancestors, it allows us to learn the past events, it reflects us, not to forget the old times, it is our culture, it is our history, for the perpetuity of our state, to learn about past lessons, and they stated that the cultural heritage should be preserved by state protection, followed by allowing it to live on, raising awareness, claiming it as a heritage, remembering, warning, and punishment, respectively.

Keywords: Cultural Heritage, Social Studies, Curriculum, Middle School Students

Investigation of the Effect of Teacher Training Programs on Reflective Thinking: ALACT Model

Gökhan Kaya & Servet Öz

pp. 275 - 291   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.332.17


The purpose of the current study is to investigate the contribution of teacher training programs to the development of reflective thinking in pre-service teachers and the state of their using reflective thinking skills according to the ALACT model. Although the study carried out is quantitatively-focused research, the methods of qualitative research were used to show how the participants used the examined variable. Therefore, the study was conducted using an exploratory mixed design. The study participants are 277 first-year and fourth-year pre-service teachers (211 females and 66 males) attending a state university. The participants of the qualitative dimension of the study are 20 fourth-year pre-service teachers selected through the convenience sampling method. As data collection tools, the "Reflective Thinking Tendency Scale (RTTS)", reflective thinking writings, and teacher training programs were used. According to the ANCOVA results, there is no significant difference between the pre-service teachers who are in the first year of their undergraduate education and the pre-service teachers who are in the last year of their undergraduate education. It was also concluded that the fourth-year pre-service teachers did not experience any reflective thinking process in the majority of their applications, and the ones who experienced such a process experienced it at the basic level (1st-3rd level). In light of the findings of the current study, it can be suggested that reflective thinking skills should be emphasized more clearly and that teacher training programs should be structured according to various reflective thinking models such as ALACT.

Keywords: Pre-Service Teacher, Reflective Thinking, ALACT Model, Teacher Training Programs

Examining the Impact of Sports on Secondary Education Students' Life Skills

Zeki Coşkuner, Hakan Büyükçelebi, Kemal Kurak & Mahmut Açak

pp. 292 - 304   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.332.18


Life skills are applicable psycho-social skills and abilities to develop desired qualities such as self-confidence and socialization. In this context, the research aims to investigate how participation in sports activities during secondary education affects an individual's life skills.

In the research, the sample group consists of a total of 698 students, including 388 males and 310 females studying at secondary schools in Malatya province district in 2018-2019 academic year. In order to evaluate life skills acquired through sports, the scale with its original form Life Skills Scale for Sport (LSSS) was used.

Statistical package program (SPSS 21 version) was used to analyze the data obtained in the research. Normality analysis tests were conducted on the data. As the result of the tests, it was observed that the data were not normally distributed and non-parametric tests were used for the analyzes.  The Mann Whitney U test for binary comparisons and Kruscal Wallis H tests for multiple comparisons were utilized. In the study, the significance level was accepted as p <0.05.

The research findings showed that there were differences in the life skills of the sample group according to the variables discussed. As a result, it was concluded that middle school students' age, gender, class, sports and playing status in the school team made significant differences whereas the family income situation did not affect in shaping their life skills.

Keywords: Sports, Education, Life Skills, Social Skills

Friendship Perceptions of Syrian and Turkish Children Attending the Project of Support to Sport Education for Children

Tuğçe Karaşahinoğlu & İbrahim Yıldıran

pp. 305 - 318   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.332.19


The aim of this study is to examine friendship perceptions of Syrian and Turkish children attending the Project of Support to Sport Education Project that aims to gather Syrian and Turkish children through sport and to encourage communication and understanding the tolerate the differences they may have. The research group consists 108 children aged between 5 and 17. The data were obtained through metaphor and pictures. The data were analyzed by content analysis and chi-square test. As a result it was seen that Turkish children had more negative attitudes than Syrian children did [x² (sd = 1, n = 96) = 4.27, p <.05]. In addition, it was seen that the theme “spending time” included description of what children were doing with their Turkish / Syrian friends. The theme “description of feelings” included children’s feelings about their Turkish / Syrian friends. No significant difference was found between the themes [x² (sd = 1, n = 88) = 2.09, p> .05].

Keywords: Friendship, Perception, Syrian, Child, Sport, Education

The Moderating Role of Career Decision Regret in the Effect of Career Adaptability on Burnout

Hacı Arif Doğanülkü & Oğuzhan Kırdök

pp. 319 - 330   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.332.20


The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between career adaptabilities, career decision regret and burnout of teachers. The participants of the study were 269 teachers (151 females and 118 males) who worked in the primary and secondary education institutions of a city located in the Eastern Mediterranean region in Turkey and agreed to participate in the study. The study used  Career Decision Regret Scale, Career Adapt-abilities Scale-Short Form and The Burnout Measure-Short Version were used as data collection tools. SPSS package program and the Process Macro 3.5 software were utilized for the analysis of the data. Pearson correlation analysis was utilized to investigate the relationships between career adaptability, career decision regret, and burnout. Process Macro software developed by Hayes (2018) based on linear regression analysis was utilized to test the power of career adaptability and career decision regret on burnout as well as the moderating role of career decision regret on the relationship between career adaptability and burnout. The results of the study showed that career adaptability and career decision regret predicted burnout significantly. Another finding of the study is that career decision regret played a moderating role in the relationship between the teachers’ career adaptability and burnout. Findings of the research were discussed and suggestions were made.

Keywords: Career Decision Regret, Career Adaptability, Burnout, Teachers, Moderating Role

The Examination of Relationship Between Lifelong Learning Trends of School Administrators and Teachers, and Their Innovative and Entrepreneurial Behavior Levels

Duygu Gür Erdoğan & Çiğdem Ayanoğlu

pp. 331 - 351   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.332.21


The aim of this study is to examine lifelong learning tendencies of school administrators and teachers and their innovative and entrepreneurial behavior levels in accordance with many variables (gender, task type, and branch) and to determine the relationship between the lifelong learning tendencies of administrators and teachers, and their innovative and entrepreneurial behavior levels. The study is a quantitative one and performed by means of a correlational research design model. The sample of the study is composed of 608 school administrators and teachers who work in Sakarya province during the 2017-2018 school year and voluntarily participate in the study. The research data were obtained through “Lifelong Learning Tendency Scale” developed by Gür Erdoğan and Arsal (2016) and adapted to Turkish by Çalışkan, Akkoç and Turunç (2011),  “Innovative Behavior Scale” developed by Scott and Bruce (1994) and “Entrepreneurial Behavior Scale” developed by Zampetakis (2009). As a result of the research, it is revealed that there is a significant, positive, and moderate relation between lifelong learning tendencies of school administrators and teachers, and their innovative behavior and entrepreneurial behavior levels. In this sense, in-service trainings, applied activities, project studies for entrepreneurial and innovative behavioral skills that support lifelong learning skills of school administrators and teachers can be carried out and the effectiveness of the programs prepared in this direction can be evaluated.

Keywords: Lifelong Learning, Entrepreneurial Behavior, Innovative Behavior, School Administrators, Teacher

Evaluation of Online Language Exchange Platforms: The Example of “Free4Talk”

İsmail Gelen & Ercan Tozluoglu

pp. 352 - 368   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.332.22


This study aims to evaluate online language exchange platforms and its main focus is on the website named “” as an example. The theoretical framework is based on self-directed learning, e-tandem language learning, community of inquiry and expressive language competency. Interviews with the founder, administrator and some of the users of the website are conducted and a 5-point Likert type assessment tool with 26 items and 7 dimensions is created with the help of a literature review at the same time. The findings are obtained through analysing the data collected by applying the instrument to 413 people on the website. The research reveals that this platform presents a free environment with a certain amount of safety and it contributes greatly to foreign language development of learners in terms of providing an opportunity for language practice, an undeniable improvement in expressive language competency and a social atmosphere that offers a source of motivation for language learning for both people who finished their formal foreign language training and for students who are still studying at schools.

Keywords: Receptive Language; Online Language Learning; E-Tandem Language Learning; Expressive Language; Community of Inquiry; Self-Directed Learning

An Approach for Being Able to Use the Options of Calculating Inter-coder Reliability Manually and Through Software in Qualitative Research of Education and Training in Sports

Ali Sevilmiş, Ozer Yildiz

pp. 369 - 384   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.332.23


Reliability that can be proved by numeric indicators in quantitative studies has become a very discussible issue. The reason for this is to be thought that in qualitative researches, reliability is not based on positive perspective and those forming reliability criteria is difficult.  However, for testing the reliability of a qualitative study or raising it to the top level, some ways are used. The objective of this study is to introduce an approach to be able to use the options of inter-coder reliability calculating manually and through software in qualitative researches of education and training in sports. This research was conducted by document review method. In this context, how inter-coder reliability in qualitative researches will be formulated, how it will be calculated in software dimension, and the dimensions  of  inter-coder agreement, code frequency in document, code overlapping rate of segment level, and revealing code frequency were discussed. In the study, document analysis technique among qualitative research designs and in analyses content analysis method were used. The study results revealed with the examples that inter-coder reliability could be calculated in the various ways and that percentage flexibility could differ in every formula. Also, the options of inter-coder agreement were calculated by means of software, and it was identified that each option used had a different flexibility. This study, in terms of its originality, drawing the existing reliability from related to qualitative study from the framework of inter-coder agreement, suggests a synthesis of contemporary viewpoints. It is considered that in inter-coder qualitative studies, especially in sports education and training studies, will guide to the relevant researchers.

Keywords: Calculation, Inter-Coder Reliability, Inter-Coder Agreement, Maxqda, Option, Qualitative

An Overview of Writing Rubrics in Doctoral Dissertations in Turkey

Gökhan Arı

pp. 385 - 405   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.332.24


Writing rubrics have been used in doctoral dissertations in Turkey to assess student writing for nearly twenty years. This study aims to determine which features are assessed in the rubrics used in doctoral dissertations. Twenty-five rubrics were selected to determine the analysis of validity and reliability, rubric dimensions, features of criterion descriptions, and performance levels. The results showed that researchers did not attach much importance to the validity of rubrics, and some studies provided insufficient information about reliability. Rubrics typically have three and five performance levels. As a result of the content analysis based on the descriptions, nine categories (genre-oriented content, organization, style, presentation, mechanics, vocabulary, sentences, textuality, process) and 104 features were identified. The frequency of these features was 567. According to the emerging categorization in the present study, we observed that the rubrics used in doctoral dissertations were similar to the criteria in the 6 +1 Trait Writing Model. However, the descriptions were found to be more straightforward and concise. The features in the rubrics were similar to one another yet differed depending on the purpose, type, and length of descriptions. Some of the rubrics had descriptions that were ill-suited to the nature of the rubric. The results were discussed, presenting recommendations.

Keywords: Writing Assessment, Writing Rubrics, Features of Criteria

Who and How Do I Include? A Case Study on Teachers’ Inclusive Education Practices

Ruhan Karadağ Yılmaz & Emir Yeganeh

pp. 406 - 429   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.332.25


The purpose of this study was to determine the perceptions and practices of teachers about inclusive education and to propose solutions to the problems experienced by the teachers in the light of the study findings. The study was carried out by qualitative research approach and case study design was used. The participants of the study consisted of 20 primary school teachers who worked in public schools in the 2019-2020 academic year and participated voluntarily in this study. Data were analyzed through descriptive analysis technique. As a result of this study it was found that the teachers experienced a lack of conceptual clarity regarding the definition of inclusive education and a great majority of them focused on the main philosophy of inclusiveness, yet few of them attempted to relate inclusiveness to instructional practices. Moreover, the findings revealed that the teachers did not perform activities directed to the application of inclusive education in their classes and that they had different expectations from the Turkish Ministry of National Education, school administrations, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and parents.

Keywords: Inclusive Education, Individual Differences, Learning Needs, Inclusive Education Applications

The Relationship between School Climate and Students' Aggressive Behaviors

Yener Akman

pp. 430 - 448   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.332.26


This study analyses the correlations between students’ aggressive behaviours, school climate and a number of demographic variables on the basis of students’ views. This study was carried out in Ankara in the 2019-2020 academic year. The sample for the study was composed of 914 students who attended schools located in 9 districts of Ankara. The research data were collected with Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire and School Climate Scale. The data were put into quantitative analysis in this study- which used correlational survey model. In this process, the data were analysed with mean, standard deviation, correlation analysis and hierarchical multiple regression analysis. The findings demonstrated that there were low and negative significant correlations between students’ aggressive behaviours and their perceptions of school climate. It was also found that supportive teacher behaviours, safe learning environments and positive peer interactions, gender and academic achievement had significant effects on students’ aggressive behaviours.

Keywords: Aggression, School Climate, Secondary School, Students, Relationship

Rating Scale Development Study for the Evaluation of the Prepared Speeches

Berker Bulut & Nuri Karasakaloğlu

pp. 449 - 458   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.332.27


The lessons related to mother tongue education in schools are given by classroom teachers in primary school and by Turkish teachers in secondary school. In this sense, it is necessary to include courses that will contribute to the good and effective use of the mother tongue in Turkish and classroom teaching undergraduate programs. It can be said that the practice hours in undergraduate programs should be increased in order to improve the prepared speaking skills of teacher candidates. In addition, determining the prepared speech performance levels of teacher candidates is also important in terms of the quality of practice activities. In this way, the teacher candidate can have information about their state and keep track of their development. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to develop a rating scale for the evaluation of teacher candidates' prepared speaking skills. For that reason, the research was designed according to the screening model. The study group of the study consisted of the third-year students of the Turkish Education department who were studying at the education faculty of a state university and took the "Speaking Education" course in the spring semester. In order to determine the validity of the measurement tool, the scope and criterion validity were examined. In order to determine the reliability of the assessment tool, Kendall's W test and variance analysis were applied to the evaluations of three different independent raters. Results of study obtained within the scope of validity and reliability studies are strong evidence showing that the rating scale is valid and reliable.

Keywords: Prepared Speech, Rating Scale, Teacher Candidates

Fostering Teacher Educators’ Professional Development through Collaborative Action Research

Kader Bilican, Burcu Senler & Dilek Karısan Korucu

pp. 459 - 472   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.332.28


This study reports on the experience of three novice science teacher educators as their journey on unpacking and scrutinizing their inquiry implementation. In this study, the three science teacher educators formed a critical inquiry group and engaged in collective action research to identify weaknesses and strengths in their instruction of inquiry as they attempted to teach a science laboratory course for future primary teachers and develop new knowledge about how to best promote inquiry in their laboratory courses. For this purpose, the novice science teacher educators engaged in inquiry collaboratively within a learning community to improve their own professional development through a whole semester. Data was collected by use of audio-recorded planning and reflection meetings, written weekly reflections, and pre-interviews and post-interviews with three researchers and final written reflection. Data collection was continuous and spanned through the fall semester of the science laboratory course offered in a primary teacher education course. Analysis of the findings revealed the reflection and the construction of collegial relationship between science teacher educators enabled them to view them as science educators through new lenses. The implications derived from the data, served to inform science teacher educators regarding the professional development of novice science teacher educators through forming collaborations in which they questioned and pursuing the theoretical and practical bases for their practice.

Keywords: Professional Development; Teacher Educators; Inquiry Implementation

Awareness and Views of Teachers Who Received In- Service STEM Training About STEM

Dilber Acar & Yasemin Büyükşahin

pp. 473 - 490   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.332.29


This study aimed to investigate the awareness and views of teachers from different disciplines who received in-service STEM training about STEM education. To this end, the study employed a mixed methods research design in which both quantitative and qualitative research approaches are used. For the quantitative phase of the study, the sample was composed of 64 teachers from the different branches. The teachers were sampled using convenience sampling. For the qualitative phase of the study, the teachers were chosen using criterion sampling. The sample was drawn of 16 teachers who had a high, moderate or low level of awareness. The quantitative data were collected using the “STEM Awareness Scale” and the qualitative data were collected using a semi-structured interview form. The analysis results showed that teachers’ awareness of STEM increased after the in-service training. The teachers held the view that using the STEM approach in their classes is beneficial to, themselves, students, and the country and the effective implementation of STEM education depends on the elimination of shortcomings such as the lack of time, materials, and workshops.

Keywords: STEM Education, Teacher Views, Awareness, STEM Training

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