International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 2834-7919   |  e-ISSN: 1554-5210

Volume 14 Issue 1 (February 2018)

Original Articles

Knowledge Theory in Ibn Rushd Literature and reflection thereof on its Educational philosophy

Mohammed Al-Rsa'i

pp. 1 - 7   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2018.129.1


This study aims to examine Ibn Rushd perceptions in terms of Knowledge and reflection thereof on his educational philosophy. This study reached at a conclusion that Ibn Rushd partaking had its important role in framing the Knowledge theory and maintain it away from deviations and in the same time originated much jurisprudences starting from Aristotle theory who considered that self perish with the body's yard, while Ibn Rushd considered it as non physical self and image of body in the same time. On the other hand, Ibn Rushd disagreed with Knowledge theory adopted in Mysticism; who believes that human cannot reach Knowledge depending on mental means alone, but in turn Knowledge is gift from Allah achieved through strife, psychological readiness and purifying the heart.

Ibn Rushd Knowledge theory is based on knowledge tools (feeling, mind and heart) integration. Serial order thereof based on promotion from feeling to the mind. Any personal cognizance is moral cognizance in Physical such as feeling or fantasy, while total cognizance is meaning cognizance physical.

Based on Ibn Rushd Theory on Knowledge this study examined his educational philosophy which proved that it is in line with education's modern vision and acquiring knowledge; i.e. Thomas Aquinas, Jean Beige, Bruner and other pioneers of Epistemology theory in Education.

Keywords: Ibn Rushd, Knowledge theory, Philosophy, The mind, logic and Education

The Effect of Layered Curriculum on Reflective Thinking and on Self-Directed Learning Readiness of Prospective Teachers

Ilke Evin Gencel & A. Seda Saracaloğlu

pp. 8 - 20   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2018.129.2


Teachers are important role models for pupils. They should be reflective practitioners and self-directed learners. Teacher training process should promote being a reflective thinker and a self-directed learner. Curriculum should be designed in accordance with constructivism. The aim of this research is to investigate effects of layered curriculum on pre-service teachers’ reflective thinking level and on self-directed learning readiness. In this study sequential mixed method design is used. A pretest-posttest control group design (quantitative phase) and a semi-structured interview (qualitative phase) are used. Layered curriculum is determined to have positive effects on participants’ reflective thinking level and self-directed learning. According to findings of this research, layered curriculum can be an alternative way to improve pre-service teachers’ readiness for self-directed learning and reflective thinking levels.

Keywords: Layered curriculum, reflective thinking, self-directed learning, teacher training

Adventures in Advising: Strategies, Solutions, and Situations to Student Problems in the Criminology and Criminal Justice Field

Carrie Mier

pp. 21 - 31   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2018.129.3


Teaching and research are often the most focused upon aspects of working within academia in criminology and criminal justice (Sitren & Applegate, 2012; Jonson & Moon, 2014; Pratt, 2014), but an overlooked and underappreciated part of an undergraduate’s overall higher education success is academic advising (Light, 2001).  There has been scant research on advising within criminology and criminal justice, and this paper seeks to fill this gap by detailing reflections on the advising process within a successful and growing criminology and criminal justice program.  Strategies for advising overall will be presented as will particular situations and student needs.  Lastly, a case study of how advising works for a criminology and criminal justice department from a large, public institution located in the Southeastern United States will be discussed and demonstrate how the strategies, situations, and student needs apply.

Keywords: undergraduate advising, higher education, criminal justice, criminology, internships

Life Skills from the Perspectives of Classroom and Science Teachers

Nuray Kurtdede-Fidan & Bülent Aydoğdu

pp. 32 - 55   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2018.129.4


The aim of this study is to determine classroom and science teachers’ views about life skills. The study employed phenomenological method. The participants of the study were 24 teachers; twelve of them were classroom teachers and the remaining were science teachers. They were working at public schools in Turkey. The participants were selected using the maximum variation sampling technique. The data of the study was collected through focus group interviews. Six focus group interviews consisting of four participants per focus group were conducted. The findings of the research showed, teachers play a significant role in the process of acquiring life skills.  Furthermore, teachers expressed that science courses were significant setting to teach life skills. In the current research it was found that the participants used some in class and extracurricular activities to teach life skills. In addition, teachers expressed that they experienced difficulty in teaching life skills due to problems related to teachers, parents, school, educational program, educational system, school management and society.

Keywords: life skills, classroom teachers, focus group, science teachers, and curriculum

A Critical View on Teacher Guidebooks as an Agent in Teacher Deskilling Process

Mediha Sarı

pp. 56 - 74   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2018.129.5


The purpose of this study is to identify the views of teachers on teacher guidebooks and to analyse these views on the basis of the deskilling process. The data were collected from 67 teachers through an open-ended questionnaire, and analysed using content analysis method. Results showed that although most of the teachers considered the guidebooks necessary, they also made a number of criticisms. Among these, there were criticisms indicating that the guidebooks hindered teacher autonomy in various ways. Teachers' views and criticisms in this direction confirm that guidebooks have an important role in the deskilling process of teachers.

Keywords: Deskilling process; guidebooks; technician teacher; control; professionalism

Prospective Mathematics Teachers’ Perceptions on and Adaptation of Student-Centered Approach to Teaching

Aslihan Osmanoglu & Emrah Oguzhan Dincer

pp. 75 - 87   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2018.129.6


The aim of this study was to investigate prospective secondary mathematics teachers’ perceptions on and adaptation of student-centred approach to teaching. The study was conducted with 58 prospective secondary mathematics teachers during Teaching Methods course in 2014-2015 fall academic year in a western university in Turkey. In this mixed method study, Constructivist Learning Environment Survey was administered to the participants, and reflection papers were collected at the end of the semester in order to understand whether and how prospective teachers adapted student-centred curriculum into their teaching. The selected videos of the class discussions were also analyzed for triangulation. The findings indicated that there was an improvement on prospective teachers’ scores on CLES indicating that the instruction helped them improve their perceptions towards student-centred approach to teaching. It was also found that prospective teachers’ perception towards student-centred approach to teaching was organized under several themes, and they satisfied several expectations of the approach during microteaching.

Keywords: student centred education; adaptation of curriculum; prospective mathematics teachers; videos of teaching

Educational Website Design Process: Changes in TPACK Competencies and Experiences

Nezih Önal & Ecenaz Alemdağ

pp. 88 - 104   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2018.129.7


The number of technological pedagogical and content knowledge (TPACK) studies has been increasing day by day; however, limited studies has provided both quantitative and qualitative findings based on teachers’ learning by design experiences. This study aimed to reveal the changes in pre-service teachers' TPACK competencies in the educational website design process and their experiences in the design process within the scope of a course based on TPACK framework and the learning by design approach. Designed as an embedded mixed design research, the study was conducted with 28 pre-service teachers. The data were collected through the TPACK-deep scale, a survey and e-mails sent to the instructors. The research concluded that the learning by design approach bring pre-service teachers' TPACK competencies in highly effective significant contributions. Moreover, it was revealed that the design process expands pre-service teachers' schemas regarding the properties which digital instructional materials should possess. The research also enlightened the motivating factors such as receiving support and the challenging factors such not being able to use software for the pre-service teachers in the design process.  Finally, the findings were interpreted within the framework of TPACK and the learning by design approach and recommendations were made for future practices and studies.

Keywords: TPACK; Pre-Service Teachers; Website Design

‘We are a Chinese school’: Constructing school identity from the lived experiences of expatriate and Chinese teaching faculty in a Type C international school in Shanghai, China.

Adam Poole

pp. 105 - 121   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2018.129.8


This study explores school identity by analysing the perceptions of Chinese and expatriate teachers in a Type C, non-traditional international school in Shanghai, China. The purpose of this study was to build on Hayden’s (2016) work by offering a detailed description of this type of school which continues to be under researched. A mixed-methods approach was adopted that explored the school’s identity on three levels: the rhetorical, the curricula, and the lived. The data revealed considerable discontinuity between these levels, particularly from the perspective of the international teachers. The findings are discussed in relation to cultural scripts for teaching and learning and institutional logics and implications are drawn for creating a more interculturally inclusive school ethos.

Keywords: school identity, mixed methods, curricula, international schools

Green Curriculum Analysis in Technological Education

Arpita Chakraborty, Manvendra Pratap Singh & Mousumi Roy

pp. 122 - 129   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2018.129.9


With rapid industrialization and technological development, India is facing adverse affects of unsustainable pattern of production and consumption. Education for sustainable development has been widely recognized to reduce the threat of environmental degradation and resource depletion. This paper used the content analysis method to explore the extent to which green curriculum has been incorporated in engineering education. The green curriculum index suggests  that Indian technological education is following vertical integration, with low emphasis on horizontal integration of green curriculum resulting into non-sustained green culture and  environmental behaviour among the students. Furthermore, higher educational institutions should understand and accept the relevance of sustainable development rather than responding to the legitimate formality for creating a low- carbon and green economy. 

Keywords: Technological education, sustainable development, green curriculum index, India

Developing Culturally Relevant Literacy Assessments for Bahamian Children

Gertrude Tinker Sachs, Annmarie P. Jackson, Tarika Sullivan & Kamania Wynter –Hoyte

pp. 130 - 147   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2018.129.10


The strong presence of culturally relevant materials in classrooms is seen as an indicator of good teaching but the development and use of these materials is under-investigated. Similarly, the actual construction and use of culturally relevant materials for literacy assessment purposes is under-reported. This paper examines the development and field-testing of culturally appropriate reading assessment materials for primary-school children in the Bahamas. The construction of culturally relevant assessment materials relies on the deep and intimate knowledge of the context and the use of the materials involves analyses from several perspectives: estimation of readability levels, creation of a range of question and activity types, analyses of students’ performance and comparison with other literacy performance indicators. This paper describes the development and field-testing of culturally relevant materials in the Bahamas.

Keywords: Culturally relevant materials; culturally relevant assessment; developing culturally relevant materials; culturally relevant pedagogy in the Bahamas

War, Peace and Peace Education: Experiences and Perspectives of Pre-service Teachers

Omur Gurdogan-Bayır & Mahmut Bozkurt

pp. 148 - 164   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2018.129.11


The purpose of this study was to reveal the perceptions of preservice teachers with war experience regarding war, peace and peace education. In the study, the phenomenological design was applied. The participants of the study were individuals who experienced wars or conflicts for several reasons in their countries and who received teacher training in Turkey. In this respect, the causes of war were reported to include economic and political benefits and religious and ethnical discrimination. In addition, the participants mentioned the social, psychological and economic reflections of war. Also, peace was associated with the participants’ experiences and explained with such concepts as living together, freedom, confidence and happiness. In relation to peace education, the main focus was on respect to differences, and on prevention of discrimination. The preservice teachers also emphasized giving importance to children’s psychology in peace education, women’s rights as well as to avoidance of discrimination. 

Keywords: War, causes of conflict, migration, war experiences, peace education activities, pre-service teacher

Multilevel Classification of PISA 2015 Research Participant Countries’ Literacy and These Classes’ Relationship with Information and Communication Technologies

Seher Yalçın

pp. 165 - 176   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2018.129.12


In this study, it is aimed to distinguish the reading skills of students participating in PISA 2015 application into multi-level latent classes at the student and country level. Furthermore, it is aimed to examine how the clusters emerged at country-level is predicted by variables as students have the information and communication technology (ICT) resources. The population of this research, which is in a descriptive survey model consists of all students who are aged 15 from 72 countries which participated in the PISA 2015 application. As for sample, it is made up of 519.334 students and 17.908 schools which were chosen randomly for PISA 2015 application from these countries. In analyzing data, a multi-level latent class and three-step analysis were employed. Analyses have shown that having ICT resources at home is the most influential variable on the reading skills of countries. It is determined both in in-country and across countries that there are some differences in ICT resources at home and school. In this context, it may be stated that the equal opportunity in education has not been provided in many countries on international scale.

Keywords: PISA, reading achievement, information and communication technologies, multilevel latent class analysis

The Opinions of The Multigrade Classroom Teachers on Multigrade Class Teaching Practices (Multiple Case Analysis: Netherlands-Turkey Example)

Gizem Engin

pp. 177 - 200   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2018.129.13


In this study, the opinions of 20 classroom teachers who work in multigrade classes in İzmir, Turkey and Rotterdam, Netherlands were received via an interview form prepared by the researcher. The study was designed as a multiple case study. Descriptive and content analysis were applied to the data obtained from the study. The data obtained from the analysis were grouped under three main themes: difficulties faced in multigrade classes, solution suggestions regarding the problems of multigrade classes, effective practice examples in multigrade classes. The study has revealed that there are difficulties stated by the classroom teachers as the excessive effort of the teacher, high expectations from the student, lack of time, difficulty in reaching the aims, non-teaching roles, not being supported, lack of education, physical conditions, and language problems. It has been seen that the solution suggestions suggested by the teachers are openness, assistant personnel, improvement of the physical conditions, increasing the quality and quantity of training services, and legal regulations.  At the end of the study, significant practice examples which can be easily applied by the multigrade classroom teachers have been reached.  These practice examples have been tried to be introduced. The results of the study were discussed comparatively in terms of the opinions of Turkish and Dutch teachers. Suggestions were made in accordance with the results of the study. 

Keywords: Multigrade Class, Teaching in Multigrade Classes, Multigrade Class Teaching Practice

The Culture of the Independent Progressive School

Dean Kloss

pp. 201 - 219   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2018.129.14


Even in this “Age of Data,” independent progressive schools have shown a remarkable persistence in offering an alternative educational model. As Traditional Public Schools (TPS) become even more committed to a testing model of achievement, there are schools that continue to operate on identified progressive educational principles. This paper uses observations and interviews at two upstate New York progressive schools to identify characteristics that define the resiliency of such institutions.  The author’s findings identify four characteristics common to a progressive educational culture:  familial grouping, informality, play, and democracy. Four elements that are important to this progressive model of instruction tied to the culture at these schools are present: individualized child-centered instruction, curricular flexibility, and choice/space/time, The nature of and future for non-institutional schools is also considered here.

Keywords: Progressive schools, play, informality, child-centered instruction, educational culture

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