International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 2834-7919   |  e-ISSN: 1554-5210

Volume 9 Issue 3 (October 2013)

Issue Information

Special Issue: What’s Next?: The Future of Progressivism as an “Infinite Succession of Presents”

pp. i - vi



Short Communications

Editorial Statement What’s Next?: The Future of Progressivism as an “Infinite Succession of Presents”

Maureen P. Hogan, & Bertram C. Bruce

pp. 8 - 13



Original Articles

“Escuela Nueva” in Spain: Origins and Implications in Teacher Professional Development for the 21st Century

Iván M. Jorrín Abellán, Sara Villagrá Sobrino, & Sara García Sastre

pp. 14 - 33


During the Spanish Second Republican government (April 1931-July 1939), there was an institutional initiative in the country called ―Misiones Pedagógicas‖, deeply based in the early Deweyan conception of Progressive Education. The aim of this project was bringing access to culture, entertainment and some sort of progress to rural areas by using media artefacts available at the time, though also representing a far-reaching attempt at social and cultural regeneration of the country.

Keywords: progressive education, teacher professional development, Escuela Nueva, Spain, Ana de Austria, information and computer technology

Mining the present: Reconstructing progressive education in an era of global change

Laura A. Edwards, & Kyle A. Greenwalt

pp. 34 - 48


This  paper  explores what might  be  seen as  a paradox  at the  heart  of the  current push    to

―globalize‖ education: at a moment when administrators, especially in higher education, are seeking to globalize their programs (often for reasons having to do with increasing international competition and decreasing funding for education), global education offers a window through which progressive ideals might be re-asserted in increasingly standardized teaching and learning environments. To demonstrate, we offer our own attempts to globalize our teaching practice, through both personal and historical narratives. Ultimately, the paper seeks to complicate global education—both historical and contemporary versions—as we draw upon the work of John Dewey in an attempt to reconstruct our own particular version of a location-specific, globally minded, progressive education practice.

Keywords: Global education, teacher education, progressive education

The New DEEL (Democratic Ethical Educational Leadership) and the Work of Reclaiming a Progressive Alternative in Educational Administration from PreK-20

Steven Jay Gross, & Joan Poliner Shapiro

pp. 49 - 69


Facing repressive accountability regimes and high-stakes testing in the US and beyond, university and practitioner educators around the world decided to take action. Inspired by the democratic administration movement of the 1930‘s and 1940‘s and current scholarship in ethics, we started a movement called the New DEEL (Democratic Ethical Educational Leadership). Our mission is to create an action-oriented partnership, dedicated to inquiry into the nature and practice of democratic, ethical educational leadership through sustained processes of open dialogue, right to voice, community inclusion, and responsible participation toward the common good. New DEEL leaders include faculty, students, staff, parents, administrators and community members. Since our inception in 2004, we have grown to include colleagues from over thirty universities as well as numerous school districts in the U.S., Canada, U.K., Hong Kong, Sweden, Australia, New Zealand, Taiwan and Jamaica. Results from our work include scholarship, new graduate programs, 6 successful international conferences, and support for emerging Progressive leaders in the K-12 system and in higher education. Our article will illustrate the difference our international movement is making in the lives of students, families, practitioners, and university faculty as we strive to reclaim a Progressive alternative in our field of educational administration. We are presenting a descriptive account of our recent history along with an agenda for future development. We think our example will be useful in an era when Progressive Education is under direct attack in most of the world‘s developed economies.

Keywords: Democracy, Ethics, Social Responsibility, Social Justice

Structures of Participation in the “University of Local Knowledge”

Penny Evans, & Sharon Irish

pp. 70 - 90


―Structures of Participation‖ concerns a recent media arts project, the University of Local Knowledge (ULK). ULK is simultaneously a critique of established academic institutions and disciplines and a system for self-organized learning among the residents of Knowle West, an area of south Bristol (UK). Beginning in 2009, the Knowle West Media Centre (KWMC) in Bristol facilitated this digital and face-to-face collaboration, aiming to uncover and celebrate local skills, talents and wisdom. While phase one of ULK focuses on making tacit knowledge explicit in videos, phase two is particularly concerned with how the content areas of the  videos are organized or restructured by those who shared their experiences and ideas. This article examines ways in which ULK creates structures to invite Knowle West residents to participate in knowledge-sharing and self-organized learning.

Keywords: Knowle West, local knowledge, community knowledge, self-organized learning, video art

Banzhuren and Classrooming: Democracy in the Chinese Classroom

Jiacheng Li, & Jing Chen

pp. 91 - 106


The issue of education and democracy has become more and more important in China. This paper firstly explains the theory of democracy in Chinese classrooms, and then focuses on the Chinese banzhuren who is responsible for classrooming, an important educational area equal to instruction. We illustrate how Chinese students achieve development through  classrooming, and show the activities, relationships and self-awareness from the perspective  of developing the individual and community democratically. Finally, this paper discusses a new direction of democracy in Chinese classrooms in the global context, with the view of making education and society better.

Keywords: banzhuren, classrooming, democracy, education, progressive education

The Educators and the Curriculum: Stories of Progressive Education in the  21st  Century

Sally J. W. Read

pp. 107 - 123


This  study,  inspired  by  phenomenological  and  narrative  methods,  explored  the question,

―What does it mean to be a progressive educator in the 21st century?‖ Rather than a prescriptive piece about what progressive educators should or should not do, this study uses the experiences of three self-identified progressive educators to build a new understanding of this term. The participants, two heads of private school and one public school district superintendent, shared stories of their backgrounds, their current schools, and a time when they felt particularly successful in their work as progressive educators. Their stories reveal a commitment to risk taking, to achieving a balance between individual student and social needs, and to finding meaning in their connection with students and colleagues.

Keywords: Progressive education, personal practical knowledge, school leaders, phenomenological study, narrative inquiry, 21st century

Looking from Within: Prospects and Challenges for Progressive Education in Indonesia

Teuku Zulfikar

pp. 124 - 136


Many Indonesian scholars (Azra, 2002; Darmaningtyas, 2004; Yunus, 2004), have attempted to bring progressive education to their country. They believe that progressive practices such  as critical thinking, critical dialogue and child-centered instruction will help students learn better. However, this implementation is resisted because of cultural constraints and different philosophical beliefs, from which Indonesian education is historically based. In Indonesia, rote learning and teacher-centered classrooms, for instance, are still seen by some as appropriate. This article examines this tension between progressive and traditional Indonesian educational philosophies. It focuses particularly on child-centered instruction (CCI), and discusses the likelihood of its implementation in the Indonesian educational context.

Keywords: Indonesia, progressive education, child-centered learning, cultural constraints, critical thinking

An Analysis of Social Studies Textbooks in Turkey: From National Citizenship to Global Citizenship

Arife Figen Ersoy

pp. 137 - 153


The purpose of this study is to examine Social Studies textbooks in terms of national and global citizenship. The research was carried out using qualitative research methodologies. Interpretive thematic analysis was used to examine the social studies textbooks from 4th grade through 8th grade. The analyses showed that the Social Studies textbooks put more emphasis on national citizenship but they inadequately deal with global information so as to create global sensitivity. The Social Studies textbooks do not adequately discuss economic, social, political systems, cultural differences and problems in both national and global scales. The Social Studies textbooks tend to be guided by nationalist and republican policies while they offer limited content and activities for students to improve their competences for political literacy, participation, critical thinking, respect for diversity and conflict resolution.

Keywords: Citizenship education, social studies, textbook, curriculum, global citizenship.

Cross-Cultural Adjustment of Chinese Students in Japan: School Adjustment and Educational Support

Yuan Xiang Li, Hideki Sano, & Ruth Ahn

pp. 154 - 168


This study investigates Chinese immigrant students‘ cross-cultural and school adjustment issues in Japanese schools. Using a quantitative method, a survey which collected students‘ demographic information, cross-cultural adjustment, and school adjustment questions was administered to 143 Chinese junior high and high school students in Tokyo and Kanagawa Prefecture. The study found the following. First, three factors were identified to  be  significant in the students‘ cross-cultural adjustment: Language and Acculturation, Academic Achievement, and Adjustment Stress. At the same time, in the area of their  school  adjustment, Self-efficacy, Academic Disengagement, and Alienation were found to be significant factors. Second, parental support appeared to have a strong influence on their children‘s cross-cultural adjustment and school adjustment. Third, the age of arrival and the length of residence had significant correlations with Language and Acculturation but had no significant correlations with Academic Achievement and Adjustment Stress. Finally, a causal model analysis showed that the patterns of the factors‘ mutual influences are generally in accordance with the authors‘ expectations and the most significant factor was Self-efficacy. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to supporting Chinese students.

Keywords: Chinese students in Japan, cross-cultural adjustment, school adjustment, self- efficacy, parental support, educational support

The Impact of Exclusionary Discipline on Students

Thomas G. Ryan, & Brian Goodram

pp. 169 - 177


The impact of exclusionary discipline on students is clear and negative as we report herein. The impacts of exclusionary discipline have been negatively linked to the academic and  social development of disciplined students. We argue that this discipline form has been disproportionately used among certain groups, particularly those students of certain minority and / or ethnic groups, students from lower socio-economic backgrounds, and those students with identified exceptionalities. Exclusionary and zero-tolerance approaches to school discipline are not the best techniques to create a safe climate in contemporary education settings.

Keywords: suspensions, exclusion, suspensions, zero-tolerance, discipline

The Impact of Socio-Economic Status on Parental Involvement in Turkish Primary Schools: Perspective of Teachers

Mehmet Sukru Bellibas, & Sedat Gumus

pp. 178 - 193


This exploratory qualitative study investigates the effects of socio-economic status on  parental involvement in public primary schools in Turkey. The study aims to examine how teachers in these schools present the scope of current parental involvement, to what factors teachers ascribe the barriers to parental involvement, and whether teachers‘ responses are differentiated according to the socio-economic status of the surrounding community. The data for this study were collected through in-depth interviews with ten teachers working in two primary schools in Istanbul. One school is located in an affluent and relatively homogenous community, while the other one is in an area that includes a predominantly poor and  culturally diverse population. The results of the study indicate that although teachers in the affluent school are more satisfied with the quality and quantity of parents‘ involvement, teachers in both schools believe that parents who do not collaborate with schools do not value education. Moreover, even though all teachers agreed that socio-economic status is a significant determinant of involvement, teachers in the community with high poverty stated that cultural differences also play an important role in explaining lack of parental involvement.

Keywords: Parental Involvement, Socio-economic status, Turkish primary schools

An Investigation of the Mathematical Literacy of Students Aged 15 in terms of Pisa 2003 Mathematical Literacy Questions: Results from Turkey

Esra Azapagasi Ilbagi, & Levent Akgun

pp. 194 - 217


The purpose of this study is to investigate the mathematical literacy of the  15-year-old students in terms of PISA mathematical literacy questions. The research model of this study is the survey model in the quantitative models. The sample of this study was composed of 1.227 students who received formal education in five different types of schools (science high schools, Anatolian high schools, private high schools, public high schools and vocational high schools) of various cities, each of which was selected from each of seven geographical regions in Turkey. Nine questions were applied and revealed in the mathematical area in  PISA in 2003 as a data collection tool. The results of this study show that, in terms of the proportion of answering the assessment questions, the best performing type of school is science high schools. It was shown that a great number of students still cannot answer the proficiency level questions in the desired way and only half can answer the lower- intermediate and intermediate questions.

Keywords: Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), Mathematical literacy, 15-year-old students

The Influence of Personalization of Online Texts on Elementary School Students' Reading Comprehension and Attitudes toward Reading

Ihsan Seyit Ertem

pp. 218 - 228


The purpose of this research was to examine the role of personalized and non-personalized online texts on elementary school fifth grade students' comprehension and their attitudes toward reading. Participants were 47 fifth-grade students from a rural elementary school in north Florida. The subjects were randomly assigned into two (personalized online text and non-personalized online text) groups. Prior to reading online texts, each students completed personal interest inventory for use in personalizing the online texts. Reading comprehension scores were measured by using multiple choice questions and an attitude survey was administrated to measure subjects‘ motivation, enjoyment and interestingness. Although the mean score of the personalized text group was slightly higher than non-personalized text group and in contrast to patterns found within research on online reading environments, independent t-test showed that the differences in the comprehension scores between two groups were not significant. According to attitude survey results personalized text group showed higher motivation, interestingness and enjoyment than the other group.

Keywords: personalization, online text, reading comprehension, motivation, elementary school

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