International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 2834-7919   |  e-ISSN: 1554-5210

Volume 17 Issue 4 (August 2021)

Issue Information

Issue Information

pp. i - vi   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.366



Original Articles

An Examination of Open-Ended Mathematics Questions’ Affordances

Erhan Bingölbali & Ferhan Bingölbali

pp. 1 - 16   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.366.1


This study explores the affordances that the open-ended questions hold in comparison with those of closed-ended questions through examining 6th grade students’ performance on a mathematics test. For this purpose, a questionnaire including 2 open-ended and 2 closed-ended questions was applied to 36 6th grade students. The questions were prepared in the light of four categories: (i) question with one correct outcome (closed-ended), (ii) question with multiple fixed outcomes (closed-ended), (iii) question with multiple variable outcomes (open-ended), and (iv) question with limitless outcomes (open-ended). The collected data were analysed in terms of correct, incorrect, uncategorized and unanswered categories as well as with regard to the diversity of the responses. The findings reveal that students showed lower performances for the question that requires limitless outcomes, there were a lack of generalizations or general rules in their responses and they provided more diverse responses for the open-ended questions. The findings were discussed with regard to higher-order thinking skills such as creativity and divergent thinking as they are often associated with open-ended questions and their affordances. Finally some implications are put forward and further research areas are highlighted.

Keywords: Open-Ended Question, Question With Multiple Correct Outcomes, Creativity, Divergent and Convergent Thinking, Mathematic Teaching

Predictive Relationships Between Incivility Behaviors Faced by Guidance Counselors and Subjective Well-Being and Life-Domain Satisfaction

Abdullah Sürücü

pp. 17 - 34   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.366.2


In this study, it was aimed to determine the predictive relationships between the incivility behaviors faced by guidance counselors and subjective well-being (SWB) and life-domain satisfaction. The design of the study was based on the relational survey model. The study group was selected using the disproportionate appropriate sampling method. A total of 350 (198 females and 152 males) guidance counselors, who were in charge in schools and the Guidance and Research Center, were recruited for this study. The "School Incivility Scale-SIS" developed by Yildirim, Unal and Surucu (2013) to measure the rude behaviors faced by guidance counselors, and the "Subjective Well-Being Scale" developed by Tuzgöl Dost (2005a) to determine the subjective well-being level, and "Personal Wellbeing Index-A" adapted into Turkish by Şimşek (2011) to determine satisfaction in life-domains were used to collect data. The results revealed that the most significant variable affecting the SWBs of guidance counselors was incivility, and there was a negative linear relationship between SWB and incivility. It was determined that the most important variable affecting life-domain satisfaction was SWB, and there was a positive linear relationship between life-domain satisfaction and SWB. It was determined that the second most important variable affecting life-domain satisfaction is incivility, and there is a negative linear relationship between life-domain satisfaction and incivility.

Keywords: Guidance Counselor, Incivility, Subjective Well-Being, Life-Domain Satisfaction

A Study on The Soft Skills of Pre-Service Teachers

Reyhan Ağçam & Adem Doğan

pp. 35 - 48   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.366.3


Soft skills refer to the skills, competencies, and characteristics that pertain to personality, attitude, and behaviour instead of to formal or technical knowledge. While they are necessary to ensure a person’s success, these skills are not easily demonstrated through a CV, diploma, or certificate and can only be evaluated by specialists. Soft skills cover proficiencies such as communication, problem-solving, time-management, teamwork, and leadership, and are considered essential, especially for teachers as they stand at the very heart of the teaching and learning process. This particular research was motivated to investigate the soft skills of pre-service teachers attending teacher training programmes at state universities in Turkey. In line with the research objective, the data were gathered through the soft skills survey adapted from the Brookings Soft Skills Report Card. The participant responses to the five-point items were quantitatively analysed through SPSS 21.0. The research findings indicated that pre-service teachers significantly differ in their perceived soft skills regarding major and seniority; however, no correlation was found between these skills and gender. This research is hoped to contribute to the existing literature on teacher training via the practical implications developed based on its results.

Keywords: Soft Skills, Pre-Service Teachers, Teacher Training

The Effect of Techno-Pedagogically Designed 5E Learning Model on Student Success and Attitude toward Turkish Class

Harun Kadıoğlu & Abdullah Çetin

pp. 49 - 62   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.366.4


The aim of this study is to examine the effect of the 5E learning model designed in accordance with a techno pedagogical lesson plan on student success and attitude in a Turkish course. The research is quantitative and uses a quasi-experimental model with pre-test/post-test control groups. The universe of this study consisted of 8th grade students studying in the Onikişubat district of the province of Kahramanmaraş in the 2019-2020 academic year. The sample of the study consisted of 110 students studying in four different classes from within this same population.

The lessons in the experimental group were taught using a 5E learning model designed in accordance with a techno pedagogical lesson plan, while the lessons in the control group were based on the methods described by the Turkish lesson curriculum. In this study, the "Attitude Scale Towards Turkish Lessons” (ASTTL) and "Turkish Course Academic Achievement Test” (TCAAT) were used as data collection tools. In the analysis of the data obtained in the study, the independent sample t-test and the correlated sample t-test were used. As a result of the research, a statistically significant difference was found in favor of the experimental group between the average achievement scores of the students in the experimental group and those of the students in the control group. However, a statistically significant difference was not found between the average attitude scores of the experimental group versus the control group.

Keywords: Techno Pedagogic Lesson Plan, 5E Learning Model, Academic Success, Attitude

Teacher Candidates’ Evaluation of the Emergency Remote Teaching Practices in Turkey during COVID-19 Pandemic

Serdarhan Musa Taşkaya

pp. 63 - 78   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.366.5


In this study, evaluation of an emergency distance learning model (remote teaching of emergency) is intended to be evaluated according based on the opinions of the in experiences of primary school teacher candidates. The study, designed in a holistic (mixed) model, was conducted at a state university in Turkey. The study group consisted of 152 primary school teacher candidates. The quantitative data collected through the questionnaire developed by the researcher were analyzed with percentage and frequency, and qualitative data were analyzed by descriptive analysis. At the end of the study, it was found that primary school teacher candidates encountered many problems in distance education, the most important of which are the high number of assignments, the insufficient communication with the instructors, the lack of live lessons, the lack of internet connection and computers, and the problems in the distance education system of the university. It was determined that the participants were generally not satisfied with the distance education they received during this period. Based on these results, it was suggested that the assignment should be given less, the consultancy service should be done at a sufficient level, the support for the students with internet and computer problems, and conducting live lessons were suggested.

Keywords: Model of Emergency Remote Teaching, Pandemic, COVID-19, Distance Education, Live Lesson, Primary School Teacher Candidates

Evaluation of Innovativeness’ Status of Teachers

Hüseyin Kocasaraç

pp. 79 - 98   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.366.6


This study aims to determine and evaluate the innovative teacher characteristics of teachers working at public-private science and social sciences high schools in Turkey. Science and social sciences high schools were established as educational institutions for students who will be scientists and are expected to be open to innovations, information technologies, learning, development and cooperation. The “Innovative Teacher Characteristics Scale (ITCS)” has been developed to obtain data. This research was carried out using the quantitative method based on the descriptive survey model. 384 teachers working at public-private science and social sciences high schools participated in this study. According to the findings, teachers perceive their being open to innovations, information technologies, learning, development and cooperation to be at a high level in the scope of sub-dimensions of innovative teacher characteristics. The mean scores of the factors show that the innovative teacher characteristics of the teachers differ significantly according to the types of schools (public-private), seniority, foreign language level and branch. On the contrary, they do not differ in terms of gender and education level.

Keywords: Innovation, Innovative Teacher, Innovative Teacher Characteristics

Using Metaphors to Investigate the Images of Countries

Fitnat Gürgil

pp. 99 - 121   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.366.7


This study researched the use of metaphor among students and teachers to determine the images they had in their minds regarding a specific set of developed countries, and in doing so, utilized a longitudinal design carried out over four stages between November 2015 and November 2018 within a large metropolitan city in Turkey. The study findings revealed that the mental images of both teachers and students contained various stereotypical views about these developed countries. The participants appeared to have the most negative mental images about France, the United Kingdom (UK) and the United States (US), while having the most positive images about Australia and Japan. It was concluded that there is a strong relationship between metaphor creation and age, and that metaphor production increases rapidly as the students get older and more knowledgeable. It was also determined that metaphor quality and production rate decreases as teachers’ professional seniority increased.

Keywords: Metaphor, Country Image, Stereotypes

Exploring The Relationship between Professional Development Attitudes, Activities and Self-Directed Learning Readiness of EFL Instructors

Aydan Irgatoğlu

pp. 122 - 134   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.366.8


With regards to gender, the research study aims to investigate the relationship between teachers' engagement in professional development activities, their attitudes towards professional development, and their readiness for self-directed learning. The study is designed in both correlation model and descriptive comparative model. The research sample is composed of 271 instructors of the English language working at state universities in Ankara. To collect the data, three questionnaires which are the scale of continuous professional development activities developed by De Vries et al. (2013), the attitude about professional development scale developed by Torff et al. (2005), and the self-directed learning readiness scale developed by Fisher et al. (2001) are used. SPSS 22 is used to analyze data and the results indicated that the level of participation of instructors in continuous professional development activities is not high. Besides, collaborative activities are the least preferred ones while reflective activities are the most preferred ones. The analysis of results also shows that the instructors have positive attitudes towards professional development while their attitudes did not differ significantly in terms of gender. Finally, it has been found that instructors’ levels of self-directedness are high and it does not differ significantly in terms of gender, the attitudes towards professional development activities, and self-directed learning readiness together exhibited a significant relationship with participation in all continuous professional development activities.

Keywords: Professional Development Attitudes, Professional Development Activities, Self-Directed Learning Readiness

Effect of Augmented Reality-Based Reading Activities on Some Reading Variables and Participation in Class

Ezgi Çetinkaya Özdemir & Hayati Akyol

pp. 135 - 154   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.366.9


The aim of this study was to examine the effect of augmented reality-based reading activities on reading comprehension, reading motivation, attitude towards reading and class participation of fourth grade elementary students, and to obtain the students’ views regarding this. The research was conducted with 54 fourth grade students attending two different classes of a state school with a medium socioeconomic level located in the city centre of the province of Kars during the autumn semester of the 2018-2019 academic year. The quantitative dimension of the study, in which a sequential explanatory mixed design was used, was carried out with a quasi-experimental design with pretest-posttest control group. In the qualitative dimension, however, opinions were obtained by means of semi-structured interviews following the implementation. The semi-structured process lasted for a total of 7 weeks, including a 1-week awareness programme and a 6-week implementation, and during this period, the implementation, which was related to augmented reality-based reading exercises, was carried out with the experimental group. In the control group, however, instruction based on the standard Turkish subject curriculum was carried out. The findings obtained from the quantitative dimension of the study revealed that there was a significant difference between scores of the experimental and control groups in reading comprehension, attitude towards reading, reading motivation and class participation, in favour of the experimental group. Moreover, in the qualitative dimension of the study, the interviewed students in the experimental group generally expressed positive views related to the augmented reality-based reading exercises. The students stated that they were able to use augmented reality easily, and that it had real-like, three-dimensional, entertaining and participative features. Furthermore, the students reported that as well as reading comprehension and reading attitude, it had an effect on their thinking skills, academic development and communication skills.

Keywords: Augmented Reality, Reading Comprehension, Reading Motivation, Reading Attitude, Class Participation

An Examination of the Relationships Between Pre-Service Teachers’ Epistemological Beliefs and Types of Multiple Intelligence

Metin Şardağ, Mustafa Tüysüz, Alper Durukan & Mustafa Gök

pp. 155 - 170   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.366.10


In the literature, there are studies that separately tackled with how the epistemological beliefs and multiple domains of intelligence of the individuals have developed through their experiences. However, no study has investigated the relationship between them. Consequently, this study aims to investigate the pre-service science, elementary mathematics and classroom teachers' epistemological beliefs, their Multiple Intelligence (MI) domains, and the relationship between these. The sample of this descriptive survey study consists of 457 pre-service teachers (PSTs) in total. The data is collected through the ‘Multiple Intelligence Inventory’ and ‘Epistemological Beliefs Questionnaire’. One-way ANOVA and Pearson correlation coefficient were used for data analysis. Findings revealed statistically significant differences in the MI domains and epistemological belief dimensions (EBDs) in terms of the branches of PSTs. Also, there is a significant relationship between some MI domains and some EBDs in terms of PST’s branches. In addition to these, the findings imply that the cultures, structures, implicit and explicit rules, adaptation strategies and the content that are imposed by each branch influences this relationship between MI and EBDs.

Keywords: Pre-Service Teachers, Teacher Training, Epistemological Beliefs, Multiple Intelligence

Metaphors of Academics in Turkey for Distance Education

Yakup Alan

pp. 171 - 187   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.366.11


Metaphors are important ways to show how people perceive the world and life around them. By creating metaphors, people show how they position themselves life, and that of other people, their environment, and situations in their minds and what the phenomenon, for which they create a metaphor, means to them in today's world. This has been affected by COVID-19, as conducting education on a distance basis has revealed the need to examine the perceptions of people about distance education. The perceptions of academicians about distance education are also highly important, as they directly affect the learning success and performance of students. In this study, metaphors were addressed in order to determine the perceptions of academicians in Turkey about distance education. In this study, metaphors were collected from 520 academicians working at different universities. The metaphors created by the academicians about distance education were subjected to content analysis and the data were analyzed. As a result of the study, it was determined that the academicians created positive, negative, and neutral metaphors about distance education; however, they mostly used negative metaphors.

Keywords: Metaphor, Distance Education, Academicians, COVID-19

Rubric for Experiential Training

Ilke Evin Gencel, Mustafa Erdogan, Alice Y. Kolb & David A. Kolb

pp. 188 - 211   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.366.13


The aim of this study was to develop a rubric as a measurement tool for experiential educators and with this purpose, we investigated a group of the participants on it. Assessing whether the experiential training process follows all four steps of the experiential learning cycle and determining correct or incorrect applications of the experiential learning theory will be functional to improve the quality of the implementation of the theory. The Rubric for Experiential Training has two main components. One of these components is the concept of Learning Spaces and the other is the concept of Educator Role Profiles. A phenomenological research design was chosen for this study to investigate the experiences of participants with the rubric. The participants of the study were 8 volunteers who took part in a training of trainers at the Experiential Training Center in Istanbul, Turkey. Data of the study was obtained through a focus group interview and analyzed through content analysis and interpreted holistically. According to the views of participants, The Rubric for Experiential Training has important functions such as increasing the level of awareness of planning and implementation processes of experiential training and enabling to receive feedback on the quality of the implementations.

Keywords: Experiential Learning, Learning Spaces, Educator Role Profiles, Rubric

The Self-Assessment of Lecturers Teaching Turkish as a Foreign Language Regarding Distance Education in the Covid-19 Pandemic Era

Mete Yusuf Ustabulut

pp. 212 - 221   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.366.13


The aim of this study is to examine the instructors' self-assessment about teaching Turkish in distance education. Phenomenology method was used in the current study. The sample of the study is comprised of 26 faculty members from different regions in Turkey. The data collection tool of the research is a self-assessment form consisting of five questions. Content analysis and descriptive analysis were utilized in the data analysis. As a result of the study, it was found that the lecturers achieved the goals of the course and the lesson plans were sufficient in distance education.  It has been determined that the lecturers prepare more activities and lesson materials in order to reach the goals of the course. Few of the lecturers gave homework to the students. On the other hand, it has been understood that most of the lecturers are ready for distance education. However, it is possible to talk about the existence of academic staff who need in-service training. In the research, the necessity of digitalization especially in the course materials has been revealed. In addition, it reflected the lecturers' self-evaluation processes regarding distance education in the research.

Keywords: COVID-19 Pandemic, Turkish Education, Self-Assessment, Distance Education

Teachers' Commitment to the Curriculum and Relevant Parent Opinions: A Case Study on Turkey

Şule Fırat Durdukoca

pp. 222 - 238   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.366.14


The study examines teachers’ commitment to the curriculum applied in the classroom and relevant parent opinions. The qualitative case study design was used in the research. The research sample comprises four preschool teachers selected by the contingency sampling and eightparents selected by the criterion sampling. The data were collected through interview and document analysis techniques and analyzed with content analysis. Itwas found that the devotion of teachers working in private schools to the curriculum is higher than public school teachers.The teachers applied program adaptations within the scope of rearrangement, expansion and omitting patterns.As the adaptation factors are classified under 5 categories as "the influence of school administration, professional experience, the student readiness factors, parent expectation, and teacher interest in the subject. It has been determined that the public school students’ parents have more positive opinions about the program followed in the classroom compared to the private school students’ parents.

Keywords: Commitment to Curriculum, Curriculum Adaptation, Adaptation Patterns

Kukset Technique on Chronology Teaching

Nurcan Şener & Murat Başar

pp. 239 - 261   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.366.15


In this study, it was aimed to teach the chronology of National Struggle Period through KUKSET technique. The study was conducted through sequential -exploratory mixed method design which is characterized by qualitative and quantitative phases. The sample of the study consisted of 59 fourth grade students from two different classes attending at a school in Bakırköy, İstanbul. Of the participants, 32 were experimental group and 27 were control group. In the experimental group, chronology of National Struggle Period was taught by KUKSET technique whereas, in control group, the teacher used the methods of expression and question- answer without any intervention. The data was gathered by utilizing pre- test, end- test and permanency test. The students' misconceptions concerning chronology were determined by Word Association Test as pre- test and end- test. 10 voluntary students in the experimental group were interviewed. The results showed that KUKSET technique on chronology teaching of National Struggle Period in the experimental group was more effective on students' comprehension compared to the control group. KUKSET technique was revealed to be effective on eliminating students' misconceptions about the chronology of National Struggle Period. KUKSET technique was determined to enrich teaching- learning process and provide permanent learning. The students suggested KUKSET techniqueto be used in other lessons as well.

Keywords: Chronology Teaching, National Struggle Period, KUKSET Technique

Investigation of Counting Skills of Pre-School Children

Oğuz Serdar Kesicioğlu

pp. 262 - 281   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.366.16


The research aims at examining the counting skills of children in the preschool period. For this purpose, this study has been planned according to the “survey model”. The study group of the research is comprised of 108 children with ages between 60th-72nd months, who attend kindergartens. The “Counting Skills Test" has been used, which has been developed by the researcher as a data gathering tool. The research concluded that the preschool children possessed good levels in the skills of “rhythmic counting, stable order, counting the next number, abstraction, cardinal number and recognizing numbers” and that they had no problems therewith.

Keywords: Education, Preschool, Mathematics, Counting Skills

Empathy and Video Game Addiction in Adolescents: Serial Mediation by Psychological Resilience and Life satisfaction

Mehmet Emin Turan

pp. 282 - 296   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.366.17


In this study, it was examined whether empathy is related to video game addiction and whether psychological resilience and life satisfaction mediate this relationship. The sample comprised 324 Turkish adolescents (aged between 11 and 15, mean of age was 13.01), who completed measures of empathy, psychological resilience, life satisfaction, and video game addiction. The results of the serial multiple mediation analysis demonstrated that empathy had a significant direct effect on video game addiction. Psychological resilience had a mediating effect on the association between empathy and video game addiction. Also, life satisfaction had a mediating effect on the association between empathy and video game addiction. Psychological resilience and life satisfaction, serially (in combination) mediated the relationship between empathy and video game addiction. The results of the present study are discussed within the related literature. It is suggested that video game addiction interventions should focus on increasing empathy, psychological resilience, and life satisfaction.

Keywords: Empathy, Video Game Addiction, Psychological Resilience, Life Satisfaction, Adolescents, Serial Mediation

Nomenclature of Cyclic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Educational Games: OrgChemGame

Dilek Çelikler, Sibel Demir Kaçan & Nisa Yenikalaycı

pp. 297 - 307   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.366.18


Educational games can be used as an effective means of transferring knowledge in a fun way to complement education and training. The aim of the study was to develop a game and get students' opinions on the game that can be played in Organic Chemistry courses in order to teach the names of commonly used organic compounds with cyclic and aromatic structure. The game, which is called OrgChemGame can be played with at least 3 individuals, one of whom is the referee. The game set includes 48 pcs of 3 cm diameter styrofoam balls with structural formulas of organic compounds identified. OrgChemGame was played by 20 students taking the organic chemistry lecture and studying in the 2nd grade of the Science Education program at a state university in Turkey. The opinions of the students about the game were taken with the opinion form prepared by the researchers. As a result of the research, it was determined that the sizes and colors of the balls and cubes used in the game were appropriate, and the texts used were readable. As a result, OrgChemGame has been designed as an educational game having a purpose and rules. It aims to acquire target behaviors and appropriate to the level of the students, allowing the students to learn with fun, and having sufficient duration and comprehensibility.

Keywords: OrgChemGame, Educational Game, Organic Chemistry, Science Education

An Inquiry on the Third Mission of Universities: The Measurement of Universities’ Contribution to the Social, Cultural and Economic Development of a City

Özge Altıntaş & Omer Kutlu

pp. 308 - 326   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.366.19


“Development” is a kind of growth that leads to the transformation of social and official organisms including innovation in cultural values, worldview, and consumption and behaviour patterns. Accordingly, development is a living organism as indicated by developments in many fields such as economics, science, art, sports, education, democracy, and freedom to improve prosperity. Since development begins with innovation in human resources and national development processes depends on regional and urban development, education, and educational institutes can be accepted as one of the initiatives and accelerative factors of development. Therefore, the role of city universities is important in the development of cities and countries. The purpose of this study is to determine the contribution of four major universities in Ankara to the social, cultural, and economic development of the city. The data were collected by a structured questionnaire, which was developed by the researchers to be used in interviewing with vice rectors of these four universities. Three of those vice rectors are from state universities, and one of them is from a private university. The qualitative data were analyzed by descriptive analysis. On the basis of results, it is concluded that universities in Ankara play their “third mission” by contributing to the development of their surroundings.

Keywords: City and the University, Social Development of a City, Cultural Development of a City, Economic Development of a City, Universities’ Contribution to a City

Modeling the Relations Among Argumentativeness, Epistemological Beliefs and Self-Regulation Skills

Mehmet Demirbağ

pp. 327 - 340   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.366.20


This study was conducted to examine the structural relationships among pre-service science teachers' scientific epistemological beliefs, self-regulation skills, and their disposition towards participating in argumentation. For this purpose, structural equation modeling (SEM)  was applied in the study in which 229 pre-service science teachers participated. According to the results, development dimension of epistemological belief predicted argument approach positively, while source and certainty dimensions predicted argument avoidance negatively. All dimensions of epistemological beliefs, except for the certainty dimension, predicted self-regulation skills positively. When the relationship between self-regulation skills and argumentativeness was examined, it was revealed that pre-service science teachers' self-regulation skills such as asking questions and goal setting positively predicted participation in argumentation. According to the findings, it can be concluded that demonstrating the relationship between self-regulation and argumentativeness would make a significant contribution to the literature.

Keywords: Argumentativeness, Preservice Science Teachers, Scientific Epistemological Beliefs, Self-Regulation

Value of Children’s Literature and Students’ Opinions Regarding Their Favourite Books

Ayşegül Bayraktar

pp. 341 - 357   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.366.21


In this study, children’s literature was defined according to a review of the related literature. The value and positive effects of children’s literature on children were discussed and opinions of 2nd grade elementary school students’ regarding their most and least favourite books were investigated. Participants consisted of 15 students enrolled in elementary school near the city centre of Ankara, Turkey. The research data were obtained from semi-structured interviews with participating students as well as students’ book scoring forms used to rate 25 books provided to them. First, students’ scoring forms were reviewed and analysed to determine their choices. Next, interviews were conducted with students regarding the reasons for their book selections. Data obtained from the student interviews were evaluated through content analysis. Finally, according to the students’ responses, the characteristics that made up their most and least favourite books were explained for the educators and parents. Students frequently mentioned internal features, especially the characters and plot of the story, as the primary reasons for determining their most and least favourite storybooks. Also, it was shown in the findings that having characters that were animals, good-hearted, and/or funny as well as having action and adventure within the stories made the storybooks the children’s most favourite. Whereas not having action, being boring, and/or having unsolved problems within the stories as well as being short or having unknown words and expressions made the storybooks the children’s least favourite.

Keywords: Children’s Literature, Storybooks, Children’s Choices

Parental Perceptions of Outdoor Activities

Mehmet Mart

pp. 358 - 372   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.366.22


The importance of outdoor activities for children should not be overlooked, and teachers and parents as stakeholders have an influential role in providing learning opportunities (Elliott, 2015). Teachers are dependent on parental reciprocity because of potential for harm (Maynard, 2007), and parents can limit activities because of various reasons such as traffic, weather and getting hurt (Cevher-Kalburan, 2014; Yılmaz, 2016). Therefore, identifying parental perceptions of outdoor activities is a significant aspect of supporting children’s opportunity to engage in them. In this research, semi-structured interviews were used to collect data, as a way to understand participating parents’ views in detail (Fife, 2005). Data collection was carried out by the author and NVivo 12 software programme was used to analyse data from 30 participants. Six main themes emerged from the interview questions in the data analysis, which are presented in this paper. While participating parents overall were positive about promoting outdoor activities both at out-of-school and in schools, their preferences for their children were mostly for indoor activities. Thus, there was conflict between what they claimed for outdoor activities and what they most preferred for their own children. This apparent tension suggests the need for further research.

Keywords: Outdoor Activities, Parents, Perception, Early Years

The Use of Educational Software in Teaching Initial Reading and Writing

Abdullah Şahin & Emine Gül Özenç

pp. 373 - 389   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.366.23


This research reveals teachers' views on the educational software used in primary reading and writing teaching process. The research was considered as qualitative research as case study. The data were obtained by interview and observation. The sample of the study consists of 26 primary school teachers who teach the first graders in the 2018-2019 academic year in primary schools in the central district of Niğde, Turkey. The selected teachers were chosen using simple random sampling method. In the research, semi-structured observation and interview forms were used as data collection tools. The data were analyzed by the content analysis method. It has been determined that educational software for students provides an advantage in terms of concretization of teaching, differentiation of activities, minimizing individual differences between students, giving attention to the lesson, giving them an opportunity to apply what is learned, addressing many different sensory organs in students, motivating and supporting students.

Keywords: Reading, Writing, Teaching Primary Reading and Writing, Educational Software

Perceptions of 'Best Friend' as Expressed by Preschool Children in Turkey and in Sweden

Nevra Atış-Akyol, Ann-Katrin Swärd & Şifa Kevser Çakmak, Neslihan Güney-Karaman

pp. 390 - 404   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.366.24


The  research examines the concepts of ‘friendship’ and ‘best friend’ among preschool children (n=52) who live in different countries (Sweden and Turkey), with the aim of presenting their ideas about the concepts of ‘friendship’ and ‘best friend’. For this purpose, 52 children, 4-5 year olds (25 from Turkey and 27 from Sweden) participated in semi-structured interviews, the content of which was later analysed. A content analysis method included the identification of codes that could be used for comparison across the two populations through statistical analysis. The main results of our study show that, despite the fact that preschools are organized differently in Sweden and Turkey, children from both populations used prosocial behaviour and their perceptions about what a best friend is more similar between children in these different cultures than they are different.

Keywords: Early Childhood, Preschool Children, Best Friend, Friendship

Creating a Reading Culture in a Preschool in Collaboration with Children, Teachers and Parents

Ayşe Özgül İnce Samur

pp. 405 - 436   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.366.25


Adopting a reading culture is a process that takes shape in family starting from the moment the child is born and school environment. The most critical phase of this process is the “preschool period.” Therefore, the main purpose of this study is to construct a systematic intervention to create a reading culture in the preschool period. For this purpose, the study included “preschoolers, teachers, and parents” as the participants considering them as stakeholders in the process of building a reading culture.

The population of the study is the preschools located in the district of Ereğli, Zonguldak, Turkey and the sample consists of 16 preschoolers at a preschool in Ereğli along with their parents (n=16) and their teachers (n=2). The study was carried out as an action research conducted for a period of 12 weeks. The 12-week intervention timeline is divided into two phases. In the first phase (first six weeks), the seminars on creating a reading culture were given to teachers and parents by a field expert and in-class observations of preschoolers were made. In the second phase, creative reading activities were implemented with the children (as two sections - A and B) for an hour once a week. The data come from observations, interviews, and participant diaries and were analyzed through content analysis.

The study is considered to be crucial for the relevant literature as it includes children, teachers and parents, at the same time, as the three key stakeholders in the process of building a reading culture. At the end of the 12-week intervention, both positive and significant changes were observed both in children and parents as well as in teachers in terms of theoretical and practical aspects of adopting a reading culture.

Keywords: Reading Culture, Building Reading Culture, Preschool Period, Children-Teachers-Parents, Children’s Literature

Examining The Relationship Between Pre-Service Turkish Teachers Digital Writing Attitudes and Digital Reading Tendencies

Yusuf Mete ELKIRAN

pp. 437 - 450   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.366.26


This research aims to determine the relationship between pre-service Turkish teachers` digital writing attitudes and their digital reading tendencies. In this context, 167 teacher candidates from different grades studying in the Turkish language teaching program of a state university in the west of Turkey were consulted. The relational surveying method, one of the quantitative research methods, was used. "Digital Writing Attitudes Scale" and "Digital Reading Tendencies Scale" were used as data collection tools in the study. The obtained data were analysed with the SPSS package program. Since it was determined that the data showed normal distribution due to the assumption analysis of the findings, independent sample t-test and one-way ANOVA analyses were used in the research. In addition to these parametric tests, mean scores and standard deviation scores of the descriptive analysis results were used. As a result of the data analysis, it has been seen that pre-service Turkish teachers` digital writing attitudes and digital reading tendencies are at a high level. There has been no significant difference observed in the results in terms of participants gender for the convenience and motivation sub-dimensions of the scale. However, digital writing attitudes show a significant difference favouring female teacher candidate in the effect sub-dimension. According to the class variable, Turkish teacher candidates' digital writing attitudes show a significant difference in favour of small classes. The research findings concluded a moderate, positive, and significant relationship between pre-service Turkish teachers` digital writing attitudes and their digital reading tendencies. In order to provide digital transformation and dispositions, the positive and negative aspects of reading and writing in digital tools can be thoroughly researched, and improvements can be made by reviewing the existing tools.

Keywords: Digital Reading, Digital Writing, Turkish Education

The Views of Pre-Service Science Teachers on Recycling

Ibrahim Yuksel

pp. 451 - 464   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.366.27


This study aims to determine the views of pre-service science teachers on recycling. The current study was carried out with semi-structured interview questions applied to 130 pre-service teachers studying in the Department of Mathematics and Science Education at a state university in the spring term of the 2018-2019 academic year. Due to the time and application limitations, the purposeful sample was chosen. Since this group will teach secondary school students in the future and recycling will be an important issue in the future as well as today, it is necessary to work specifically with this group so that teachers can teach this subject to their students. By taking their opinions, the deficiencies or negativities in the university education will be determined, thus an opportunity will be obtained to take steps towards overcoming these deficiencies. In the study, the case study method, a qualitative research design, was preferred and Recycling Interview Questions that was developed by the researcher was used as a data collection tool, and a content analysis was made. In the case study, a holistic single-case design was used. There are seven codes regarding the theme of “Separating the Wastes” in the 1st question about recycling for the pre-service science teachers. The highest frequency was given for “Reducing Environmental Pollution”. There are six codes for the theme of the contribution of recycling to the country in the 2nd question.The highest frequency was given for “It makes a contribution to the country”. In the 3rd question,  there are six codes regarding the themes of recycling at universities. “Adequate education is not given” had the highest frequency. There are six codes for the theme of recycling at secondary schools in the 4th question. The highest frequency was given for “Only theoretical information is given”. There are seven codes for the theme of the zero waste project in the 5th question. “It is an efficient work” had the highest frequency. The pre-service teachers studying in the Department of Science Education are given practical education regarding recycling, separation of wastes and Zero Waste Project.

Keywords: Recycling, Separating the Wastes, Zero Waste Project, Pre-service Science Teachers

Ziya Gökalp and the Development of Sociology Education in Turkey

Aznavur Demirpolat

pp. 465 - 475   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.366.28


The development of sociology in the Ottoman Empire in the nineteenth century is closely related to the modernization efforts of Ottoman state bureaucracy and ideological discussions of rising intellectuals on the future of the Empire. To a great extent, these rising intellectual movements, namely Ottomanism, Islamism, and Turkism, were trying to revive the Ottoman State from the impasse, which was the consequence of losing power against the West. Both the socio-political atmosphere and intellectual climate of the era were the main conditions that gradually shaped the direction and development of sociology in Turkey. The aim of this study is to elucidate socio-cultural and ideological factors influential in the development of sociology education in Ottoman-Turkish society. This study further aims to evaluate Gökalp’s role in and contribution to the development of sociology education in Turkey. This study also claims that of the modern Turkish intellectuals Gökalp is very crucial in terms of grasping both the secular dimension of the modern western civilization and unique characteristics of Turkish society.

Keywords: Turkish Sociology, Ziya Gökalp, Modernization, Turkish Intellectual

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