International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 2834-7919   |  e-ISSN: 1554-5210

Volume 19 Issue 5 (October 2023)

Issue Information

Issue Information

pp. i - vi   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2023.603



Original Articles

Comparison of Often Used Analysis Methods for Rank-Ordered Data

Süleyman Demir

pp. 1 - 13   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2023.603.1


This study aims to compare the findings obtained from Rank-Ordered Judgments Scaling (ROJS), Placket-Luce Model (PLM), and Many Facet Rasch Model (MFRM) methods based on ranking judgments, which are often used in the analysis of rank-ordered data. For this purpose, one hundred senior students studying at the Faculty of Education and Faculty of Theology of Sakarya University were asked to rank pedagogical formation courses from the course they thought would be the most useful in their professional lives to the course they thought would be the least useful. The obtained data were analyzed using ROJS, PLM, and MFRM methods. When the obtained data were analyzed according to the ROJS, PLM, and MFRM, it was found that the course considered the least useful and the least preferred was the Instructional Technologies course. According to the raters, it was found that the most preferred and the most useful courses were Teaching Practice (I and II) in MFRM and ROJS, while in PLM, it was found to be the Classroom Management course. All other courses except the first-ranked course were sorted similarly in all models; the scale values in ROJS, logit values in MFRM, and worth in PLM were similar.

Keywords: Rank Ordered Data, Many Facet Rasch Model, Placket Luce Model, Judgment Scaling

Teaching Sequential Text Writing at Primary School by Using the Read-to-Write Strategy

Ömer Erbasan

pp. 14 - 25   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2023.603.2


The number of informative books and their content variety is increasing.  Today, students are exposed to informative texts more than ever before. Some learning outcomes in the Turkish Language Curriculum encourage students to discover the differences between text types and to write informative texts. This curriculum also recommends the inclusion of various types of informative text in the coursebooks. Yet, the number of studies on the development of informative text writing skills in Turkey is quite limited, and the need for research to help support students' ability to write informative texts is clear. As such, the present study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of the "read-to-write" strategy, which is an informative text writing strategy, in teaching primary school students to write sequential informative texts. Applying the quasi-experimental method with pre-test post-test control group, the study was carried out in a village primary school in Afyonkarahisar. 33 primary school third grade students, 17 in the experimental group and 16 in the control group, participated in the study. The implementation of the research continued for 5 weeks and took 15 course hours. Before and after the intervention, the students were instructed to write sequential texts. A rubric prepared by Clark and Neal (2018) was used to collect the data. The six-item scoring key revealed the quality of the written texts. The collected data were analyzed with the help of a data analysis program using dependent samples t-test and independent samples t-test. The results clearly show that the read-to-write strategy is effective in writing sequential text type texts. After the intervention, the average of the scores of the students in the experimental group in which the read-to-write strategy was used increased significantly compared to the pre-intervention whereas no significant difference could be identified in the mean scores of the informative texts written by the students in the control group before and after the intervention. Finally, based on the research findings, various implications and suggestions are presented for educators and researchers.

Keywords: Read-to-Write Strategy, Informative Text, Writing, Primary School

Transmission of Family Culture "The Case of Grandmother, Mother and Granddaughter"

Emine Arslan Kılıçoğlu, Büşra Ergin & Esra Ergin

pp. 26 - 40   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2023.603.3


Culture is the guide that enables us to understand and describe the formation process, qualities and conditions of society, which is expressed as a structure that contains systems and norms. Tradition, on the other hand, allows us to observe the reflections of culture in society and individuals. Traditions maintain their continuity in society by reinforcing cultural values and norms. In this sense, the transmission of values and culture between generations is possible with the family, the smallest subsystem of society. In this respect, the family contributes to the progress of societies. As a role model for children, the family institution guides future generations to learn their culture in shaping societies. In this context, the main purpose of the study is to examine the communication and interaction between grandmothers, grandmothers' daughters and grandmothers' granddaughters living in the same family chain in the transmission of family culture. For this purpose, face-to-face and online interviews were conducted with three generations, 30 grandmothers, 30 mothers and 30 granddaughters, who are in constant interaction. These interviews were carried out with three different interview forms prepared by the researchers to be applied to each group separately. The phenomenological method was used in the study, which was planned in a qualitative design. The data obtained were processed and analysed in MAXQDA program. Themes were formed by the analyses. As a result, it was thought that increasing studies on intergenerational culture transmission and intergenerational communication and interaction would provide new generations with awareness of family culture.

Keywords: Generation, Grandmother, Mother, Granddaughter, Cultural Transmission, Family Culture

Development of the Inventory of Orientations in Curriculum Theories (IOCT) for Pre-Service Teachers

Ersin Türe

pp. 41 - 58   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2023.603.4


It is known that pre-service teacher training has an impact on orientations, beliefs, and views on teaching and teaching practices. In addition, it was determined that the curriculum theory orientations scale for teachers developed by Türe & Bıkmaz (2023) was not suitable for the sample of undergraduate students of the faculty of education. Because there are structural differences between the teacher sample and the undergraduate student sample. Faculty of Education undergraduate students are individuals who continue to be trained with the aim of training teachers. On the other hand, the pre-service teachers of the sample in which the scale could be developed and applied was selected from third and fourth-year undergraduate students who had completed the course on “Curriculum”. Therefore, the aim of this study is to develop a measurement tool that will determine the curriculum theory orientations of undergraduate students studying in education faculties. In this study, a measurement tool was developed to determine the orientations of pre-service teachers regarding curriculum theories. The IOCT for prospective teachers consists of three scales: OSPCT, OSDCT and OSCECT. OSPCT for pre-service teachers consists of two factors 19 items; OSDCT for pre-service teachers consists of two factors 12 items and OSCECT for pre-service teachers consists of three factors, 19 items. It has been revealed that the structure and items of the scales in the IOCT developed for pre-service teachers differ from the structure and items of the scales in the IOCT developed for teachers by Türe & Bıkmaz (2023).

Keywords: Development of the Inventory of Orientations in Curriculum Theories (IOCT) for Pre-Service Teachers

Study of Variables Predicting Teachers' Organizational Happiness Levels with Ordinal Logistical Regression Analysis

Mehmet Sabir Çevik & Methi Çelik

pp. 59 - 80   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2023.603.5


This study aims to determine the variables that predict teachers' organizational happiness levels. The study is quantitative in the predictive correlational type, which is one of the general screening models. The data of the study were analysed with ordinal logistic regression. The sample group of the study consists of 605 teachers working in pre-school, primary, secondary and high schools in Çankaya district of Ankara province with the stratified sampling method. "Organizational Happiness Scale" and "Empowering Leadership Scale" were used as assessment tools in the study. The organizational happiness level of teachers, which is the dependent variable of the study, was defined as a three-category variable in the form of low, medium and high with the K-means clustering algorithm. In the study, it was determined that only marital status, socio-economic level of the school and empowering leadership behaviours predicted teachers' organizational happiness levels significantly. The order of importance regarding the predictive level of the predictor variables, from the largest to the smallest, is the school with a high socio-economic level, the school with a medium level of empowering leadership behaviours, marital status and socio-economic level. Based on the results obtained, various suggestions have been made in the research to improve the socio-economic environment of schools as educational organizations and to support the behaviour of school administrators to empower teachers.

Keywords: Organizational Happiness, Empowering Leadership, Educational Organizations, Regression, Sequential Logistic (Ordinal) Regression

School Adjustment in the Early Years: Children’s Social-Emotional Problems in Different Countries and Applied Solutions

Nuray Koç

pp. 81 - 96   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2023.603.6


This research examined preschool children's social-emotional problems and school adjustment processes in different countries. Furthermore, this study compared the school adjustment programs and the teachers' solutions in other countries. A qualitative research method and case study design were used. The sample group consisted of 21 preschool teachers from Turkey, Italy, Lithuania, Hungary and Northern Ireland within the scope of the Erasmus+ project "Developing Social and Emotional Skills in Early Childhood" (SESDECE). A semi-structured interview form was used to obtain the research data. According to the data, it was revealed that separation anxiety, attachment disorder and poor communication with peers were the most common problems in the school adjustment process in all countries. It was determined that teachers in Turkey, Hungary, Lithuania and Northern Ireland used different adjustment programs and solutions during the adaptation. In contrast, teachers in Italy did not use a fixed adjustment program but enriched the first week's programs with activities such as meeting-adjustment activities. Teachers in all countries stated that school administrations support the process, but families should be more involved and a unique adjustment program should be applied to families.

Keywords: Early Childhood, Preschool, Social-Emotional Problems, School Adjustment, School Adjustment Program

Am i a Competent Researcher?: Reflections from Novice Researchers

Buket Turhan Türkkan, İnanç Eti & Betül Karaduman

pp. 97 - 109   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2023.603.7


This study aims to explore the methodological preferences, research practices, and research competencies of novice educational researchers. 11 novice researchers working at a state university in the southern part of Turkey were requested voluntarily. The data for the study were collected using a semi-structured interview. In the data analysis, inductive content analysis was used. The findings were organized into three themes: research method preference, research practices and applications, and novice researchers' research skills competencies. Novice researchers prefer three different research methods. Participants define the research problems according to personal interests, the needs of society, and literature review. The practices and applications of researchers in sampling, data collection, analysis, validity-reliability and ethics were revealed. Lastly, the research skill competencies were explored. The findings provide an understanding of the novice researchers' research process. In conclusion, novice researchers should be supported in their research skills.

Keywords: Educational Research, Methodological Preferences, Research Competency, Novice Researchers.

Evaluation of the Digital Story in Values Education Project

Gökçe Becit & Ozan Coşkunserçe

pp. 110 - 125   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2023.503.8


Values education is a structure of abstract concepts, and it is difficult for students to internalize these abstract structures. This situation brings some difficulties in values education. Activity-based practices developed by using values education approaches will facilitate the learning of the relevant value. Digital stories are also materials that can be used at different levels of education and for different purposes. In this regard, the "Digital Story in Values Education" project adopted within the scope of TÜBİTAK 4005 Innovative Educational Applications Support Programme, was aimed to give information to primary school teachers about the concept of digital stories for use in values education processes, to introduce digital story preparation programs, to provide basic program information and training that can be used to create digital stories, to prepare sample digital stories that can be used in classroom values education, and sharing the prepared digital stories with all teachers by publishing them. This study aimed to determine whether the targeted widespread impact of the "Digital Story in Values Education" project, which was accepted within the scope of the TÜBİTAK 4005 program and completed in 2019, has been achieved.

Keywords: Digital Story, Digital Storytelling, Values Education, Project Evaluation, TÜBİTAK

Investigation of Pedagogical Content Knowledge of In-service and Pre-Service Pre-school Teachers in Pre-school Mathematics

Zehra Bilgen & Yasemin Abalı Öztürk

pp. 126 - 152   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2023.603.9


The effect of academic skills acquired in the early period on future school success is indisputable. In this regard, it is important that pre-service teachers who are trained to be future teachers have appropriate content knowledge. The purpose of the current study is to examine the pedagogical content knowledge of in-service and pre-service pre-school teachers in - sub-dimensions of pre-school mathematics such as number, pattern, order, shape, spatial perception and comparison. In the current study, which was conducted using an explanatory mixed design, 439 pre-service and 73 in-service pre-school teachers took part in the quantitative section and 9 pre-service and 22 in-service pre-school teachers in the qualitative section. The Pedagogical Content Knowledge Scale in Preschool Mathematics and a semi-structured interview form were used to collect data. The results of the study revealed that the pedagogical content knowledge of the pre-service and in-service teachers is at a medium level. It was also observed that the pedagogical content knowledge of the in-service pre-school teachers varied significantly depending on the years of teaching experience and that the pedagogical content knowledge of the pre-service preschool teachers varied significantly depending on gender, grade level, academic achievement, having taken the Mathematics Education course and belief in the necessity of mathematics education in the pre-school period. It was also found that both the in-service and pre-service teachers consider mathematics education necessary in the pre-school period due to its importance to get ready for primary school education, the acquisition of basic mathematics skills and the existence of mathematics in life. Additionallyy, both groups mostly preferred activities based on numbers, counting, operations, patterns, matching and concrete life experiences.

Keywords: Pre-school Period, Mathematics Education, Pedagogical Content Knowledge, Teacher, Pre-service Teacher

Translation of the MOOC Student Satisfaction Survey to Turkish: A Scale Adaptation and Validation Study

Emre Uygun & Kürşat Cesur

pp. 153 - 171   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2023.603.10


Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) have been widely used all around the world to a great extent. Many of the MOOCs in different countries are in their native language, and there is a need to reliably assess the satisfaction levels of learners with various first languages since satisfaction stands as a critical aspect in identifying the reasons of dropouts and incontinence to MOOCs. To this end, this study aimed to translate Kumar and Kumar’s (2020) “MOOC Student Satisfaction Survey” into Turkish. The researchers first translated the instrument items from English to Turkish before consulting a panel of three English experts and one Turkish expert on the suitability of the translation. A professional translator then backtranslated the scale to English, ensuring that no items were lost in translation. To establish content validity, changes were done in view of the professional feedback. The translated scale was subsequently administered to 150 former massive open online course participants for testing validity and reliability. Since this was a translation study, the same constructs of the original scale were retained, and a confirmatory factor analysis was conducted, the results of which indicated acceptable levels of validity with one item being discarded. As for the reliability values, Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the entire scale was .91, and the split-half reliability score was .87, indicating that the scale maintains good internal consistency. Therefore, it was determined that the scale’s Turkish translation was valid and reliable.

Keywords: Distance Education, MOOCs, Online Learning, Scale Adaptation, Student Satisfaction

Mathematical Reasoning Skills as a Predictive of Number Sense

Ahsen Seda Bulut & Okan Kuzu

pp. 172 - 185   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2023.603.11


This study aims to examine the relationship between number sense skills and mathematical reasoning skills of preservice mathematics teachers. The research was conducted with 124 preservice mathematics teachers in the 2018-2019 academic year. Correlational model, one of the quantitative research methods, is used in the research. Data was analysed by the simple linear regression analysis, and the multiple regression analysis. As a result of the analysis, it was determined that the mathematical reasoning skills and the number sense skills of the preservice mathematics teachers were at "High" level. A statistically significant relationshi was observed between preservice mathematics teachers' mathematical reasoning skills and their number sense skills, both in general and in some of its factors. Besides, the main findings of this study was determined that mathematical reasoning skill was a significant predictor of the number sense skill. It was seen that the strongest predictor of number sense was "solving non-routine problems" and the weakest predictor was "recognizing and using mathematical patterns". Thus, it is thought that this study is particularly important in that it emphasizes the strong relationship between number sense and non-routine problems and illustrates that this aspect has a great importance in terms of number sense skills of preservice mathematics teachers.

Keywords: Number Sense, Mathematical Reasoning Skills, Preservice Mathematics Teachers

Effective School Leadership as a Predictor of School Culture

Bayram Bozkurt

pp. 186 - 198   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2023.603.12


The research aims to examine the relationship between effective school leadership and school culture according to teacher perceptions. For this purpose, the research is designed with predictive correlational model. The sample of the study consists of 507 teachers identified by simple selected sampling methods. The research data were collected through "Effective School Leadership Scale" and "School Culture Scale". To determine perceptions of participating teachers’ on effective school leadership and school culture for the purpose of the research, statistical analyzes such as arithmetic average and standard deviation were used. To determine the relationship between variables, Pearson Moments multiplication correlation coefficient analysis was used. The common variance of effective school leadership and school culture was determined using structural equation modeling. As a result of the research, a strong relationship between effective school leadership and success and support culture and a moderate relationship between the task culture was determined. It was also concluded that there was a very weak relationship between effective school leadership and bureaucratic culture. On the other hand, it was concluded that effective school leadership is a significant predictor of school culture. In this context, school administrators' leadership skills should be developed in order to create an effective school culture.

Keywords: Effective School Leadership, School Culture, Structural Equation Modeling

An Analysis of Handwriting Legibility of First Grade Students by School Starting Age

İlhan Polat & Cengiz Kesik

pp. 199 - 206   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2023.603.13


Legibility, which can be defined as the format of the text, is one of the key elements in teaching writing. School starting age can affect students’ learning and writing, and determining it can give an idea about what type of work to be undertaken to ensure the legibility of the handwriting in the early reading and writing processes. The possible effect of the school starting age on the legibility of handwriting was the basis of this study. As such, the study aimed to examine the straight basic writings of primary school first grade students in terms of legibility based on the school starting age. The study was designed as a survey in the quantitative research method. The study group consists of 513 primary school first grade students. The convenience sampling method was chosen to determine the study group. The students who participated in the study voluntarily consisted of primary school first-year students who passed into literacy in May of the 2022-2023 academic year. Data were obtained using the Multidimensional Legibility Scale. The Mann-Whitney U test was used in the analysis of the data. Results revealed that the handwriting legibility of the students was moderate regarding the dimensions of slant, spacing, size, and line awareness, but not legible in terms of ‘form’. While the results of this study show that the average handwriting legibility of girls is higher than that of boys, there is no statistically significant difference between the age of school entry and handwriting legibility.

Keywords: Handwriting Legibility, School Starting Age

Nurturing Young Minds and Bodies: Exploring Critical Media Literacy Through Healthy Food Adventures

Şerife Cengiz & Tolga Kargın

pp. 207 - 224   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2023.603.14


This study aimed to help young children understand media better and develop healthy eating habits through fun and engaging activities that encourage critical thinking about media content. These activities were designed for children aged 60 to 72 months and were part of an action research project. Eleven children participated in the study, and the results showed that initially, they had limited knowledge about healthy eating and how media works. However, after taking part in the media literacy activities, they became better at analyzing media content and realized that not everything they see in advertisements is accurate. As a result, their awareness of healthy eating improved significantly. This research highlights the potential benefits of teaching media literacy to young children, which can positively influence their overall development and enhance their critical thinking skills on real-world issues.

Keywords: Early Childhood Education, Critical Media Literacy, Nutritional Awareness, Action Research

Gender Equality in Math-Themed Picture Books: The Example of “Math Matters”

Özge Nurlu Üstün & Serap Uzuner

pp. 225 - 249   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2023.603.15


The purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which math-themed illustrated children's books reflect gender equality. Document analysis, a qualitative research method, was used in the study. The research object consists of a 16-book series published by TUBITAK under the name "Math Matters," determined through criterion sampling. Descriptive analysis and chi-square test were used in the data analysis process. The books were analyzed based on categories created through a literature review ("frequencies of genders in title/main character/secondary character/general in text and picture", "parental roles", "occupational roles", "location of genders", "activities of genders"). MAXQDA 2022 data analysis software was used in the analysis process. The findings were summarized using graphs. Then, one-sample chi-square tests were conducted using the SPSS program to determine whether the differences in codes and categories were significant by gender. As a result, it was found that math-themed illustrated children's books, which were written to make math enjoyable and understandable, contain traditional gender stereotypes such as the underrepresentation of females, the emphasis on maternal roles, their limited portrayal in the home and its surroundings, their presentation in service-oriented and limited stereotypical professions, their activities being based on low cognitive skills and household chores, and their clothing emphasizing their sexual attractiveness and beauty, and being depicted in a home environment.

Keywords: Gender Equality, Picture Books, Mathematics Education

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