International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 2834-7919   |  e-ISSN: 1554-5210

Volume 16 Issue 2 (April 2020)

Issue Information

Issue Information

pp. i - vi   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.241



Original Articles

Portrayal of Ottoman Empire in Iranian High School History Textbooks

Kemal Kaya

pp. 1 - 16   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.241.1


This article focuses on how the relations between Ottoman and Iran, which are important states of Islamic history, are discussed in Iranian high school history textbooks. The shadow of collective belief and identity constructed through history education reverberates across the fields of international and foreign policy. Past relations affect two peoples not only politically but also socially and culturally, which mostly manifest themselves in the field of education. The way bilateral relations are addressed in textbooks directly affects the way two peoples perceive each other. The aim of this study is to determine the portrayal of the Ottoman Empire in Iranian high school history textbooks in terms of the relationship between history and identity. Document analysis was used to collect data from high school second- and third-grade history textbooks published between 2017 and 2018. A descriptive model was used. Qualitative research method was used for data collection, analysis and interpretation. Iranian history textbooks depict the Ottoman Empire as a neighboring state that sees itself as the protector of Islam and pursues anti-Shiite politics because it does not want a strong state in its east. They also portray the Ottoman Empire as an aggressive and opportunistic state that uses the internal weaknesses of the Iran State, which sees itself as the protector of Shiism.

Keywords: Islamic Republic of Iran, History Textbooks, Perception, Identity, Othering

University Students’ Emotions and Hopes as the Predictors of Their Psychological Resilience after Terrorist Attacks

Yağmur Soylu

pp. 17 - 25   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.241.2


The purpose of this study is to examine whether positive and negative emotions and hope level of university students after the terrorist attacks in Turkey predict their psychological resilience. The participants were selected by using simple random sampling method. Accordingly, a total of 362 students (250 female and 112 male) attending various undergraduate programs at Dokuz Eylul University Buca Education Faculty. The study used Ego-Resiliency Scale, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule and Hope Scale were used as data collection tools. The data collected were analyzed by using stepwise regression analysis. According to the findings, hope and positive emotions are positively significant predictors of psychological resilience of college students after terrorist attacks. These two variables were found to explain 39% of the total variance in the psychological resilience scores of university students. However, the research findings also show that negative emotions are not a significant predictor of psychological resilience.

Keywords: Psychological Resilience, Terrorist Attacks, Positive and Negative Emotions, Hope

Do Tubitak-4006 Science Fairs Achieve Its Objectives? The Viewpoints of School Administrators And Teachers

Soner Dogan

pp. 26 - 41   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.241.3


The aim of this study is to review the opinions of principals and teachers on TUBITAK-4006 (Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey) science fairs which are organized in about 10.000 schools every year in Turkey. This study is a qualitative research and it is formed with phenomenological design. The study group is determined with criterion sampling method, and it comprises 10 teachers and 10 school administrators who have participated in TUBITAK-4006 science project fairs. The data are collected with a semi-structured interview form, and the interviews are carried out face to face. The data collected have been evaluated using content analysis method. As a result of the analysis, the viewpoints of the school administrators and teachers are presented in two themes and seven categories. For the both participant groups, the themes are analysed by categorizing them as the effects on teachers, the effects on students and parents. Besides, the suggestions category is indicated under one single title. According to the findings, all the participants stated that TUBITAK-4006 science project fairs are useful if carried out considering their purposes while they cause more harm when their objectives are disregarded.

Keywords: 4006 Tubitak Science Fair, Project-Based Learning, Teacher, School Administrator

Examination of Secondary School Students' Ability to Transform among Chemistry Representation Levels Related to Stoichiometry

Ayşegül Tarkın Çelikkıran

pp. 42 - 55   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.241.4


The aim of this qualitative case study was to explore secondary students’ ability to transfer among representation levels in relation to stoichiometry. In the study, 40 students in the 11th grade from two classes of an Anatolian high school in the east part of Turkey were selected as sample group. The data were collected by using a questionnaire consists of ten questions designed specifically target the transformation from macroscopic to symbolic, from symbolic to submicroscopic, and from submicroscopic to symbolic level. The analysis of the data was carried out both deductively and inductively by content analysis method. The results indicate that many students were unable to establish an appropriate link among chemical representation levels regarding stoichiometry.

Keywords: Chemistry Education, Representations, Stoichiometry, Submicroscopic Level, Symbolic Level

A Metaphoric Approach to the Conception of the "Teacher-Headmaster-School" in Different Age Categories

Akif Sözer & Burcu Sel

pp. 56 - 71   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.241.5


The aim of this study is to analyze the perceptions of the individuals of different ages about the concepts of teacher-manager-school by means of metaphors. Phenomenology method, one of qualitative research form, and convenience sampling have been used in this study. The study group consisted of 210 participants with different age levels. Research data has been obtained via metaphor identification form. Data has been analyzed by content analysis technique and according to research results, 542 valid metaphors have been determined. Five categories have been determined as to “teacher conception”, which are loadstar and future enlightening person, source of information, compassionate and sacred being, supervisor-disciplined and authoritative being and creator of future respcetively. Another five categories for “headmasters” which are focus of management, authoritative and supervisor being, leader and loadstar being, financier of education, a being that have negative features. As to “school conception”, six categories have been defined: love and solidarity environment, growth and maturation environment, supervising and discipline environment, guidance environment and finance environment. The conceptual categories created as a result of this categorization process have been analyzed by Pearson's chi-square analysis by taking the age of the participants into consideration. As a result of the analysis, no significant difference has been found between age groups of participants as to teachers, principals and school concepts. Although a number of radical changes in the role of important components such as school-headmaster-teacher within the scope of modern education system are targeted, the traditional perceptions of these concepts continue.

Keywords: Metaphor, Headmaster, School, Teacher

Analysis of the Relationships between Mathematics Achievement, Reflective Thinking of Problem Solving and Metacognitive Awareness

Çetin Toraman, Şenol Orakcı & Osman Aktan

pp. 72 - 90   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.241.6


In this study, it was examined that in what level reflective thinking towards problem solving skills and metacognitive awareness explained maths course achievements of the students and the relationships among these variables were studied. In this study, relational survey model was applied. The study included 412 seventh grade students from two different secondary schools within each of the three central districts located in Ankara. In this study, “Reflective Thinking Skill Scale to Problem Solving (RTSSPS)” and “The Metacognitive Awareness Inventory for Children (MAI-C)” and the scores of “Maths Course Achievement” were used. “Pearson Momentler Correlation Coefficient” and “Multiple Linear Regression Analysis” were used in the correlational and regression analysis. It was determined that there was a strong positive significant correlation between students’ maths achievement, reflective thinking towards problem solving and metacognitive awareness. It was also determined that there was a strong positive significant correlation between reflective thinking towards problem solving and metacognitive awareness.

Keywords: Achievement, reflective thinking, problem solving, metacognition

The Effects of Science Teaching Practice Supported With Web 2.0 Tools on Prospective Elementary School Teachers’ Self-Efficacy Beliefs

Ümit İzgi Onbaşılı

pp. 91 - 110   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.241.7


This study aims to analyse the effects of science teaching practices supported by Web 2.0 tools on prospective elementary school teachers’ perceptions of self-efficacy beliefs in using Web 2.0 tools. The study was conducted in pre test-post test quasi-experimental design with no control group, and it was supported with qualitative data. The research was conducted with the participation of 40 prospective teachers registered in Elementary School Teaching Department of a state university in 2017-2018 academic year. The study was conducted throughout a semester (for 14 weeks) within the scope of the course Science and Technology Teaching II. The lessons were taught in consistence with constructivist learning approach directed to all the gains available in the 3rd and 4th grade Science teaching curriculum prepared by the Ministry of National Education (MNE) (2018) on the basis of student-centred methods and techniques by supporting with Web 2.0 tools. 23 Web 2.0 tools in total were used throughout the study. The “Web 2.0 Rapid Content Development Self-efficacy Scale” developed by Birişci, Kul, Aksu, Akaslan and Çelik (2018) in addition to an interview form of open-ended questions developed by the researcher to obtain prospective teachers’ views on the use of Web 2.0 tools in science teaching were used in this study. Consequently, it was found that science teaching practices supported by Web 2.0 tools had positive effects on prospective elementary school teachers’ their self-efficacy perceptions on the use of Web 2.0 tools. An examination of the participants’ responses to the open-ended questions demonstrated that the participants said that Web 2.0 tools had positive impacts especially on the learning process and they were innovative and they improved upper order thinking skills, creativity and imagination and that they could be used especially in eliminating the anxiety and misconceptions in science teaching.

Keywords: Web 2.0 Tools, Self- Efficacy, Science Teaching, Prospective Elementary School Teacher

Relationships between Prospective Teachers' Multicultural Education Attitudes and Classroom Management Styles

Murat Debbağ & Mustafa Fidan

pp. 111 - 122   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.241.8


This correlation study investigates the relationships between prospective teachers’ multicultural education attitude and classroom management styles. The participants were 495 prospective teachers majoring in different departments of education faculties at two state universities in Turkey. “Democracy and Multicultural Education Attitude Scale” and “Classroom Management Style Scale” were used as data collection tools. Correlation and regression analyses were performed for data analysis by using SPSS 23.0 software. The results of descriptive analyses showed that most of the participants adopted authoritative style in terms of classroom management. Also, they had positive attitudes towards multicultural and democracy education. According to correlation analysis, there were significant relationships between the variables. Specifically, authoritative style was a powerful predictor of the attitude towards democracy and multicultural education. The prospective teachers with more authoritarian and indifferent styles had more biases towards multicultural education. Moreover, it is estimated that discussion and educational implications will shed light on teacher education.

Keywords: Multiculturalism, Multicultural Education, Attitude, Classroom Management Style, Prospective Teacher.

A Multi-Way Intervention to Improve the Social Acceptance of a Student with Learning Disabilities

Tahsin Fırat

pp. 123 - 136   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.241.9


The aim of this study is to investigate how a student with learning disabilities is socially accepted by his peers in the classroom when social skills training and academic support are concomitantly provided. The participants consisted of 15 (7 female, 8 male) typically developing high school students attending Grade 1 and a student with learning disabilities. One-group pretest-posttest design was utilised. The research data was collected through the sociometric technique of peer nomination before and after the intervention programme. In addition, the effects of the implemented programme were examined via a semi-structured interview with the student with learning disabilities and his family. The data was analysed via the technique of sociogram, and descriptive analyses were conducted as well. The research results indicate that the programme in question was effective on the student with learning disabilities’ social acceptance among his typically developing peers. Furthermore, the interviews with his family show that the implemented programme provided a variety of benefits for the student with learning disabilities.

Keywords: Social Acceptance, Students With Learning Disabilities, Typically Developing Students, High School Students

International Student Selection Process in Turkey: Characteristics, Challenges and Opportunities

Ulaş Yabanova & Demet Hatice Özerbaş

pp. 137 - 156   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.241.10


The purpose of this study is to examine the characteristics, problems and possible solutions in the international student selection process faced by higher education institutions in Turkey. The study group is composed of academic and administrative executives who are involved in the foreign student selection process of 5 universities in the Aegean region, the Marmara region, the Western Black Sea region, the Eastern Black Sea region and the Eastern Anatolia region. The research is designed with a case study of qualitative research methods. Semi-structured interview form was used in data collection process and data was analysed by content analysis method. According to the results of the research, the most common cases of higher education institutions in foreign student selection process are; management process of application processes, organization and transparency problems in exams, lack of cooperation between institutions, false document and document verification problem, inability to follow the applicants at the national level, high record deletion, quota of not filling the quota, preference infinity, special talent exam problem, shortcomings of legislation, central database deprivation, lack of centralized control and lack of personnel. Possible solutions have been developed in order to eliminate these problems.

Keywords: Foreign Student, Foreign Student Examination (FSE), International Student Selection

Primary School Teacher Candidates and 21st Century Skills

Fatih Mehmet Ciğerci

pp. 157 - 174   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.241.11


In this study, the aim is to determine the effect of digital storytelling on the primary school teacher candidates' 21st century skills. Since digital storytelling contains many skills like information, media and technology skills, communication and collaboration skills, group works, etc within itself, it can be defined as a good way for individuals to gain and develop 21st century skills. A digital storyteller, during the process of making his/her digital stories, is to research and access information, analyze, evaluate and give decision on what s/he has researched, solve problems, use his/her creativity, be capable of using technology, applications and/or programs and have digital, technology, visual and information literacy . In order to collect data, 21st Century Skills and Competences Scale Directed at Teaching Candidates, digital storytelling rubric and structured interviews were used. According to the results of the study, posttest scores of the candidate teachers' on 21st Century Skills and Competences Scale were higher than those of on the pretest. There was a meaningful difference between digital storytelling rubric scores the teacher candidates got from the three digital stories and the scores got higher on every following digital story, which can be said to support the result that the posttest scores of the candidate teachers' on 21st Century Skills and Competences Scale were higher than those of on the pretest. This situation is also supported by the fact that the scores obtained from the digital stories explain the variability of the scores on 21st Century Skills and Competences Scale by about 40% and that the scores obtained from the digital stories are the predictor of 2st century skills and competences of the teacher candidates.

Keywords: Learning and Innovation Skills, ICT Skills, Life and Career Skills, Digital Storytelling, Teacher Candidates

Associations Between Emotional States, Self-Efficacy For and Attitude Towards Using Educational Technology

Oğuzhan Atabek

pp. 175 - 194   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.241.12


The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between alternative certification preservice teachers’ levels of depression, stress, educational technology anxiety, self-efficacy for educational technology, and attitude towards using technology in education to provide insight into the interplay between intrinsic factors affecting technology integration. Participants were 451 preservice teachers enrolled in the alternative certification program at a public university in the southwestern part of Turkey (N=451). Data were collected using the Educational Technology Standards Self-Efficacy Scale, Attitude towards Using Technology in Education Scale, Educational Technology Anxiety Scale, Perceived Stress Scale, and Beck’s Depression Inventory. In addition to descriptive techniques, Pearson’s product-moment correlation coefficient and multiple linear regression were used for data analysis. Findings revealed that preservice teachers suffer from stress, depression, and anxiety, even more so than other undergraduate students. Age did not correlate with any of the parameters. Stress and depression did not differ according to gender; however, females were more anxious about using educational technology. Additionally, findings indicated bidirectional and cyclical relationships between emotional states, self-efficacy, and attitude. Finally, using educational technology for instructional purposes and for secondary purposes such as classroom management were associated with different sets of self-efficacy beliefs, and attitudes. Findings of the research were discussed and suggestions were made.

Keywords: Alternative Certification; Pedagogical Formation; Teacher Training; Technology Acceptance; Technology Integration

The Role of Self-Esteem in Adolescents' Perception of Parents and Social Anxiety Levels

Sinem Evin Akbay & Bülent Gündüz

pp. 195 - 204   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.241.13


The purpose of this study is to examine whether the relationship between adolescents' perceptions of parents and their social anxiety levels is mediated by self-esteem. The sample of the study consisted of 694 (324 female and 360 male) volunteer high school students selected with a simple random sampling method from different high school types in Mersin province during the 2017-2018 academic year autumn term. The following tools were used in this study; "Perception of Parents Scale" which was developed by Robbins (1994) and adapted to Turkish by Kocayörük (2009); "Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale" developed by Rosenberg (1965) and translated into Turkish by Çuhadaroğlu (1986); "Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents" was developed by La Greca and Lopez (1998) and adapted to Turkish by Aydın and Tekinsav (2007). Multiple regression analysis was used to analyze the data. The results show that there is a negative relationship between adolescents' social anxiety levels and their perception of their parents and self-esteem. In addition to these results, it was concluded that self-esteem had a full mediating effect on the relationship between the perception of both mothers and fathers of their adolescents and their social anxiety levels.

Keywords: Adolescence, Perception of Parents, Social Anxiety, Self-Esteem

Identification of Differential Item Functioning on Mathematics Achievement According to the Interactions of Gender and Affective Characteristics By Rasch Tree Method

Münevver Başman & Ömer Kutlu

pp. 205 - 217   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.241.14


Mathematical knowledge and skills are needed to find solutions to the problems encountered in daily life. Although individuals are given the opportunity to receive equal education, it is seen that there are differences in the achievement of individuals. Individual-based factors can affect the achievement of individuals. One of the most important of these individual-based factors is the gender factor. It is important to examine the reasons behind the items of mathematics test showing the Differential Item Functioning (DIF) by gender. In this research, the interaction of gender and intrinsic motivation, instrumental motivation, self-efficacy, and anxiety variables on mathematics test items was examined in terms of DIF to understand the reasons of gender differences in the mathematical achievement of students who participated in PISA 2012. The study group of this research constituted 1084 students who participated in the application in Turkey, who answered booklets 3, 5 and 11 in the PISA 2012 mathematics literacy test. The data was analyzed by Iterative Hybrid Ordinal Logistic Regression (IHOLR) in the Lordif package program and Rasch Tree Method (RTM) in Psychotree package program and items showing DIF according to gender were determined. According to the findings, some mathematics test items showed DIF according to gender. It was found that items also showed DIF according to gender and intrinsic motivation interaction, and gender and self-efficacy interaction. It was observed that status of items showing DIF changed according to a certain threshold value of the girls' intrinsic motivation and self-efficacy score. It was found that mathematics items did not show DIF according to gender and instrumental motivation interaction, and gender and anxiety interaction. As a result, it was observed that status of items showing DIF according to gender could change according to gender and affective characteristics interaction.

Keywords: Differential Item Functioning, Mathematical Literacy, PISA, Rasch Tree Method

The Effect of Chance Success on Equalization Error in Test Equation Based on Classical Test Theory

Duygu Koçak

pp. 218 - 229   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.241.15


The aim of this study was to determine the effect of chance success on test equalization. For this purpose, artificially generated 500 and 1000 sample size data sets were synchronized using linear equalization and equal percentage equalization methods. In the data which were produced as a simulative, a total of four cases were created with no chance success, and three different levels (20%, %25, %33) of chance success and the default chance success were corrected by the correction formula. In the simulated data, four different scenarios have been created that do not include chance success and contain three different success rates (20%, 25%, 33%). Accordingly, the test equalization was performed by using linear equalization and equipercentile equalization methods under two different sample sizes and four different chance success conditions. Weighted mean square error of equating methods was found for each situation, and the method with the lowest weighted mean square error was accepted as the most suitable equating method. At the end of the study, it was found out that; while linear equating is the most suitable method for equating test points with chance success; equipercentile equating is the most suitable method for equating test points without chance success.

Keywords: Test Equating, Linear Equating, Equipercentile Equating, Single Group Design, Chance Cucces

A School Choice Experience at the Age of "Parentocracy": Impressions from a Public Primary School in Turkey

Halil Buyruk

pp. 230 - 247   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.241.16


This article investigates the school choice practices of middle-class[1] parents. It aims to find out what kind of strategies and practices parents have in the school choice process. For this aim, data were obtained through interviews with parents of students attending a primary school in an affluent area in Ankara. The results of the study show that parents with adequate economic, social and cultural capital are influential in their children's educational processes and develop various strategies for school choice. They strive to choose the best school they think will contribute to their children in gaining a better position in the labour market in the future. It is noteworthy that the most important factor in primary school choice is teacher quality. This is followed by features such as the location of the school, teacher-student relationship, security and the physical facilities in the school. The social capital of parents has an important part in the school choice process and the social networks in which they are involved determine the school choice processes considerably. Since the enrolment of students in primary schools in Turkey is address-based, parents wishing to enrol their children in other schools develop various strategies during the enrolment process, notably “address change”.


[1] Although defining middle class is quite difficult and controversial, an operational definition can be made with reference to lifestyle, education, occupation, income, culture and consumption habits. In this study, middle class refers to people who are educated, having a profession, having middle income, living in an affluent area and joining cultural activities.

Keywords: School Choice, Parentocracy, Inequality, Social Capital

Investigating Direct and Indirect Effects of Social Media Addiction, Social Media Usage and Personality Traits on FOMO

Nazire Burcin Hamutoglu, Murat Topal & Deniz Mertkan Gezgin

pp. 248 - 261   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.241.17


In this study, it is aimed to investigate direct and indirect effects of Social Media Addiction (SMA), Social Media Usage (DSMU) and Personality Traits beyond BIG 5 on Fear of Missing Out (FOMO). The research was based on quantitative research methods conducted in accordance with the relational survey model and 845 prospective students studying at Sakarya University Faculty of Education were included by stratified sampling method. The path analysis was performed to examine the direct and indirect effects of the variables by AMOS and SPSS. The results show that FOMO directly and positively predicted by SMA, and DSMU had a significant and positive effect on SMA while DSMU having no effect on FOMO. Finally, the results on personality traits and FOMO indicated that agreeableness (AGR) personality trait had a positive effect on FOMO while other personality traits did not. In the study, results were discussed within the framework of the literature.

Keywords: FOMO, personality traits, social media addiction, social media usage, prospective teachers.

What Messages a Documentary and Biographical Film Give About the Nature of Science to Prospective Science Teachers?

Davut Sarıtaş

pp. 262 - 278   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.241.18


In this study, the experience of prospective science teachers, who watched a cinema film adapted from the life story of a well-known scientist for the first time in an informal environment, was examined. Answers of two questions were sought in the study; (1) what aspects of the nature of science did the prospective science teachers experience through which scenario elements of the film? (2) how do pre-service teachers interpret these experiences? In this study, being conducted based on hermeneutic phenomenology design; the data were collected through focus group interviews with semi-structured questions prepared by taking into consideration the aspects of the nature of science. Participants were 29 (23 girls, 6 boys) prospective science teachers. The collected data were analyzed by qualitative methods. The findings showed that the participants experience and interpret some aspects of the nature of science through specific scenario elements (representations). It was determined that participants highlighted certain sections (e.g. process of discovery, social reaction) in the story. It was observed that the participants correlated these sections with the nature of science in a positive or negative way and interpret them. The results show that these kinds of films adopted from history of science, which are recommended in the literature, can give positive messages about the nature of science.  In addition, it was observed that the film caused misconceptions about the nature of science, especially due to the scenario. Therefore, it can be said that such films produced for different purposes may lead to some problems in the teaching of the nature of science. From this point of view, even if such films are used, it is obvious that rather than an informal environment, it is necessary to integrate these films into a more structured learning environment where inappropriate messages given by the film can be seen critically.

Keywords: Nature of Science, History of Science, Prospective Science Teachers, Documentary and Biographical Film, Hermeneutic Phenomenology

Academically Gifted & Albino: A Narrative Study of a Twice-Exceptional

Seyma Sengil-Akar & İbrahim Akar

pp. 279 - 296   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.241.19


This research focuses on the educational and daily life of a gifted individual with albinism. The purpose of this current research was to determine the difficulties faced by this twice-exceptional individual in his education life and how these difficulties have been overcome. The study has been conducted by narrative study design of the qualitative method. Research data were collected through semi-structured interviews conducted with the individual himself, his mother and one of his friend. Data analyses revealed four different themes, such as: difficulties due to visual impairment and strategies to cope with these difficulties, difficulties experienced due to physical disadvantages and ways of overcoming them, being gifted and socio-emotional difficulties. More specifically, the twice-exceptional individual, who has visual impairment due to albinism (90%), continued his formal education throughout the whole education life without attending inclusion classes, and encountered many difficulties specific to those who see little, such as having difficulty in following the course and course notes. In addition to these, the twice-exceptional individual is an unrecognized gifted student (academically) who exhibited early development in the childhood period and who has achieved outstanding academic success at undergraduate and postgraduate level after having been in the 0.01% portion among the students taking the university entrance exam. As gifted, he has not received any special support in the education system. It is seen that the support of his family throughout his education life is an effective factor playing an important role in the shaping of the education life of the twice-exceptional individual, who has been confronted with many social-psychological difficulties because his difference from others as a gifted individual with albinism.  

Keywords: Giftedness, Albinism, Gifted and Disadvantaged, Twice-Exceptionality, Dual Exceptionality

Preparation Before Class Or Homework After Class? Flipped Teaching Practice in Higher Education

Gungor Yumuşak

pp. 297 - 307   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.241.20


Advanced learning in education needs an effective educational set-up, which allows students to practice what they have learned. In order to realize this, various arrangements are made in educational environments. A blended approach (flipped teaching) is arranged in this study on technology and face-to-face education. This study examines the effectiveness of flipped teaching in higher education and the opinions of students about this practice. The pre-test post-test design for this study was formed with the students enrolled in the Faculty of Education. In the control group, the traditional way of teaching was implemented, where the teacher first lectured in the class and then assigned an homework at the end. In the experimental group, the students were asked to examine the theoretical part of the classroom material before attending the class, while the teacher conducted a more practical training on the subject. In the achievement tests applied afterwards, students from the experimental group performed better than the control group. Students from the experimental group stated that the flipped teaching practice makes them attend to class as prepared and thus ensures an effective learning. Additionally, the students find videos entertaining and catchy; the method encourages active class participation; course notes can be easily accessed; the online interaction with the teacher motivates the students; and different ways of approach to the course draws more interest. However, some students experienced problems in reaching the internet and the online activities (e.g. quizzes and course preparation) created some tension. Other negative aspects stated by the students include short and insufficient course lecture, not feeling comfortable with the online teaching practice and the difficulty of reading a material online.

Keywords: Flipped Teaching, Higher Education, Teacher Training

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