International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 2834-7919   |  e-ISSN: 1554-5210

Volume 19 Issue 4 (August 2023)

Issue Information

Issue Information

pp. i - vi   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2023.579



Original Articles

Development of Portfolio Related Scales for Early Childhood Teachers: A Validity and Reliability Study

Nur Alacam, Refika Olgan & Yeşim Çapa-Aydın

pp. 1 - 17   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2023.579.1


Portfolio is one of the common forms of pedagogical documentation around the world. However, there is no suitable instrument to measure teachers’ portfolio practices in early childhood education. In this study, it was aimed to develop scales on portfolio practices and its possible predictors based upon extended Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Initially, content validity was ensured with expert opinions and cognitive interviews with early childhood teachers. After that pilot data were collected from 371 early childhood teachers and exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted to explore the factor structure of the scales. Then, main study data were gathered from 605 early childhood teachers, and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to confirm the factor structure of the scales. Internal consistency coefficients were also calculated for the reliability analysis in both pilot study and main study data. As a result, findings confirmed the validity and reliability of the scales.

Keywords: Early Childhood Education, Portfolio Assessment, Scale Development, Theory of Planned Behavior

Analysis of Visuals of Women in the 9th Grade History Textbook

Meliha Köse

pp. 18 - 38   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2023.579.2


Advances in the field of women's history have led to debates on the visibility of women in history textbooks. Some of these discussions focus on the visuals of women in history textbooks. In this study, which was conducted with a qualitative approach and document analysis method, the visual images of women in the 9th grade history textbook used in the 2022-2023 academic year were analyzed. Content and semiotics analysis were utilized together to conduct the research. According to the findings of the study, the rate of visuals containing female figures is quite low compared to male visuals. While 66 of the 79 visuals containing human figures include men, only 13 visuals contain female figures. Additionally, in most of the visual, female figures are not recognizable and the images do not have a direct relationship with women's history. The main function of images is to fill up the spaces allocated for the visual in the book without any particular purpose. It can be argued that the visuals in the 9th grade history textbooks were not prepared with the concern of reflecting women's history and experiences. Although representative images are used for male figures for whom there are no real-life visual images, this is not practiced for female figures. A significant effort needs to be made in order to include women's history and visuals in history textbooks. Visuals should be used in a way that develops historical thinking skills instead of only decorating textbooks. Within the framework of the constructivist approach, students should be enabled to access information about women's history through visuals and to construct information on their own.

Keywords: Women's History, Gender, Textbook, History Textbook, Visuals of Women Behavior

The Development of the Turkish Serenity Scale: A Validation Study

Serdar Alkın & Yücel Öksüz

pp. 39 - 51   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2023.579.3


The goal of this study was to develope Serenity Scale suitable for Turkish culture. The scale's construct validity was investigated using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The association between the Serenity Scale, Peace Scale, and Authentic Happiness Scale was examined in order to assess the criterion-related validity. The Cronbach alpha internal consistency coefficient was determined and the equivalent halves approach was employed for the reliability analysis. In addition, the item discrimination coefficient was calculated by calculating the difference between the upper and lower 27% score averages. The research data were collected online from two distinct groups of people aged 18-35. A three-factor structure with 21 items was obtained with 306 participants in the EFA stage and 365 participants in the CFA stage, for a total of 671 participants, according to the results of the EFA and CFA performed within the context of the research. The Cronbach alpha internal consistency coefficients calculated for the wholesale scale in the three-factor final structure were calculated as .90. The correlation value between the scores of the two halves of the form, which was divided into odd and even numbers in the equivalent halves method was examine a strong positive correlation was found between the two halves of the method of comparing the upper 27% and lower groups of 27%, which was applied to test the reliability of the measurement tool, it was revealed that the difference between the mean scores of the upper and lower 27% groups was significant. As a result, it can be stated that the Serenity Scale is a reliable and valid measurement tool.

Keywords: Serenity, Young Adults, Validity, Reliability

Candidate Primary School Teachers' and Primary School Teachers' Metaphorical Perceptions about Teaching and Mathematics Teaching

Aysel Ferah-Özcan

pp. 52 - 69   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2023.579.4


The primary goal of this study is to identify the metaphors primary school teachers and candidate teachers use to describe teaching and mathematics teaching. The second goal is to highlight the parallels and discrepancies between metaphoric themes related to teaching and those related to mathematics teaching. A study in phenomenological design—one of the qualitative research methods—was conducted with this goal in mind. The study involved 121 primary school instructors and 84 undergraduate primary school teaching students. The researcher's own questionnaire form was used to electronically gather the data. After conducting a content analysis of the data, themes were developed. Four (4) themes for candidate teachers and six (6) themes for teachers were created from the metaphors provided for the concept of teaching. Six (6) themes for instructors and four (4) topics for potential teachers were created from metaphors about mathematics teaching. It is believed that certain teaching metaphors and metaphors for mathematics teaching are influenced by prior knowledge, some by teaching material, and some by experience. The fact that the teachers—as opposed to the candidate teachers—created metaphors about mathematics teaching around the themes of "A Field of Instruction with Rich Solutions" and "A Field that Requires Variety in Teaching Methods and Techniques"—suggests that teachers' opinions on the subject evolve as they gain more practical knowledge. It is advised that prospective primary school teachers be offered training in related courses to help them form views about teaching and mathematics teaching in light of the research's findings.

Keywords: Teaching; Mathematics Teaching; Teacher Training; Primary School Teaching; Perceptions of Teaching and Mathematics Teaching

The Invisible Battle: Investigating the Relationship Between Coronavirus Stress, Affective Balance, Mindfulness, and Psychological Health in University Students During the Pandemic

Furkan Kaşıkcı, Burak Can Korkmaz & Neslihan Güney Karaman

pp. 70 - 83   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2023.579.5


This study examines the effect of coronavirus stress, affective balance, and mindfulness on psychological health. The participant group of the study consisted of 692 university students, 391 (56.5%) of whom were female and 301 (43.5%) of whom were male. The mean age of participants was 21.08 (Sd = 1.91). Results indicated that coronavirus stress was significantly and negatively related to positive affect, mindfulness, and psychological health but positively to negative affect. The relationship between coronavirus stress and psychological health was partially and serially mediated by affective balance and mindfulness. These findings suggest that affective balance and mindfulness are important mechanisms that may help explain the effect of coronavirus stress on psychological health.

Keywords: Coronavirus Stress; Affective Balance; Mindfulness; Psychological Health

Evaluation of Turkish Origin International Students' Writing Skills in Academic Turkish

Huseyin Gocmenler & Yasemin Dınc Kurt

pp. 84 - 115   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2023.579.6


The number and quality of studies on Academic Turkish for international students has been increasing in recent years. The goals in Academic Turkish, which is becoming more and more evident day by day as a very important need, primarily focus on reading and writing skills. The most important problem encountered in Academic Turkish is seen in writing skills. Especially international students need more support in this regard.

This study was conducted with undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral students attending the Academic Turkish courses offered at the Asian Specialization Group of the Turkish World Parliamentarians Foundation. First of all, the language needs of the students were analyzed, their Turkish learning goals and Turkish proficiency levels were determined. In order to measure students' writing and reading skills, the activities focused on text reading and simultaneous writing, summary, and article studies. Based on the needs of the students, evaluations were made on the paragraphs and texts, and their frequent mistakes/errors were identified. In the meantime, the reasons why they made these mistakes/errors were emphasized by focusing on the students' written expression mistakes in the activities carried out within the scope of the Academic Turkish course. The case study method was applied in the research, and the data obtained through document analysis were described by content analysis method. In this context, 26 undergraduate and graduate students from different universities in the Asian Specialization Group were given written assignments and the mistakes made by the students were examined and categorized within the framework of these assignments. As a result of the study, it was evaluated that the students were quite inadequate in Academic Turkish. It was observed that the students had deficiencies in subjects such as the use of words and affixes, subject-predicate agreement, the use of tense affixes, the use of complementary verbs, the use of active/passive constructions, the correct and appropriate use of conjunctions, sentence structures, summarizing, quoting, academic perspective, spelling, and punctuation.

Keywords: International Students of Turkish Origin, Asian Specialization Group, Academic Turkish, Writing Skills, Writing Errors/Mistakes

The Effect of The Creative Drama Method on Pre-Service Physical Education Teachers’ Classroom Management Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Communication Skills

Damla Güler & Fehmi Tuncel

pp. 103 - 117   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2023.579.7


This study aimed to reveal the effect of the creative drama method on the communication skills and classroom management self-efficacy beliefs of pre-service physical education teachers. The research group consisted of 47 pre-service physical education teachers (23 in the experimental group, 24 in the control group). The study followed an experimental design with pre-test and post-test control groups. While the experimental group conducted the classroom management lesson with the creative drama method for 10 weeks, the control group conducted it using the traditional method. Classroom management self-efficacy beliefs scale and communication skills scale were applied to the students in the first week before the classes began and in the last week after the classes finished.  The study used a one-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to compare the effectiveness of two different methods while keeping the common effect of students’ pre-test scores under check. The study results showed that using creative drama as a method in the classroom management lesson positively affects the classroom management self-efficacy beliefs and communication skills of pre-service physical education teachers.

Keywords: Classroom Management, Self-Efficacy, Communication Skills, Drama Method, Pre-Service Teachers

Investigation of the Relationship Between Perceptions of Self-Efficacy and Occupational Anxiety of Prospective Physical Education Teachers

Kemal Kurak

pp. 118 - 128   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2023.579.8


This study aims to examine the relationship between perceptions of self-efficacy and occupational anxiety of prospective physical education teachers. For this purpose, a total of 140 prospective physical education teachers, 55 females and 85 males, who were studying in physical education and sports teaching departments and who voluntarily agreed to participate in the study, participated in the study. The self-efficacy scale, which was developed by Tschannen-Moran and Hoy and examined for validity and reliability by Çapa et al., and Occupational Anxiety Scale for Physical Education Teachers, which was developed by McCormack and validity and examined for reliability by Özer et al., were conducted with the prospective physical education teachers. According to the findings obtained in the study, significant differences were determined in the variables of self-efficacy status, gender and doing licensed sports, while no significant difference was determined according to the variable of choosing the physical education teaching department. Moreover, it was determined that there was a moderate correlation between self-efficacy and occupational anxiety.

Keywords: Physical Education, Self-efficacy, Occupational Anxiety

Ismayıl Hakkı Baltacıoğlu's Vision for Painting Education for Young People in the Ottoman Period

Sabri Becerikli & İsmail Tetikçi

pp. 129 - 141   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2023.579.9


In this study, it was aimed to reveal the views of Ismayıl Hakkı, who was one of the important educators of the Ottoman period, on the teaching of painting and to evaluate his views in terms of today's painting education. The study was based on the documents written by Ismayıl Hakkı on the teaching of painting. These documents are his two different articles named "Resim Öğretmenin Yolu (The Way of Teaching Painting)" published in 1913 and the work "Resmin Usul-i Tedrisi (Teaching Methods of Painting)" published in 1915. The historical research method was used in the study. Historical research allows to learn and understand the events that took place in the past and to comprehend that the events that are taking place today, the situations that have arisen, and the existing views actually have a historical process. Since historical studies are based on documents belonging to the period, descriptive approach was preferred for data analysis in the study. The aim of the descriptive approach is to present the obtained data to the reader by staying as faithful as possible to their original form. 

Keywords: Ismayıl Hakkı, painting education, painting teaching methods

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