International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 1554-5210

Volume 18 Issue 3 (June 2022)

Issue Information

Issue Information

pp. i - vi   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.439



Original Articles

Social Studies for Democracy: Cultivating Communities of Inquiry for Filipino Students as Deliberative Citizens

Abigail Thea Canuto

pp. 1 - 11   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.439.1


This paper provides an overview of the problematic state of Philippine democracy that has long been attributed to the nation’s history of colonial rule, widespread poverty and inequality, oligarchic structures, and dysfunctional institutions.  It focuses on the role of education and Social Studies Education, specifically, in cultivating in Filipino citizens skills and attitudes necessary for active participation in deliberative democracy.  Drawing from Dewey’s philosophy of progressivist and democratic education, Peirce’s notion of community of inquiry, as well as Lipman’s Philosophy for/with Children, it sketches how Social Studies situated in classroom communities of inquiry will help develop communitarian dispositions and inquiry skills that are indispensable in a healthy and vibrant democracy.  While it is recognized that there are numerous other pedagogies that aim at similar purposes, it is argued that the community of inquiry enables a unique and robust learning process that allows students to think reflectively, explore various contexts and experiences, question their assumptions, identify their prejudices, and make their own conclusions through deliberative, intersubjective dialogue.

Keywords: Social Studies, Democratic Education, Philippine Education, Community of Inquiry, Philosophy for/with Children

The Relationships between the Academic Boredom and Lifelong Learning Tendency

Sultan Selen Kula

pp. 12 - 24   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.439.2


In this study, the relationship between academic boredom and lifelong learning tendency among pre-service teachers was examined. The study also examined whether academic boredom level and lifelong learning tendency differ in terms of perceived academic success and the willingness to engage in lessons. The research group consisted of 448 pre-service teachers, studying at a state university in Turkey. The research was designed as a correlational survey model. In the research, one-dimensional "Level of Boredom Scale" and four-dimensional "Lifelong Learning Tendency Scale" were used as measurement tools. Research results suggested that statistically, while pre-service teachers' self-perception level of success did not significantly affect academic boredom, it affected motivation, perseverance, and lack of regulating learning; sub-dimensions of lifelong learning. Also, pre-service teachers' willingness to engage in the lesson significantly affected both academic boredom and lifelong learning tendencies. There was no significant relationship between pre-service teachers’ academic boredom level and their lifelong learning tendency.

Keywords: Academic Boredom, Lifelong Learning, Perceived Success, Student Engagement, Self-Regulating Learning

Self-Efficacy Perceptions of Music Department Students on Instrument Performance

Şenol Afacan & Emin Erdem Kaya

pp. 25 - 43   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.439.3


The purpose of this study is to determine the self-efficacy perceptions of undergraduate students studying at the Music Department on individual instruments, and to examine whether students’ self-efficacy perception on instrument performance differed significantly according to various variables such as year, gender, the type of high school graduated from, the main instrument being studied, how much they practiced on their instrument, the individual instrument practice time, the instrument course grade, and the university being attended. The survey model, one of the quantitative research methods, was used in the research.The study group consisted of 102 students studying at the Music Department of Kırşehir Ahi Evran University’s Neşet Ertaş Faculty of Fine Arts (n=45) and the Music and Performing Arts Department of Nevşehir Hacı Bektaş Veli University’s Faculty of Fine Arts (n=57). For data collection, the Personal Information Form and the Instrument Performance Self-Efficacy Belief Scale developed by Girgin (2015) were used in the study. The twenty-item five-point Likert type scale has three sub-dimensions, namely self-efficacy, self-inefficacy, and psychological indicators. While analyzing the data, descriptive statistics and parametric tests, t-test and One Way Anova Test were used. The study results revealed that students’ self-efficacy perceptions on instrument performance were “undecided” in the total scale, and “disagree” in the self-inefficacy subdimension. Students’ self-efficacy perceptions differed significantly according to the variables of individual instrument practice time and the instrument course grade, and there was a significant difference in the psychological indicators subdimension according to the gender variable in favor of the males. Furthermore, there was no significant difference according to the variables of year, the type of high school graduated from, the main instrument being studied, and the university being attended. Recommendations were given based on the study results.

Keywords: Self-Efficacy Perception, Instrument Performance Self-Efficacy, Music Education, Faculty of Fine Arts

Evaluation of STEM SOS Model: Pre-Service Science Teachers’ Opinions

Hülya Dede

pp. 44 - 56   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.439.4


This study aims to evaluate the STEM SOS model based on the opinions of pre-service science teachers. For this aim, the contributions and the challenges of the STEM SOS model to pre-service science teachers were investigated. The participants consisted of 23 pre-service science teachers studying in the 4th grade of science teaching at a state university during the fall term of the 2018-2019 academic year. The descriptive case study design was used for the study's research method. The implementation was performed in an elective course called New Approaches in Science Teaching, and the implementation process study took nine weeks, two hours a week. Firstly pre-service science teachers were given theoretical knowledge about STEM education and the STEM SOS model and were informed about the purpose of the study. The participants were asked to decide on their project groups of 2-6 people and to perform Level III projects based on the STEM SOS Model by each group in implementation. A open-ended survey form developed by the researcher was used as a data collection tool at the end of the implementation. The data were analyzed by using the content analysis method. As a result, it was determined that the STEM SOS model has many contributions for pre-service science teachers grouped under five categories, such as producing products, satisfaction, developing skills, increasing research interest, and the ability to act with the group. In addition, the study concluded that pre-service science teachers encountered some challenges during the implementation of the STEM SOS model, grouped under three categories as the barriers related to the project, lack of knowledge skills, and disagreement with group mates. In the light of these findings, necessary suggestions were made.

Keywords: Level III Projects, Pre-Service Science Teachers, STEM SOS Model

How do Undergraduates Conceptualize Campus? A Metaphor Analysis

Esin Hazar, Hatice Yıldız & Ebru Bozpolat

pp. 57 - 70   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.439.5


This research examines how Turkish undergraduates construct “campus” metaphors to represent their opinions about campus phenomenon in the context of a Turkish university. The present study adopted a phenomenological approach. The participants of this study were 92 students in the 2020-2021 academic year from different faculties and departments at a university in Turkey. For data collection, a short interview form was used to reveal the perspectives of undergraduates on the phenomenon they have created in their minds for the campus. The form contained a statement with blanks for students to produce a simile and justification. The metaphors generated by the undergraduates are gathered under sixteen conceptual categories after the analysis of metaphors. Among the sixteen conceptual categories, there was no prominent difference in conceptualizations of campus between the groups in terms of study years as regards campus as “Involving diversities”, Provider”, “Designing/manufacturing”, “Source of experience”, “Improver”, “Socializing force”, “Friendship”, “Belonging”, “Source of life”, “Source of different emotions”. On the other hand, differences in terms of study year were marked concerning campus as “Dynamic”, “Undesired”, “Trust”, “Valuable”, “Full of nature”, and “Having borders”. While Freshmen/Sophomores perceived campus as “Trust”, “Full of nature” but “Having borders”, Juniors/Seniors considered campus as “Dynamic”, valuable but “Undesired”. Among the sixteen conceptual categories, there was no difference in conceptualizations of campus between the two groups in terms of gender as regards campus as “Provider”, “Designing/manufacturing”, “Source of experience”, “Improver”, “Friendship”, “Belonging”, “Source of life”, “Source of different emotions”. Nevertheless, differences in terms of gender were marked concerning campus as “Socializing force”, “Dynamic”, “Undesired”, “Trust”, “Valuable”, “Full of nature”, and “Having borders”. Female students perceived campus as a “Socializing force”, “Dynamic”, “Trust”, “Valuable”, and “Full of nature” whereas a male student considered it as “Having borders” like a country.

Keywords: Campus, Undergraduates, Metaphor

Can an Understanding of Personal Barriers to Coaching be Transposed to Provide an Understanding of Personal Barriers to Learning for English Boys in a Post-16 Education Context?

Voldis Kudliskis

pp. 71 - 90   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.439.6


The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine whether some personal inner and outer barriers found in coaching are reflected as personal inner and outer barriers to learning for boys in a post-16 education setting. The study predominantly sits within the interpretivist paradigm. This was an action research focus group case study that utilised a single qualitative methods approach. Participants, boys, engaged in a semi-structured interview that specifically examined their views relating to some personal inner and outer barriers to learning. It is a single-site, multi-voice study. ‘Positions of Consensus’ and individual comments are presented in relation to experiences of some inner and outer barriers to learning and the impact of these on engagement with learning. The results suggest that some inner and outer barriers identified in coaching can be transposed to aid understanding of some inner and outer barriers to learning. The outcome of this research provides some speculative evidence for boys, educationalists, managers, teachers and parents that some inner and outer barriers to learning impact negatively on engagement with learning for year 13 boys (boys between 17 and 19 years of age).

Keywords: Education; Coaching; Inner and Outer Barriers to Learning; Post-16 Education; Boys and Learning

The Characteristics of Gifted Students’ Perceptions of Intelligence

Dilek İlhan Beyaztaş

pp. 91 - 104   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.439.7


This study aims to determine the characteristics of gifted students’ perceptions of intelligence and the effective factors in the formation of these perceptions. The research is based on the explanatory sequential mixed-methods design. The research group consists of gifted students studying general ability in the fifth and seventh grades at Erzincan Science and Art Center. According to quantitative data of the study, the arithmetic means of the incremental theory of intelligence were higher than those of the fixed theory of intelligence on the basis of gender and grade level variables. However, qualitative data indicated that 9 (75%) of 12 students perceived intelligence as fixed.

Keywords: Gifted, Growth Mindset, Fixed Mindset, Perception of Intelligence

Development of English Paragraph Writing Self-Efficacy Belief Scale

Burcu Karafil & Aytunga Oğuz

pp. 105 - 120   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.439.8


In this study, it is aimed to develop a scale to evaluate English paragraph writing self-efficacy beliefs of university students. The scale was developed in three stages. In the first stage, literature review was conducted and expert opinions were taken.  A trial form consisting of 45 items in Likert-type was prepared. Moreover, a pilot study was performed. In the second stage, the validity analyses were conducted on the data obtained from 428 university students. In the selection of the sample group to apply the scale, convenience sampling method was used. The construct validity of the developed scale was determined by the Explanatory Factor Analysis (EFA). The results supported a structure with two factors consisting of 33 items. The first factor was named as “Writing Process and Rules” and the second factor was named as “Self-Regulation”. Additionally, Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was conducted to test whether the factors were correlated or uncorrelated. In addition, Pearson’s coefficient of correlation analysis was used to find the relationship between all the factors of the English paragraph writing self-efficacy belief scale. In the last stage, reliability study was conducted. The Cronbach Alpha reliability coefficient for the first factor was found as .97, and .96 for the second factor. The total reliability coefficient for the scale was as .99. After all the analyses, the English paragraph writing self-efficacy belief scale consisting of 33 items and two factors was developed. The results showed that the scale is a valid and reliable measurement tool.

Keywords: Belief, English, Scale Development, Self-Efficacy, Writing

Using Cooperative Learning and the Flipped Classroom Model with Prospective Teachers To Increase Digital Literacy Self-Efficacy, Technopedagogical Education, and 21st-Century Skills Competence

Serkan Aslan

pp. 121 - 137   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.439.9


The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cooperative learning on the digital literacy self-efficacy, technopedagogical education competence, and 21st-century skills competence perceptions of prospective teachers based on the flipped classroom model. The research used an experimental pattern with pretest-posttest and a control group, which is one of the semi-experimental models. The participants were 68 prospective science teachers studying at the 2nd and 3rd grades at a public university in the 2019–2020 academic year. Three scales were used to develop the data collection tool for the study: a Digital Literacy Self-Efficacy Scale; a Technopedagogical Education Competence Scale, and a 21st-Century Skills Competence Perception Scale. The results showed that a cooperative learning model and a flipped classroom model were both significantly effective in developing the pre-service teachers’ skills. However, this study showed that cooperative learning used in conjunction with the flipped classroom model was more effective than the cooperative learning model used alone. It is recommended that technology-based student-centered models be used in teacher training programs.

Keywords: Cooperative/Collaborative Learning, Distance Education and Online Learning, Improving Classroom Teaching, Teaching/Learning Strategies, 21st Century Abilities

The Effect of Class Attendance on Learners' Success in Mathematics Course During Distance Education Process

Ömer Yılmaz

pp. 138 - 149   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.439.10


The aim of this study is to determine the effect of class attendance during distance education process on academic success. The research was conducted among 46 students studying in sixth and seventh graders in a private educational institute in Elazığ city. As data collection tool, four achievement tests designed at the Central Office of relevant institution were employed and validity and reliability of the tests were ensured before application. Required approvals were taken prior to administering achievement tests in the research and before sharing collected data. In identifying the relationship between class attendance and exam success scores correlation analysis was harnessed and in determining their predictive power multiple regression analysis was applied. In sum, at the end of consecutive measurements it was identified that class attendance has a positive relationship with exam success scores.

Keywords: Distance Education, Class Attendance, Academic Success, Regression Analysis

The Relationship Between Environmental Factors and Reading Comprehension

Seval Çiğdemir & Hayati Akyol

pp. 150 - 164   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.439.11


This study aimed to determine the relationship between environmental factors and elementary-school fourth-grade students' reading comprehension levels. In the research, the relational scanning model, one of the quantitative research methods, was applied. The research was conducted in Ankara in the 2019-2020 and 2020-2021 academic years. The research group consisted of 365 fourth-grade students, 365 parents, and 11 classroom teachers who taught these students. The Reading Comprehension Scale, the Family Effectiveness Scale for Creating a Reading Culture, and the Teacher Effectiveness Scale for Reading were used for data collection. ANOVA, t-test, frequency, and percentage values were applied for analysis. As a result of the findings, it was seen that there was a significant relationship between family income level and reading comprehension, and that the reading comprehension scores of the students in the upper-income group differed significantly from those in the middle and lower groups. It was determined that the average comprehension of the students whose parents had an undergraduate or higher education level was significantly higher. Gender was significantly correlated in favor of the female students. It was observed that the type of school the students attended made a significant difference in favor of the students attending a private school. It was determined that the activities performed by the teachers with regard to reading comprehension did not make a significant difference to their reading comprehension average scores. As a result, the data will shed new light on future studies that will contribute to research regarding reading comprehension.

Keywords: Reading Comprehension, Family, Teacher, School Type

The Listening Barriers Scale for University Students: A Study of Validity and Reliability

Mehmet Katrancı & Deniz Melanlıoğlu

pp. 165 - 182   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.439.12


Being the most used skill in the school environment as well as being the first skill to be acquired, listening can be defined as making sense of the sounds heard in the communication process and responding as a result of this interpretation. The fact that the response given at the end of a listening process is appropriate for the context is associated with completing the listening process without encountering any obstacles. However, the conducted studies emphasize that students encounter many listening barriers during the listening process. It is considered that it is important for the development of listening skills to detect the barriers to effective listening, which is a major source of school learning, at every education level from pre-school to university. In this context, the aim of the study is to develop a scale to determine the listening barriers encountered by university students in the course process. The data of the research were obtained from 587 students studying in different departments of Kırıkkale University in Turkey. In the development of the measurement tool, literature review, item pooling, content validity (consulting to expert opinion), and pilot scheme stages were followed, and then necessary reliability calculations were carried out. In line with the scores obtained from the tool, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis was carried out in order to test the construct validity of the draft scale. As a result of the factor analysis, it was determined that the scale revealed a three-factor structure classified as “teacher related listening barriers”, “student related listening barriers”, and “classroom environment and course related listening barriers”, and the Cronbach’s Alpha internal consistency coefficient was detected as .93 for the overall scale. As a result of the research, a 30-item scale was developed to determine the listening barriers encountered by university students.

Keywords: Listening Skill, Listening Barriers, Academic Listening, University Students, Listening Barriers Scale

Do Pre-Service Turkish Language Teachers Succeed In Developing Argumentative Writing Skills?

Mustafa Uluocak & Ozan İpek

pp. 183 - 204   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.439.13


The purpose of the study is to determine pre-service Turkish language teachers' use of text structure elements and their awareness and experience with argumentative writing. The research was designed as a case study, which included 115 undergraduate students studying Turkish language teaching. The data of the study consisted of the participants' argumentative writings and interviews. As data collection tools, the researchers developed an "Evaluation Rubric of Argumentative Text Elements" by conducting validity and reliability tests and prepared a "Semi-structured Interview Form" to uncover the participants' experiences and opinions about argumentative writing. Quantitative data were evaluated using descriptive statistical techniques, and qualitative data were analyzed through thematic analysis. The quantitative results showed that the average success of the participants was 75.2% in topic element, 72.6% in claim element, 65.6% in the element of supporting a claim, 42.3% in counterclaim and backing for the counterclaim, 36.8% in grounds for rebuttals, 49.3% in conclusion element, and the overall average success was 56.54%. The qualitative results indicated that the participants' awareness of argumentative text structure was weak. Lastly, the participants' experiences with and opinions on argumentative writing were categorized to determine the factors that contributed to their success.

Keywords: Argumentative Writing, Text Elements, Pre-service Turkish Language Teacher

University Students' Cognitive Bias in the Context of Their Analytical Thinking Skills: A Reliability and Validity Study

Emine Akkaş Baysal & Gürbüz Ocak

pp. 205 - 225   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.439.14


This study aimed to develop a reliable and valid scale to reveal the cognitive biases of university students in context of analytical thinking skills. During scale development process, firstly, a 5-point Likert type scale pre-trial form consisting of 60 items was created. The pre-trial form was applied to 450 students in Afyon Kocatepe University. Both exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used. According to analyzes, the scale consists of 5 sub-dimensions and 25 items. In the exploratory factor analysis, it was seen that the items had a factor load of .55 to .81. It was determined as 51.818% of the variance value determined for the whole scale. CFA result χ²=614; RMSEA=0.0540; SRMR=0.0540; CFI=0.885 and TLI=0.870 has reached acceptable compliance values with. Cronbach's alpha was calculated as 0.76. Approximately 30 days after developing the scale, test-retest reliability analysis was performed with 40 participants (r=0.869;p<.05). The findings show that a valid and reliable measurement tool has emerged. The scale was named as “The Scale of Cognitive Bias in the Context of Analytical Thinking Skills”.

Keywords: Analytical Thinking, Cognitive Bias, Scale, University

The Effect of Activity-Based Poetry Studies on Reading Fluency and Creative Writing Skills

Mehmet Razgatlıoğlu & Mustafa Ulusoy

pp. 226 - 243   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.439.15


The study aims to reveal the effect of ABPS on the reading fluency and creative writing skills of third-grade students at primary school. The research study group consists of 56 students, 26 in the experimental group and 30 in the control group, studying in the third grade. While ABPS was implemented in the experimental group, the control group continued their classes according to the Turkish Course Curriculum. The Error Analysis Inventory, Prosodic Reading Scale, Running Record Chart, Accuracy Rate Chart, Prosody Record Chart, and Poetry Writing Rubric were used as data collection tools in the research. The experimental implementation process lasted for 18 weeks. Different reading fluency strategies and poetry writing techniques were used together at each stage of the practice process based on poems. As a result of the research, it was determined that the students in the experimental group made more progress in all sub-dimensions of creative writing than the control group. Additionally, it was found out that the activities contributed to the students' reading rate and prosodic reading skills.

Keywords: Activity-Based Poetry Studies, Poetry, Reading Fluency, Creative Writing, Primary School Students

The Effects of the Mathematics Education Program Supported by Stories on the Mathematical Skills of 48–60-Month-old Children

Perihan Tuğba Şeker & Zeynep Metin

pp. 244 - 258   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.439.16


This study aims to develop a mathematics education program supported by stories for 48–60-month-old children attending pre-school education institutions and examine its effect on children's early mathematics skills. The study group consists of 48–60-month-oldchildren who continue pre-school education in an independent kindergarten affiliated with the Ministry of National Education in Usak province, in 2020-2021.The study was carried out with 33 children, 18 in the experimental and 15 in the control group. A pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design with a control group was used in the study. Test of Early Mathematics Ability -3 (TEMA-3), developed by Ginsburg and Barody, was used to collect data. The test's adaptation, validity, and reliability to 48-60-month-old Turkish children had been conducted by Seker (2013). Regarding data collection, TEMA-3 was administered as a pre-test to the experimental and control group students before implementing the program. After the pre-test, the "Mathematics Education Program Supported by Stories" was instructed to the experimental group three (3) days a week for eight (8) weeks. During the implementation, "Mathematics Education Program Supported by Stories" was instructed to the children in the experimental group by the researcher; the daily education flow specified in the 2013 Pre-School Education Program was continued for the control group children. The data obtained from the research were analyzed with the SPSS statistical program. Independent and dependent t-tests were used to test the difference between the pre-test and post-test between and within groups. Based on the findings obtained from the analyzes, there was no significant difference between the pre-test scores. However, there was a significant difference between the post-test scores in favor of the experimental group. It was concluded that the mathematics education program supported by stories effectively improved children's mathematics skills.

Keywords: Early Childhood Education, Preschool Education, Early Math, Child

The Impact of Peer Review on Pre-Service Science Teachers’ Written Arguments about Socioscientific Issues Related to Chemistry

Esra Capkinoglu, Gulsen Leblebicioglu, Duygu Metin Peten & Pinar Seda Cetin

pp. 259 - 277   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.439.17


This study investigated the impact of peer review on developing pre-service science teachers’ (PSTs) written arguments about socioscientific issues related to chemistry. In the study, a quasi-experimental design was used with experimental (32 PSTs) and comparison class (33 PSTs). The participants were PSTs who were juniors in a public university in Turkey. Argumentation procedure for each group was conducted by the same instructor identically except peer review of written arguments in the experimental class. Toulmin’s (1958) argument pattern was used for coding the arguments, and argumentation levels were determined by the levels proposed by Venville and Dawson (2010). Results indicated that the experimental class generated more Level 3 and Level 4 argumentation comprises more complex arguments than the comparison class. In both groups, more complex arguments were generated in the contexts of the use of medicine and home chemicals whereas less complex arguments were generated in the context of chemical additives in food. The conclusions and implications for science educators and researchers were discussed.

Keywords: Peer Feedback, Peer Review, Pre-Service Science Teachers, Socioscientific Issues in Chemistry, Written Argument

The Relationship Between Psychological Resilience, Teachers' Self-Efficacy and Attitudes Towards Teaching Profession: A Path Analysis

Hasan Kavgacı

pp. 278 - 296   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.439.18


The purpose of this research was to examine the relationships between prospective teachers’ psychological resilience, teacher self-efficacy beliefs, and their attitudes towards the teaching profession. In this respect, a hypothetical model showing the causal relationships between the variables was developed and tested with path analysis within the structural equation modelling. Data were collected online from 247 prospective teachers who studied at pedagogical formation programs at a university in Turkey using Teachers’ Sense of Efficacy Scale, Brief Resilient Coping Scale, and Attitude Towards Teaching Profession Scale. The results revealed that there were positive and significant relationships between all of the research variables. The fit indices for the path analysis model showed that the model had a good fit with the data. Accordingly, the psychological resilience of prospective teachers directly affects their attitudes towards the teaching profession and self-efficacy beliefs. In addition, the psychological resilience of prospective teachers also indirectly and positively affects their attitudes towards the teaching profession through their self-efficacy beliefs. Based on the results, some recommendations were made.

Keywords: Prospective Teachers, Resilience, Self-Efficacy, Attitudes Towards Teaching Profession

Analyzing Perceived Listening Self-Efficacy of Pre-Service Teachers

Nahi̇de İrem Azi̇zoğlu

pp. 297 - 308   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.439.19


Listening, which is one of the four basic language skills, affects not only the academic success of individuals but also their communication in daily life. Effective use of listening skills is essential for achieving interpersonal communication and for allowing individuals to gain new knowledge. Listening self-efficacy of individuals is a variable that affects their perspective on listening and their understanding of what they are listening. This study thus aims to determine the listening self-efficacy levels of pre-service teachers and to examine their listening self-efficacy by gender, department, grade level, and academic grade point average. To do so, it draws on descriptive survey method. Its universe consists of pre-service teachers studying at Faculty of Education, Sakarya University. Its sample includes 561 volunteer pre-service teachers studying in different departments at Faculty of Education, Sakarya University, who are selected through stratified sampling method. The data were collected using the Perception of Listening Self-Efficacy scale designed by Kurudayıoğlu and Kana in 2013. The findings of this study indicate that the female pre-service teachers have higher levels of listening self-efficacy, that grade level and GPA increase as listening self-efficacy increases, and that departments affect listening self-efficacy.

Keywords: Listening, Self-Efficacy, Listening Self-Efficacy

Investigation of Secondary School Students' Critical Reading Skills and Listening/Watching Usage Strategies by Structural Equation Model

Aysel Arslan

pp. 309 - 325   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.439.20


The purpose of this study is to examine secondary school students' critical reading skills and listening/watching strategies in line with different variables, and to determine whether their critical reading skills have an effect on their listening/watching strategies. The sample of the research consists of 800 students, 380 girls, and 420 boys, in the fall semester of the 2021-2022 academic year. The data of the study were collected using the general survey model, one of the quantitative research methods, and a randomized research design. The research data were obtained with "Critical Reading Scale" and "Frequency of Using Listening/Watching Strategies Scale". For the assumption of normality, the skewness and kurtosis values of the data were examined. In the analyses, independent groups t-test, single groups ANOVA, Tukey tests, and path analysis (Path) in accordance with structural equation modeling (SEM) were used. The findings of the analyses showed that the variables of gender, class level, education level of the mother and father lead to a significant difference in the total scores of both scales and in the sub-factors of frequency of using listening/watching strategies. The findings of the path analysis showed that the established model was acceptable, and it was found that students' critical reading levels had a significant and positive effect on the level of listening/watching strategies they used.

Keywords: Critical Reading, Listening/Watching, Strategy, Secondary School, SEM

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