International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 1554-5210

Original article | International Journal of Progressive Education 2022, Vol. 18(3) 278-296

The Relationship Between Psychological Resilience, Teachers' Self-Efficacy and Attitudes Towards Teaching Profession: A Path Analysis

Hasan Kavgacı

pp. 278 - 296   |  DOI: https://doi.org/10.29329/ijpe.2022.439.18   |  Manu. Number: MANU-2111-22-0004

Published online: June 01, 2022  |   Number of Views: 9  |  Number of Download: 25


Abstract

The purpose of this research was to examine the relationships between prospective teachers’ psychological resilience, teacher self-efficacy beliefs, and their attitudes towards the teaching profession. In this respect, a hypothetical model showing the causal relationships between the variables was developed and tested with path analysis within the structural equation modelling. Data were collected online from 247 prospective teachers who studied at pedagogical formation programs at a university in Turkey using Teachers’ Sense of Efficacy Scale, Brief Resilient Coping Scale, and Attitude Towards Teaching Profession Scale. The results revealed that there were positive and significant relationships between all of the research variables. The fit indices for the path analysis model showed that the model had a good fit with the data. Accordingly, the psychological resilience of prospective teachers directly affects their attitudes towards the teaching profession and self-efficacy beliefs. In addition, the psychological resilience of prospective teachers also indirectly and positively affects their attitudes towards the teaching profession through their self-efficacy beliefs. Based on the results, some recommendations were made.

Keywords: Prospective Teachers, Resilience, Self-Efficacy, Attitudes Towards Teaching Profession


How to Cite this Article?

APA 6th edition
Kavgaci, H. (2022). The Relationship Between Psychological Resilience, Teachers' Self-Efficacy and Attitudes Towards Teaching Profession: A Path Analysis . International Journal of Progressive Education, 18(3), 278-296. doi: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.439.18

Harvard
Kavgaci, H. (2022). The Relationship Between Psychological Resilience, Teachers' Self-Efficacy and Attitudes Towards Teaching Profession: A Path Analysis . International Journal of Progressive Education, 18(3), pp. 278-296.

Chicago 16th edition
Kavgaci, Hasan (2022). "The Relationship Between Psychological Resilience, Teachers' Self-Efficacy and Attitudes Towards Teaching Profession: A Path Analysis ". International Journal of Progressive Education 18 (3):278-296. doi:10.29329/ijpe.2022.439.18.

References
  1. Akbaba, S. (2002). Öğretmen yetiştirmede mesleki rehberliğin yeri ve önemi [The place and importance of vocational guidance in teacher training]. Millî Eğitim Dergisi, 155-156, 21-31. [Google Scholar]
  2. Akyüz, Y. (2005). Türk eğitim tarihi [Turkish education history]. Pegem A. [Google Scholar]
  3. Akyüz, Y. (2006). Türkiye’de öğretmen yetiştirmenin 160. yılında Darülmuallimîn’in ilk yıllarına toplu ve yeni bir bakış [A new and overall view to the first years of Darülmuallimîn (Teacher Training College) in the 160th anniversary of teacher training in Turkey]. OTAM Ankara Üniversitesi Osmanlı Tarihi Araştırma ve Uygulama Merkezi Dergisi, 20(20), 17-58. https://doi.org/10.1501/OTAM_0000000532 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  4. Albarracin, D., Zanna, M. P., Johnson, B., & Kumkale, G. (2005). Attitudes: Introduction and scope. In D. Albarracin, B. T. Johnson, & M. P. Zanna (Eds.), The handbook of attitudes (pp. 3–19). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. [Google Scholar]
  5. Alkhateeb, H. M. (2013). Attitudes towards teaching profession of education students in Qatar. Comprehensive Psychology, 2, 01.03.IT.2.9. https://doi.org/10.2466/01.03.IT.2.9 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  6. Altınkurt, Y., Yılmaz, K., & Erol, E. (2014). Pedagojik formasyon programı öğrencilerinin öğretmenlik mesleğine yönelik motivasyonları [Pedagogic formation program students’ motivations for teaching profession]. Trakya Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 4(1), 48-62. [Google Scholar]
  7. Altuntaş, S., & Genç, H. (2020). Mutluluğun yordayıcısı olarak psikolojik sağlamlık: Öğretmen örnekleminin incelenmesi [Resilience as predictor of happiness: Investigation of teacher sample]. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 35(4), 936-948. [Google Scholar]
  8. Arastaman, G. (2013). Eğitim ve fen edebiyat fakültesi öğrencilerinin öz-yeterlik inançları ve öğretmenlik mesleğine karşı tutumlarının incelenmesi [Investigation of self-efficacy beliefs and attitudes towards teaching profession of education and science and literature faculty students]. Journal of Kırşehir Education Faculty, 14(2), pp.205-217. [Google Scholar]
  9. Aronson, E., Wilson, T. D. & Sommers, S. (2019). Social psychology (10th Edition). Pearson. [Google Scholar]
  10. Arslan, A. (2019). The mediating role of prospective teachers’ teaching self-efficacy between self-efficacy sources and attitude towards teaching profession. International Journal of Educational Methodology, 5(1), 87-96. https://doi.org/10.12973/ijem.5.1.101 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  11. Avey, J. B., Luthans, F., Smith, R. M., & Palmer, N. F. (2010). Impact of positive psychological capital on employee well-being over time. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 15(1), 17-28. [Google Scholar]
  12. Avey, J. B., Reichard, R. J., Luthans, F., & Mhatre, K. H. (2011). Meta-analysis of the impact of positive psychological capital on employee attitudes, behaviors, and performance. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 22(2), 127-152.  [Google Scholar]
  13. Azar, A. (2011). Türkiye’deki öğretmen eğitimi üzerine bir söylem: Nitelik mi, nicelik mi? [Quality or Quantity: A Statement for Teacher Training in Turkey]. Yükseköğretim ve Bilim Dergisi, 1, 36-38. [Google Scholar]
  14. Bakaç, E., & Özen, R. (2017). Pedagojik formasyon öğrencilerinin öğretmenlik mesleğine yönelik öz-yeterlik inançları ile tutumları arasındaki ilişki [Relationship between pedagocical certificate program students’ attitudes and self-efficacy beliefs towards teacher profession]. Kastamonu Eğitim Dergisi, 25(4), 1389-1404. https://doi.org/10.24106/kefdergi.332474 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  15. Bal, A. P. (2017). The effect of pedagogic formation training on vocational attitudes of mathematics teacher candidates. International Journal of Social Sciences and Education Research, 3(1), 58-69. https://doi.org/10.24289/ijsser.283587 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  16. Bandura, A. (1982). Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. American Psychologist, 37(2), 122-147. [Google Scholar]
  17. Basım, H. N., Korkmazyürek, H., & Tokat, A. O. (2008). Çalışanların öz yeterlilik algılamasının yenilikçilik ve risk alma üzerine etkisi: Kamu sektöründe bir araştırma [The effect of employees' self-efficacy on innovation and risk-taking]. Selçuk Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 19, 121-130.  [Google Scholar]
  18. Başbay, M., Ünver, G., & Bümen, N. T. (2009). Ortaöğretim alan öğretmenliği tezsiz yüksek lisans öğrencilerinin öğretmenlik mesleğine yönelik tutumları: Boylamsal bir çalışma [A longitudinal study on secondary education teacher candidates’ attitudes towards teaching profession] Kuram ve Uygulamada Eğitim Yönetimi, 59(59), 345-366.  [Google Scholar]
  19. Bono, J. E., & Judge, T. A. (2003). Core self-evaluations: A review of the trait and its role in job satisfaction and job performance. European Journal of Personality, 17(1), 5-18. https://doi.org/10.1002/per.481 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  20. Bümen, N. T., & Özaydın, T. E. (2013). Adaylıktan göreve öğretmen özyeterliği ve öğretmenlik mesleğine yönelik tutumlardaki değişimler [Changes on teacher self-efficacy and attitudes towards teaching profession from candidacy to induction]. Education and Science, 38(169), 109-125. http://egitimvebilim.ted.org.tr/index.php/EB/article/view/1795 [Google Scholar]
  21. Büyükşahin Çevik, G., Doğan, İ., & Yıldız, M. A. (2016). Pedagojik formasyon eğitimi alan öğrencilerin yılmazlık ve tükenmişliklerinin incelenmesi [Examination of burnout and resilience in pedagogy formation students]. Mersin Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 12(3), 971-984. [Google Scholar]
  22. Caprara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., Steca, P., & Malone, P. S. (2006). Teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs as determinants of job satisfaction and students’ academic achievement: A study at the school level. Journal of School Psychology, 44(6), 473-490. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsp.2006.09.001 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  23. Çapa, Y., Çakıroğlu, J., & Sarıkaya, H. (2005).  Turkish version of the teachers’ sense of efficacy scale (TTSES).  http://people.ehe.ohiostate.edu/ahoy/files/2009/02/ttses.pdf [Google Scholar]
  24. Çokluk, Ö. S., Şekercioğlu, G. & Büyüköztürk, S. (2012). Sosyal bilimler için çok değişkenli istatistik: SPSS ve lisrel uygulamaları [Multivariate statistics for social sciences: SPSS and lisrel applications]. Ankara: Pegem Akademi Yayıncılık.  [Google Scholar]
  25. Dadandi, İ., Kalyon, A., & Yazici, H. (2016). Eğitim fakültesinde öğrenim gören ve pedagojik formasyon eğitimi alan öğretmen adaylarının öz-yeterlik inançları, kaygı düzeyleri ve öğretmenlik mesleğine karşı tutumları [Teacher self-efficacy beliefs, concerns and attitudes towards teaching profession of faculty of education and pedagogical formation students]. Bayburt Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 11(1), 253-269. [Google Scholar]
  26. Demirtaş, H., Cömert, M., & Özer, N. (2011). Öğretmen adaylarının özyeterlik inançları ve öğretmenlik mesleğine ilişkin tutumları [Pre-service teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs and attitudes towards profession] Education and Science, 36(159), 96-111. http://eb.ted.org.tr/index.php/EB/article/view/278 [Google Scholar]
  27. Djourova, N. P., Rodríguez Molina, I., Tordera Santamatilde, N., & Abate, G. (2020). Self-efficacy and resilience: Mediating mechanisms in the relationship between the transformational leadership dimensions and well-being. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 27(3), 256-270. https://doi.org/10.1177/1548051819849002 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  28. Eraslan, L., & Çakıcı, D. (2011). Pedagojik formasyon programı öğrencilerinin öğretmenlik mesleğine yönelik tutumları [Attitudes of pedagogical formation program students towards teaching profession]. Kastamonu Eğitim Dergisi, 19(2), 427-438.  [Google Scholar]
  29. Fathi, J., & Saeedian, A. (2020). A structural model of teacher self-efficacy, resilience, and burnout among Iranian EFL teachers. Iranian Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 9(2), 14-28. [Google Scholar]
  30. Field, A. (2009). Discovering statistics using SPSS (3rd Edition). London: Sage Publications.  [Google Scholar]
  31. Folkman, S., & Moskowitz, J. T. (2003). Positive psychology from a coping perspective. Psychological Inquiry: An International Journal for the Advancement of Psychological Theory, 14(2), 121-125.  [Google Scholar]
  32. Fraenkel, J. R., & Wallen, N. E. (2009). How to design and evaluate research in education (Seventh Edition). New York: McGraw-Hill Companies. [Google Scholar]
  33. Ghaith, G., & Yaghi, H. (1997). Relationships among experience, teacher efficacy, and attitudes toward the implementation of instructional innovation. Teaching and Teacher Education, 13(4), 451-458. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0742-051X(96)00045-5 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  34. Gönen, T. (2020). Özel okullarda çalışan öğretmenlerin psikolojik sağlamlıkları ve iş doyumlarının mesleki tükenmişlik düzeylerine etkisi: Mardin ili örneği [The effect of psychological robustness and job satisfaction of teachers working in private schools on their levels of professional burnout: The sample of Mardin province]. Master Thesis. YÖK Tez Bankası (Thesis No: 612409) [Google Scholar]
  35. Gurol, M., Turkan, A., & Som, İ. (2018). Pedagojik formasyon sertifika programının değerlendirilmesi [Evaluation of the pedagogical formation certificate program]. Elektronik Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 17(65), 103-122. https://doi.org/10.17755/esosder.306839 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  36. Gül, Ş., & Erkol, M. (2015). Pedagojik formasyon programı öğrencilerinin çağdaş öğretmen niteliklerine ilişkin görüşleri ve öğretmenlik mesleğine yönelik tutumları [Pedagogical formation program students' views on contemporary teacher qualifications and their attitudes towards the teaching profession]. Dicle Üniversitesi Ziya Gökalp Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 25, 76-92. https://doi.org/10.14582/DUZG [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  37. Gürbüz, H., & Kişoğlu, M. (2007). Tezsiz yüksek lisans programına devam eden fen edebiyat ve eğitim fakültesi öğrencilerinin öğretmenlik mesleğine yönelik tutumları (Atatürk Üniversitesi örneği) [Attitudes of the science and art faculty students and education faculty students attend the nonthesis graduated education program toward teaching profession-Atatürk university sample]Erzincan Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 9(2), 71-83. [Google Scholar]
  38. Gülşen, C., & Seyratlı, E. (2014). Formasyon eğitimi alan öğretmen adaylarının öğretmenlik mesleğine ilişkin tutumları [The attitudes of teacher candidates towards their profession who take teacher certificate program]. Eğitim ve Öğretim Araştırmaları Dergisi, 3(3), 14-25. [Google Scholar]
  39. Hayes, A. F. (2009). Beyond Baron and Kenny: Statistical mediation analysis in the new millennium. Communication Monographs, 76(4), 408-420. [Google Scholar]
  40. Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6(1), 1-55. [Google Scholar]
  41. Jain, R. (2007). A study of teaching effectiveness of teachers and their attitudes towards the teaching profession. Journal of Indian Education, 33(1).  [Google Scholar]
  42. Kağıtçıbaşı, Ç., & Cemalcılar, Z. (2014). Dünden bugüne insan ve insanlar-sosyal psikolojiye giriş [Human and people from past to present introduction to social psychology] (16th ed.). Evrim. [Google Scholar]
  43. Kanadlı, S. (2017). Prospective teachers’ professional self-efficacy beliefs in terms of their perceived autonomy support and attitudes towards the teaching profession: A mixed methods study. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 17(5), Article 5. https://doi.org/10.12738/estp.2017.5.0597 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  44. Kanadlı, S., & Karakuş, F. (2016). The effect of pedagogical formation certificate program on prospective teachers’ professional self-efficacy and attitudes: A mixed-method study. Journal of Human Sciences, 13(3), 3807-3826. [Google Scholar]
  45. Kara, K., & Ada, K. (2021). The relationship between attitudes toward the teaching profession, occupational resilience belief, and extra-role behavior: A moderated mediation model. Journal of Pedagogical Research, 5(3), 105-121. https://doi.org/10.33902/JPR.2021371258 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  46. Karagöz, Y. (2019). SPSS - AMOS - META Uygulamalı istatistiksel analizler [SPSS-AMOS-META Applied statistical analysis] (2nd Ed). Pegem. [Google Scholar]
  47. Kavak, Y., Aydın, A., & Altun, S. A. (2007). Öğretmen yetiştirme ve eğitim fakülteleri (1982-2007): Öğretmenin üniversitede yetiştirilmesinin değerlendirilmesi [Teacher training and education faculties (1982-2007): Evaluation of teacher training at universities]. T.C. Yükseköğretim Kurulu. https://www.yok.gov.tr/Documents/Yayinlar/ Yayinlarimiz/ogretmen-yetistirme-ve-egitim-fakulteleri.pdf [Google Scholar]
  48. Kavgacı, H. (2014). İlköğretim kurumu öğretmenlerinin işle bütünleşme düzeylerinin bireysel ve örgütsel değişkenlerle ilişkisi [The relationship of primary school teachers’ work engagement with organizational and personal variables]. Doctoral dissertation. YÖK Tez Arşivi (Thesis No: 366266).  [Google Scholar]
  49. Kavgacı, H., & Çalık, T. (2017). Öğretmenlerin İşle bütünleşme düzeylerinin örgütsel ve bireysel değişkenlerle ilişkisi: Bir çoklu aracılık modeli [The relationship of teachers’ work engagement with organizational and personal variables: A multiple mediator model]. Kuram ve Uygulamada Eğitim Yönetimi, 23(2), 223-248 https://doi.org/10.14527/kuey.2017.008 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  50. Kim, N., & Lay, Y. (2017). The relationship between resilience and perceived practicum stress: The mediating role of self-efficacy. Sains Humanika, 9. https://doi.org/10.11113/sh.v9n1-4.1123 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  51. Kline, R. B. (2011). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (3rd Edition). New York: The Guilford Press.  [Google Scholar]
  52. Larson, M., & Luthans, F. (2006). Potential added value of psychological capital in predicting work attitudes. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 13(2), 75-92. https://doi.org/10.1177/10717919070130020601 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  53. Le Cornu, R. (2009). Building resilience in pre-service teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education, 25(5), 717-723. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2008.11.016  [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  54. Llorens, S., Schaufeli, W.  B., Bakker, A., & Salanova, M. (2007).  Does a positive gain spiral of resources, efficacy beliefs and engagement exist? Computers in Human Behavior, 23(1), 825-841.  [Google Scholar]
  55. Luthans, F. (2002a). Positive organizational behavior: Developing and managing psychological strengths. The Academy of Management Executive, 16(1), 57-75.  [Google Scholar]
  56. Luthans, F. (2002b). The need for and meaning of positive organizational behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23(6), 695-706. [Google Scholar]
  57. Luthans, F., Avolio, B. J., Walumbwa, F. O., & Li, W. (2005). The psychological capital of Chinese workers: Exploring the relationship with performance. Management and Organization Review, 1(2), 249-271. [Google Scholar]
  58. Luthans, F., Youssef, C. M., & Avolio, B. J. (2006). Psychological capital: Developing the human competitive edge. Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso /9780195187526.001.0001 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  59. Milli Eğitim Temel Kanunu [National Education Basic Act] 1973. (Tr.) https://www.mevzuat. gov.tr/MevzuatMetin/1.5.1739.pdf [Google Scholar]
  60. Minulescu, M. (2015). Is university capable to build resilience in students?. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 180, 1628-1631. [Google Scholar]
  61. Murphy, L. B. (1987). Further reflections on resilience. In E. J. Anthony and B. J. Cohler (Eds), The Invulnerable Child (pp. 84–105). New York: The Guilford Press. [Google Scholar]
  62. Özoğlu, M. (2010). Türkiye’de öğretmen yetiştirme sisteminin sorunları [The problems of teacher training system in Turkey]. Seta Analiz, Number:17. https://www.setav.org [Google Scholar]
  63. Öztürk, C. (2008). Türkiye’de öğretmen yetiştiren kurumlar tarihi literatürü [The literature of teacher training institutions in Turkey]. Türkiye Araştırmaları Literatür Dergisi, 12, 487-520. [Google Scholar]
  64. Parylo, O., Süngü, H., & Ilgan, A. (2015). Connecting attitudes toward teaching and pedagogical formation courses: A study of Turkish pre-service teachers. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 40(5). https://doi.org/10.14221/ajte.2015v40n5.5 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  65. Perera, H. N., Calkins, C., & Part, R. (2019). Teacher self-efficacy profiles: Determinants, outcomes, and generalizability across teaching level. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 58, 186-203. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2019.02.006 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  66. Polat, S. (2013). Pedagojik formasyon sertifika programı ve eğitim fakültesi öğrencilerinin öğretmenlik mesleğine yönelik tutumlarının incelenmesi [Investigating the attitudes of students from pedagogical formation certificate programs and faculties of education on the profession of teaching]. E-International Journal of Educational Research, 4(2), 48-60. https://doi.org/10.19160/ijer.105418 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  67. Polat, S. (2014). Pedagojik formasyon eğitimi sertifika programı öğrencilerinin öğretmenlik mesleğine yönelme nedenleri [The reasons for the pedagogical formation training certificate program students’-who have jobs-tending to choose the teaching profession]. Journal of Human Sciences, 11(1), 128-144. [Google Scholar]
  68. Polk, L. V. (1997). Toward a middle-range theory of resilience. Advances in Nursing Science, 19(3), 1-13.  [Google Scholar]
  69. Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2008). Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavior Research Methods, 40(3), 879-891. [Google Scholar]
  70. Razmjoo, S. A. (2019). On the relationship between teacher resilience and self- efficacy: The case of Iranian EFL teachers. Journal of English Language Teaching and Learning, 11(23), 277-292. [Google Scholar]
  71. Recepoğlu, E. (2013). Öğretmen adaylarının yaşam doyumları ile öğretmenlik mesleğine ilişkin tutumları arasındaki ilişkinin incelenmesi [Analyzing the relationship between prospective teachers’ life satisfaction and attitudes concerning teaching profession]. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, Özel Sayı(1), 311-326. [Google Scholar]
  72. Ross, J. A. (1992). Teacher efficacy and the effects of coaching on student achievement. Canadian Journal of Education, 17(1), 51-65. [Google Scholar]
  73. Ross, J. A. (1994). The impact of an inservice to promote cooperative learning on the stability of teacher efficacy. Teaching & Teacher Education, 10(4), 381-394.  [Google Scholar]
  74. Safran, M., Kan, A., Üstündağ, M. T., Birbudak, T. S., & Yıldırım, O. (2014). 2013 KPSS sonuçlarının öğretmen adaylarının mezun oldukları alanlara göre incelenmesi [An investigation of KPSS 2013 results in terms of candidate teachers’ fields]. Education and Science, 39(171), 13-25.  [Google Scholar]
  75. Sağlam, H., & Kavgaci, H. (2021). Öğretmenlerin duygusal zekâları ile sınıf yönetim becerileri arasındaki ilişkide öz yeterlik inancının aracılık rolü [The mediating role of teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs in the relationship between their emotional intelligence and classroom management skills]. Pamukkale Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 52, 389-416. https://doi.org/10.9779/pauefd.775406  [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  76. Savolainen, H., Engelbrecht, P., Nel, M., & Malinen, O.-P. (2012). Understanding teachers’ attitudes and self-efficacy in inclusive education: Implications for pre-service and in-service teacher education. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 27(1), 51-68. https://doi.org/10.1080/08856257.2011.613603 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  77. Schaufeli, W. B., & Salanova, M. (2007a). Work engagement: An emerging psychological concept and its implications for organizations. In S. W. Gilliland, D. D. Steiner, & D. P. Skarlicki (Eds), Research in Social Issues in Management: Managing Social and Ethical Issues in Organizations, Vol. 5 (135-177). Greenwich, CT: Information Age. [Google Scholar]
  78. Schaufeli, W. B., & Salanova, M. (2007b). Efficacy or inefficacy, that's the question: Burnout and work engagement, and their relationships with efficacy beliefs. Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal, 20(2), 177-196. [Google Scholar]
  79. Schussler, D. L., Stooksberry, L. M., & Bercaw, L. A. (2010). Understanding teacher candidate dispositions: Reflecting to build self-awareness. Journal of Teacher Education, 61(4), 350-363. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022487110371377 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  80. Seligman, M. E. P., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Positive psychology: An introduction. American Psychologist, 55, 5-14.  [Google Scholar]
  81. Sezgi̇n, F., Koşar, S., Er, E., & Şahi̇n, F. (2014). Fen-edebiyat fakültesi birinci sınıf öğrencilerinin alan eğitimine ve öğretmenlik mesleğine yönelik görüşlerinin incelenmesi [Examining the views of first year university students in faculty of science and literature about field education and teaching profession]. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 29(4), 217-229. [Google Scholar]
  82. Simbula, S., Guglielmi, D., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2011). A three-wave study of job resources, self-efficacy, and work engagement among Italian schoolteachers. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 20(3), 285-304. https://doi.org/10.1080/13594320903513916 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  83. Sinclair, C. (2008). Initial and changing student teacher motivation and commitment to teaching. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 36(2), 79-104. https://doi.org/10.1080/13598660801971658 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  84. Sinclair, V. G., & Wallston, K. A. (2004). The development and psychometric evaluation of the brief resilient coping scale. Assessment, 11, 94-101.  [Google Scholar]
  85. Sümer, N. (2000). Yapısal eşitlik modelleri: Temel kavramlar ve örnek uygulamalar [Structural equation models: Basic concepts and sample applications]. Türk Psikoloji Yazıları, 3(6) 49-74.  [Google Scholar]
  86. Şahin, D. (2014). Öğretmelerin öz duyarlıklarının psikolojik sağlamlık ve yaşam doyumu açısından incelenmesi [The investigation of teacher's self-compassion from the point of resilience and life satisfaction]. Master Thesis. YÖK Tez Arşivi (Thesis No: 381082)  [Google Scholar]
  87. Şengül Bircan, T. (2019). Pedagojik formasyon eğitimi alan tarih öğretmen adaylarının öğretmenlik mesleğine ilişkin tutumları [Attitudes of history teacher candidates who took pedagogical formation education towards teaching profession]. Kastamonu Eğitim Dergisi, 27(2), 589-598. https://doi.org/10.24106/kefdergi.2606 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  88. Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics (5th ed.). Allyn & Bacon/Pearson Education.  [Google Scholar]
  89. Talim ve Terbiye Kurulu (Temmuz 2020). Öğretmenlik alanları, atama ve ders okutma esasları ile eki çizelgede değişiklik yapılması [Making changes in teaching fields, assignment and teaching principles and in the attached schedule]. Tebliğler Dergisi, 83(2754), 961-965 [Google Scholar]
  90. Terzi, Ş. (2008). Üniversite öğrencilerinde kendini toparlama gücünün içsel koruyucu faktörlerle ilişkisi [The relationships between resilience and internal protective factors in university students]. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 35, 297-306.  [Google Scholar]
  91. Terzi̇, A. R., & Tezci̇, E. (2007). Necatibey eğitim fakültesi öğrencilerinin öğretmenlik mesleğine ilişkin tutumları [Necatibey education faculty students' attitudes towards teaching profession]. Kuram ve Uygulamada Eğitim Yönetimi, 52(52), 593-614. [Google Scholar]
  92. Tschannen-Moran, M., & Hoy, A. W. (2001). Teacher efficacy: Capturing and elusive construct. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17(7), 783-805. [Google Scholar]
  93. Tschannen-Moran, M., Woolfolk Hoy, A., & Hoy W. K. (1998). Teacher efficacy: Its meaning and measure. Review of Educational Research, 68(2), 202-248. [Google Scholar]
  94. Tok, Ş. (2011). Pre‐service primary education teachers’ changing attitudes towards teaching: A longitudinal study. European Journal of Teacher Education, 34(1), 81-97. https://doi.org/10.1080/02619768.2010.534130 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  95. Ulukan, M. (2020). Öğretmenlerin mutluluk ile psikolojik sağlamlık düzeyleri̇ arasındaki̇ ilişkinin incelenmesi̇ [Investigation of the relationship between happiness and psychological resilience levels of teachers]. Journal of International Social Research, 13(73), 620-631. https://doi.org/10.17719/jisr.10978 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  96. Üstüner, M. (2006). Öğretmenlik mesleğine yönelik tutum ölçeğinin geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışması [Reliability and validity study of an attitude scale of teaching profession]. Kuram ve Uygulamada Eğitim Yönetimi, 45, 109-127. [Google Scholar]
  97. Yakar, L., & Yelpaze, İ. (2019). Öğretmen yetiştiren programlara kayıtlı öğrencilerin öğretmenlik mesleğine yönelik tutumları ve öğretmen öz-yeterlik algıları [Attitudes toward teaching profession and teacher self-efficacy beliefs of students in teacher training programs]. Pamukkale Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 47, 107-129. https://doi.org/10.9779/pauefd.473678 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  98. Youssef, C. M. (2004). Resiliency development of organizations, leaders and employees: Multi-level theory building and individual-level, path-analytical empirical testing (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Thesis database. (UMI: 3131572). [Google Scholar]
  99. Youssef, C. M., & Luthans, F. (2007). Positive organizational behavior in the workplace: The impact of hope, optimism, and resilience. Journal of Management, 33(5), 774-800. [Google Scholar]
  100. Wood, R., & Bandura, A. (1989). Social cognitive theory of organizational management. Academy of Management Review, 14(3), 361-384. [Google Scholar]
  101. Zee, M., & Koomen, H. M. Y. (2016). Teacher self-efficacy and its effects on classroom processes, student academic adjustment, and teacher well-Being: A synthesis of 40 years of research. Review of Educational Research, 86(4), 981-1015. https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654315626801 [Google Scholar] [Crossref]