International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 2834-7919   |  e-ISSN: 1554-5210

Volume 17 Issue 1 (February 2021)

Issue Information

Issue Information

pp. i - vi   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.329



Original Articles

Gender Perception, Career Optimism and Career Adaptability Among University Students: The Mediating Role of Personal Growth Initiative

Yağmur Soylu, Diğdem Müge Siyez & Emir Özeren

pp. 1 - 15   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.329.1


The current study tested the link between gender perception, career optimism, and career adaptability, and the mediating role of personal growth initiative in this relationship. Multi-stage sampling was used to determine the sample. A total of 2255 undergraduate students (1238 females and 1017 males) from a large state-funded university in Turkey participated in this study. Data were collected via Career Futures Inventory, Gender Perception Scale, Personal Growth Initiative Scale-II, and Personal Information Form. Structural equation modeling was used to test the proposed hypothesized model. Path analyses revealed the association of egalitarian gender perception with career optimism and career adaptability, mediated by personal growth initiative. As a result, students with high egalitarian gender perception scores are likely to have a higher degree of personal growth initiative that will result in enhanced career adaptability and optimism.

Keywords: Gender Perception, Personal Growth Initiative, Career Adaptability, Career Optimism, Path Analysis

The Investigation of Attitudes Towards Physical Activity and Their Levels of Life Satisfaction of High School Students

Yasin Altın, İbrahim İlter & Mehmet Gül

pp. 16 - 34   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.329.2


The aim of this study was to investigate attitudes towards physical activity and their levels of life satisfaction of high school students. The sampling group of the study that was descriptive in scanning model was composed of 412 students, chosen by suitable sampling method, studying at high schools’ levels in Artova district of Tokat province. "Personal Information Form", "Cognitive Behavioural Physical Activity Scale" and "Life Satisfaction Scale" were applied to the students. Descriptive statistics such as percentage, frequency, arithmetic mean and standard deviation, and Kolmogorov Smirnov test to examine the distribution of data were performed in the analysis of the data. And in order to test the hypothesises of the study parametric tests such as independent sample t-test and one-way anova were performed. In addition, Pearson Correlation test was performed to test the relationship between dependent variables such as students' attitude towards physical activity and life satisfaction level. According to the results of the analysis, independent variables such as gender, sports, place of life and class level bring about a significant difference on students’ attitude towards physical activity and life satisfaction level. Moreover, the findings of the study show that there is a low level, positive and meaningful relationship between life satisfaction level and physical activity attitude. As a result of the study, it was found that the students' attitudes towards physical activity and their life satisfaction levels were affected by various variables and there was a meaningful relationship between these two dependent variables.

Keywords: Physical Activity, Attitude, Life Satisfaction, High School Students

Determination of Predictive Relationships between Problematic Smartphone use, Self-regulation, Academic Procrastination and Academic Stress through Modelling

Tuncay Akınci

pp. 35 - 53   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.329.3


In this study, the relationship between problematic smartphone use, self-regulation, academic procrastination and academic stress among university students was examined. The theoretical model constructed to explain the predictive relationships between variables was tested using path analysis. Research data was collected from a sample of 632 university students (68.2% male, 31.2% female) using scales for smartphone addiction, academic procrastination, academic self-regulation, and academic-expectations-related stress. Collected data was checked for suitability for path analysis, thereafter a valid model was constructed making appropriate data modifications in the process. Path analysis results showed that; (i) self-regulation is a significant negative predictor for problematic smartphone use, (ii) problematic smartphone use is a significant predictor for both academic procrastination and academic stress, while (iii) self-regulation is a significant negative predictor for academic procrastination and a significant positive predictor for academic stress. Therefore, it can be said that problematic smartphone use has a negative impact on academic development for university students.

Keywords: Academic Procrastination, Academic Stress, Problematic Smartphone Use, Self-Regulation

Online Information Search Competencies of Prospective Philosophy Teachers in an Online Pedagogical Formation Program

Güler Tuluk & Halil İbrahim Akyüz

pp. 54 - 67   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.329.4


This study aims to examine the knowledge-seeking competencies of prospective philosophy teachers who have received pedagogical training in an online environment according to their "reflective thoughts" and "Inventory of Online Information Search Strategies". The methodology of the study was the single-group pretest-posttest pattern, which is one of the weak experimental designs. The data were obtained from 49 prospective teachers. The results of the study indicated that the online training program created significant differences in all other sub-factors, except reflective thinking habit and understanding sub-factors, and overall total score according to both reflective thinking and online information search strategies. Prospective teachers have entered the process of deep thinking about teaching, evaluating their own experiences and making sense of them; that is, the process of deep thinking caused the change in conceptual perspectives. They gained the skill of evaluating themselves from a different perspective. Prospective teachers have also mentioned that they know the strategies for searching information on the Internet, they can use the evaluation and problem-solving strategies, they can select and compare the information available on the Internet, they can select and compare programs, they can interpret the information and programs that they find, and develop new ways according to their results, shows that they can transform them according to their fields.

Keywords: Pedagogical Formation Education, Online Information Search Strategy, Reflective Thinking

The Mediating Role of Mindfullnes in the Relationship between School Burnout and Problematic Smartphone and Social Media Use

Sümeyye Bilgiz & Adem Peker

pp. 68 - 85   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.329.5


The aim of this study is to examine the mediating role of the mindfullness in the relationship between the school burnout and problematic smart phone (PSU) and social media use (SMA). The participants of the research consists of 411 students studying in the high schools in the city centre Erzurum in Turkey in 2020.  Research data were obtained through the Smart phone Addiction Scale-short version, The Social Media Addiction Scale short form, the awareness scale for children and adolescents, and the Student form of the Maslach Burnout Inventory. The relationship between the variables of the research was examined by Pearson coorelation analyses. The SPSS-22 program was used for correlation analysis and the Jamovi 1.0.7 program was used for analyses on the mediating role of mindfullness. At the end of the study, it was found out that there is a mediating role in the relationship between mindfullness, exhaustion sub-size of the school burnout scale, and PSU and SMA. In the other result of the research, it has been found out that mindfullness mediated the relationship between the depersonalization dimension of the school burnout and SMA In another conclusion obtained from the study, mindfullness has been found not to mediate the relationship between the competence dimension of the school burnout, PSU and SMA. Also, in another similar conclusion, mindfullness has been found not mediate the relationship between the competence dimension of the school burnout and PSU.

Keywords: School Burnout, Problematic Smart phone, Social Media Use, Mindfullness, Mediating Effect

Psychometric Properties of the Self Description Questionnaire for Preschoolers in a Sample of 3- to 5-year-old Turkish Children

Sonnur Işıtan

pp. 86 - 96   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.329.6


The purpose of this study was to adapt the Self Description Questionnaire for Preschoolers into Turkish and to examine the self-concept of Turkish preschoolers based on sex and age. A total of 420 preschoolers participated in the study. The viability of the six-factor solution for the Turkish sample was examined using the first- and second-order confirmatory factor analysis. As hypothesized, two items in the verbal subscale did not work in the Turkish sample. The results demonstrated that the first- and second-order factor models with 36-item and six-factor fit the Turkish sample data well. The observed scores obtained from the six sub-scales have acceptable alpha values except the verbal subscale. No sex differences were  observed in self-concept scores of Turkish preschoolers. However, there was a statistically significant age difference on mathematics self-concept scale scores. Further studies should generate substitute items reflecting early literacy skills targeted in the Turkish Preschool Education Program.

Keywords: Self-Concept, Preschoolers, Instrument Adaptation

A Meta-Synthesis of Teacher Training Studies in the Focus of Gifted Education

Çiğdem Çelik Şahin

pp. 97 - 110   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.329.7


This research aims to find out the current situation of the articles in terms of teacher training in gifted and talented education. The key words used are as follows: “gifted education”, “teacher training”, “teacher education” and limited to publications between 2000-2020. In the research, google scholar, TUBITAK ULAKBIM Dergipark, Council of Higher Education Thesis Center, ERIC were used as data base of this research. The researches which are inaccessible were left out of the scope.  Each of the studies was examined according to aim, sample, methodology, and results using content analysis technique. This research is a meta-synthesis study. Four master and five doctorate dissertations, 21 articles, 30 in total, were included in the analysis. An extensive literature review was the focus of this research in order to access all the researches including the defined key words. At the end of the research, some suggestions were presented related to the conclusions.

Keywords: Metasynthesis, Teacher training, Gifted education

The Methodological Bases of Turkish ELT Curricula for Basic Education from 1991 to 2018

Ahmet Acar

pp. 111 - 128   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.329.8


This paper aims to investigate the methodological bases of the 1991 ELT curriculum for the secondary schools (1st, 2nd, and 3rd grades), the 1997 ELT curriculum for the 4th and 5th grades of the primary education, the 2006 ELT curriculum for the primary education (grades four to eight), 2013 and 2018 ELT curricula for the primary and secondary schools (grades two to eight) in Turkey by utilising document analysis as a form of qualitative research. Investigation of the other components of ELT curricula, namely, needs, goals and objectives, syllabus, assessment and evaluation is not the main concern of the study but some of these components will also be mentioned to shed light on the adopted methodology in the mentioned curricula. It is argued that all the curricula investigated present the teachers with an eclectic approach while some of these curricula (e.g. 1991, 2013, 2018 curricula) state it explicitly and some of them (e.g. 1997 and 2006 curricula) indicate it implicitly by suggesting the teachers get benefit from different principles and/or activities from different methods and/or approaches. It is also observed that the principles and/or activities of the communicative approach are present in all these curricula although their dominance varies from one curriculum to the other. In line with this observation, the study indicates that the commonly articulated thesis in the literature that the communicative approach was integrated, for the first time, into the Turkish ELT curricula with the 1997 curriculum is not valid. It is also argued that besides adopting an eclectic approach with more focus on the communicative approach, the 2013 and 2018 ELT curricula, unlike all the previous curricula, claim to adopt the action-oriented approach but in reality, these two curricula are not action-oriented. The reason behind this problem is purported to be the misinterpretation of the action-oriented approach by the developers of the curricula as well as some other ELT researchers in Turkey.

Keywords: ELT Curricula, Approaches and Methods, Primary Schools, Secondary Schools

Investigating of Primary School Teacher Candidates’ Mathematics Teaching Performance According to Peer Assessments: Example of Teaching Practice

Asena Ayvaz Can

pp. 129 - 144   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.329.9


The aim of this research is to examine developments of primary school teacher candidates’ mathematics teaching performance according to peer assessment. Primary school teacher candidates practiced teaching skills within the scope of the Teaching Practice. This research is a longitudinal study. The research’s study group has fifty-eight primary school teacher candidates. According to the results of the research, peers rated primary school teacher candidates’ final mathematics teaching performance higher than their first mathematics teaching performance. According to the peer assessment, primary school teacher candidates' mathematics teaching performance has improved over time. Accordingly, a significant difference was found in the first (preparation for lesson and lesson association) and second (teaching process) sub-dimensions of the scale when first mathematics teaching performance scores controlled. The source of the difference between peer assessment scores regarding first and second sub-dimensions of the scale can be said the number of teaching practices in mathematics. The primary school teacher candidates who practiced 2 times in mathematics got lower scores in the first and second sub-dimensions than those who practiced 3 and 4 times. According the result, primary school teacher candidates should practice at least 3 times in order to ensure their development “preparation for lesson and lesson association” and “teaching process” for mathematics teaching performance.

Keywords: Mathematics Teaching Performance, Primary School Teacher Candidate, Teaching Practice, Peer Assessment

The Impact of Awakening Perception of Learners’ Comprehension on English Learning via Regularly Listening to Songs in English

Mehmet Temur

pp. 145 - 157   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.329.10


“Why can’t I recognize and understand the words clearly rehearsed by the teacher while lecturing or musicians while singing or the native speakers of English while dialoguing?” This situation has been a great challenge and an issue not only for the learners of English Language at English preparatory school at Inonu University but also for others as well.  To answer this question, researcher supposes that it is essential that teachers should improve awareness of learners in the perception of comprehension in audio-visual, listening and speaking skill through constant listening to music in English for a certain period of time. To achieve this expectation, the implementation of new teaching style was applied to the class of 29 students via using listening activity with 40 different chosen songs from varies classical and contemporary musicians in English in constant and regular repetition just after each course ends. This process lasted about 10 weeks’ time. Constituted with 10- different questions for a pre-test and post-test form of instrumental measurement based on listening activity as an uncommon style of teaching was administered to 29 students of varies disciplines; engineering, international relations and philosophy in preparatory school. Thus, the aim of this qualitative and quantitative research is to evaluate to what extent the impact of this teaching style is on the learners’ listening and speaking skills. The data obtained were analyzed through chi-square analysis test. Its research design setting is one-way pretest and posttest experimental single group study. The data obtained were analyzed through SPSS package programmer. The results gained indicated that there were significant differences between pretest and the posttest figures after application of meta cognitive awareness raising strategy (mean from 3,0625 to 7000) based on time variable. There is no important difference in mean between the genders; males from 16 to 40, total 56. Females from 13 to 29, total 42. Finally, this implementation related perception awakening in English teaching classroom experiment has resulted in outcomes fruitfully and can be recommended to be applied to the classes in other institutions for the learners of English Language to increase their awareness of perception during the educational processes.

Keywords: Perception; Awakening; Listening to Music; Understanding; English Teaching

 Qualitative Evaluation of Prospective Science Teachers’ Concept Maps about the Atom

Özlem Eryılmaz-Muştu

pp. 158 - 171   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.329.11


Concept maps are used to assess and improve prospective teachers’ conceptual understanding levels. In this research, the aim was to describe prospective science teachers’ conceptual understanding of the atom by using concept maps. The research employed the case study approach, one of the qualitative research patterns. The research group consisted of 15 fourth-year prospective science teachers. The concept maps drawn by the participants were used to describe their conceptual understanding of the atom. For data analysis, the descriptive analysis method, one of the qualitative analysis methods, was used. The data obtained from the concept maps were divided into the categories previously defined by the researcher. The created categories were evaluated by two academics with expertise in physics education, and a correspondence analysis was conducted. As a result of the research, it was concluded that prospective teachers could establish successful and meaningful propositions in concept maps, however, most of the propositions were collected in the categories of “meaningless,” “improvable,” or “acceptable.”

Keywords: Atom, Concept Map, Conceptual Understanding, Qualitative Analysis, Physics Education

Experience of Primary School Teachers With Inclusion Students in the Context of Teaching Mathematics: A Case Study

Mehmet Emin Durmuş & Yusuf Ergen

pp. 172 - 195   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.329.12


This study investigated experiences of primary school teachers with inclusion students in the context of teaching mathematics. In the study the phenomenology design, which is one of the qualitative research designs, was used. The participants were determined by criterion-based sampling method. The participants of the study consisted of 21 primary school teachers with inclusion students. Research data were collected by a semi-structured interview form developed by the researchers. Content analysis method was used for data analysis. The study found that the participants mostly used rough evaluation forms in order to determine the gains when preparing IEP. In addition, most of the participants stated that they needed help in preparing IEP and they received the most of the help from school counselors. The participants stated that they mostly used demonstration, teaching with play and drama methods and that they could practice with inclusion students only during breaks, during social activities times or in the hours in the support training room apart from mathematic class. Moreover, it was found that most of the participants measured verbally gains of the inclusion students by question and answer method. It was also concluded that inadequacy of the time was the most common problem they encountered in the process of learning-teaching and assessment for the mathematics class.

Keywords: Primary School Teacher, Inclusive Education, Teaching Mathematics

The Effects of Cooperative Learning and Writing to Learn Applications on Academic Achievement

Emre Yıldız & Sinan Akdağ

pp. 196 - 209   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.329.13


This study aims to investigate the effect of cooperative story writing and cooperative writing on the academic achievement of prospective social studies teachers in contemporary world history and the relationship between learning writing and course success. The method of the study is a quasi-experimental design with pre-test and post-test comparison groups. The study group of the research is composed of the pre-service social studies teachers who are studying at Atatürk University Kazım Karabekir Education Faculty in the 2019-2020 academic year. The research was carried out with two experimental groups in 6 weeks in total with 12-course hours. Academic achievement test, column, and story writing evaluation rubric were used as data collection tools. According to the data obtained from the pre-test pre-application to the prospective teachers, there was no significant difference between the pre-knowledge levels of the pre-service teachers with whom two different applications were performed. As a result of the study, it was found that cooperative story writing was a significant predictor of academic achievement, but cooperative corner writing was not a significant predictor of academic achievement. Besides, there is no significant difference between prospective teachers' writing skills and story writing skills.

Keywords: Cooperative learning, story, column, academic achievement, contemporary world history

Forgiveness, Locus of Control, and Perfectionism: A Mixed Method Study

Fatih Camadan & Serkan Volkan Sarı

pp. 210 - 231   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.329.14


The present study aims to explain forgiveness through locus of control and perfectionism. This study has been carried out within the framework of the mixed research method in which quantitative and qualitative research approaches were dealt with together. The study group consists of the university students. In the quantitative results reveal that the external locus of control is a negatively significant explanatory factor of adaptive perfectionism and a positively significant explanatory factor of maladaptive perfectionism. Moreover, the external locus of control explains forgiveness negatively. In addition, adaptive perfectionism is the positive explanatory factor of forgiveness, and maladaptive perfectionism is the negative explanatory factor of forgiveness. In the qualitative results of the study, it is understood that the statements of most of the participants with high scores of adaptive perfectionism and internal locus of control are gathered under the theme of forgiveness, whereas the statements of those with high scores of maladaptive perfectionism and external locus of control are under the theme of unforgiveness.

Keywords: Forgiveness, Locus of Control, Perfectionism, Mixed Method Study

Evaluation with Multi-Surface Rasch Measurement Model of Performance Applications in Higher Education

Fatih Doğan & Dilek Tekin

pp. 232 - 246   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.329.15


The purpose of this research is to analyze the instructional materials prepared by chemistry teacher candidates (CTCs) in universities with the the multifaceted Rasch rating scale model (MRSM) by peer reviews. Also, it is aimed to determine the awareness of instructional technologies and material design courses among CTCs. The sample of this research group is composed of 8 CTCs who continue the undergraduate program of chemistry education in faculty of education in Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University in the 2019-2020 academic years.  These CTCs are enrolled in teaching chemistry course-II and have already take the instructional technologies and material design course. The instructional material preparation skills of CTCs were determined by using a criteria form developed by considering the research project evaluation criteria of TÜBİTAK and the learning outcomes of the course. Results were analyzed according to MRSM. MRSM's surfaces are composed of 8 CTCs, 8 instructional materials and 15 criteria items. According to the results of the data, it was observed that CTCs were separated in terms of severity/leniency behaviour. Also while CTCs were having difficulties related to some criteria, it was observed that they met other criterisa. On the other hand, it was determined that the instructional material preparation skills of CTCs different.

Keywords: : Instructional Materials, Multi-Surface Rasch Measurement Model, Item Response Theory

Learning Agility of School Administrators: An Empirical Investigation

Mustafa Özgenel & Şebnem Yazıcı

pp. 247 - 261   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.329.16


In this study, it was aimed to determine whether school administrators' learning agility levels differ according to their gender, seniority, school levels served, educational status, ages and administrative duties (principal and vice-principal). The research was carried out according to the survey model frequently used in quantitative research methods. A total of 428 volunteer administrators composed of 160 school principals and 268 vice-principals participated in the study. The data were collected with the “Marmara Learning Agility Scale” developed by Yazıcı and Özgenel (2020). The collected data were analyzed using t-test and ANOVA tests in the SPSS statistics program. According to the analysis, school administrators' overall level of learning agility is very high. While learning agility levels did not differ significantly according to the gender and school levels of the administrators, the level of learning agility of administrators who have postgraduate education is higher than that of who’s having only a bachelor’s degree. In addition, the learning agility levels of school principals are higher than vice principals. Similarly, administrators with higher seniority and age have higher learning agility than administrators with lesser seniority and age.

Keywords: Agility, Learning, Learning Agility, School Administrators

The Effect of Attention and Coping Skills Training on Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder Students' Attention and Coping Skills

Şerife Şenay İlik

pp. 262 - 276   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.329.17


This study aims to examine the effect of attention and coping skills training on the improvement of attention and coping skills of inclusive students with Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder. It was conducted through the mixed method by using the quantitative and qualitative methods together. This study was conducted with the permission of Konya Provincial Directorate of National Education in the 2018-2019 education year. The participants were students with Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder and their parents. The current study lasted 10 weeks in the spring of 2018-2019 education year. The data were collected through the Stroop TBAG test, Cancellation Test, KidCOPE Scale, and Parent Interview Form.  A statistically significant difference is found between the pretest and posttest scores of positive coping, anger accusation and avoidance points (p<0,05). Consequently, it is found that the training has a positive effect on the coping skills of children. The results of the Turkish version of the cancellation test show a significant difference between the experimental group’s pretest-posttest results in all sub-tests except regular letters total scanning, irregular letter number of wrong targets and regular letters number of canceled targets sub-test. The pretest and posttest Stroop test results of the experimental group shows that there is a significant difference in many subtests. However, section 3 error and time, section 4 error and section 5 correction subtests are found insignificant. A significant difference is found in all the others. In the interviews with the families, it was determined that the education process had positive contributions to the coping skills of the children.

Keywords: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder, Attention Education, Coping Skill

Pre-Service Teachers’ Skills in Analysing Achievements in Regard to the Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy

Gülcan Öztürk

pp. 277 - 293   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.329.18


This study examined the development of pre-service teachers’ skills in analysing the achievements of secondary school sixth grade Information Technologies and Software Course curriculum in regard to the revised Bloom’s taxonomy at a western Anatolian university in Turkey. A single group pre-test, post-test experimental design was used, and 99 pre-service teachers participated in the study. The sample was determined according to the purposive sampling method. The pre-test presented achievements for the pre-service teachers to analyse in regard to the revised Bloom’s taxonomy, after which the revised Bloom’s taxonomy’s analysis was taught. The achievements were given as the post-test for pre-service teachers to re-analyse. The pre-service teachers’ total scores were calculated based on their accuracy. The pre- and post-test total scores were compared, and the total scores of the post-test were higher than those of the pre-test. Suggestions were made regarding future research on the revised Bloom’s taxonomy and achievements analysis teaching.

Keywords: Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy, Information Technologies and Software Course, Curriculum, Achievements, Pre-Service Teachers

School Bullying From the Perspectives of Middle School Principals

Mehmet Saaldıraner & Sıddıka Gızır

pp. 294 - 313   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.329.19


This qualitative study is aimed at examining middle school principals’ opinions on the factors associated with bullying in their schools, the strategies that principals take to tackle bullying in their schools, and the issues that they are faced while dealing with bullying their schools. The study group was consisted of 20 voluntary middle school principals from four central districts of Mersin. The data was collected through a semi-structured interview guide developed by the researchers through the related literature review, the expert opinions, and also a pilot study. Content analysis was used to determine certain codes, categories and themes within the qualitative data. After the data was reduced into major analytical categories, four main categories including a number of categories and sub-categories were emerged, namely prevalent types of bullying, factors associated with bullying, strategies that principals take to tackle bullying in their schools, and the issues that they are faced while dealing with it in schools. The results were discussed considering related literature.

Keywords: School Bullying, Factors Associated With Bullying, Prevalent Types of Bullying, Middle School Administrators

Development of mathematics motivation scale: A preliminary exploratory study with a focus on secondary school students

Yusuf F. Zakariya & Barattucci Massimiliano

pp. 314 - 324   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.329.20


The motivation for learning mathematics is an essential factor in predicting the performance of secondary school students. Students who are intrinsically or extrinsically motivated to learn mathematics generally demonstrate higher performance than others who are not motivated. However, a properly designed instrument for the measurement of this construct has been sparsely reported in the literature. The present study is carried out to develop an instrument of high psychometric properties for measuring the construct. The study involved 439 students randomly selected across secondary schools using a survey research design. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted to determine the factor structure and distribution of items in each of the mathematics motivation subscales. The factors are extracted using principal component analysis, and the extracted factors are rotated using varimax. The analysis results in a final 24-item mathematics motivation scale, which contained five subscales with around half of the total variance explained of 48.99% explained variance. A high-reliability coefficient was found for the whole instrument with some empirical evidence of construct validity. The concise instrument is recommended for assessing the motivation of secondary school students, and further studies are recommended for its confirmation of factor structures in independent samples.

Keywords: Development of Instrument, Exploratory Factor Analysis, Mathematics, Motivation, Secondary Schools

Views of Turkish Teachers on Skills-Based Turkish Questions

Yavuz Selim Bayburtlu

pp. 325 - 337   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.329.21


Purpose: Certain changes occurred in measurement and evaluation systems, centralized exams and exams implemented in schools in alignment with developments in the world. Our mean scores in exams including PISA and TIMMS were lower than other countries. This led the Ministry of Education to introduce skills-based questions in exams with the purpose of familiarizing students with such questions and get successful results in these exams. The purpose of this study is to identify teachers’ views on skills-based questions introduced to exams in our country and provide solution options in alignment with these views. Method: 26 Turkish teachers voluntarily participated in the study. Interviews were held using semi-structured questions prepared in alignment with expert opinions on skills-based questions. A descriptive analysis method was used to analyze the data. Findings: The results showed that the majority of participants try to focus on skills-based questions when they conduct their classes. Participants try to ask skills-based questions in exams, but they don’t prepare the questions. Instead, they use other resources for questions. Majority of participants stated that skills-based Turkish questions create exam stress in students and increase their exam anxiety. Implications for research and practice: This study revealed that it would be beneficial for students to encounter skills-based Turkish questions frequently. Within this scope, Turkish textbooks should be re-designed.

Keywords: Skills-Based Questions, Skills-Based Turkish Questions, PISA and TIMSS.

A Study on 5th Grade Students’ Achievement Levels and Misconceptions in the Concept of Angle

Mehmet Hayri Sarı, Neşe Işık Tertemiz & Niymet Demirci

pp. 338 - 356   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.329.22


This study aims to reveal fifth grade students’ achievement levels in the angles sublearning area and to examine their errors in the subject of angles. The study was designed as a survey, and the study group included a total of 254 fifth grade students attending school in central Nevşehir and in Aşkale, Erzurum. Data were collected via the “Angle Concept Level Identification Test”. Students’ achievement levels in the subject of angles were determined by using frequencies and percentages, and qualitative data were analyzed through descriptive and content analysis. The findings showed that the students performed best in naming angles, while merely half or approximately half of them achieved the objectives regarding angle type, measurement and drawing. Also, student errors from most to least frequent could be ordered as follows: angle measurement, angle drawing, reading the angle on the measurement tool, angle definition and angle type. Considering that the concept of angle lies at the foundation of geometry, the findings of the study suggest that building a rich concept of angle is essential to the learning of future mathematical concepts.

Keywords: Primary School, Mathematics, Geometry, Angle, Student Misconceptions

Relational Assessment of Metacognitive Reading Strategies and Reading Motivation

Melek Baba Öztürk & Mücahıt Aydogmus

pp. 357 - 375   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.329.23


Metacognitive reading strategies are used before, during and after reading, and raise awareness of the reading process. These strategies are crucial for the individual to be able to regulate their reading processes, to realize and remedy their deficiencies, and to be effective in the process of reading, comprehending and learning. Reading strategies enable the individual to become more active in their own reading and comprehension processes, which, in turn, encourage them to make more informed, conscious and critical readings and improve their attitudes towards and interest in reading. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between prospective teachers’ metacognitive reading strategies and reading motivation. The study also examined whether metacognitive reading strategies and reading motivation differ in terms of gender, department, academic success and reader type. The study presents a screening model and has a relational nature. 217 students from different classes and departments were included in the study. Data were collected using "Metacognitive Reading Strategies Scale” and "Adult Reading Motivation Scale". Descriptive statistics such as arithmetic mean, standard deviation, and t test, unidirectional variance analysis and correlation analysis were used to analyze the data. As a result of the research, it has been determined that there is a positive significant relationship between pre-service teachers' reading motivations and metacognitive strategy use. In addition, it was found that the use of metacognitive strategies differed significantly depending on the department and reader type and reading motivations depending on gender, academic success and reader type.

Keywords: Metacognition, Metacognitive Reading Strategies, Motivation, Reading Motivation

An Investigation of the Mediating Role of Various Variables in the Effect of Both Gender and Economic, Social and Cultural Status on Reading Literacy

Esin Yılmaz Koğar

pp. 376 - 391   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.329.24


The present study was based on the Turkish sample in PISA 2009 and PISA 2018. To investigate the effect of both gender and economic, social and cultural status index on reading literacy, the causal mediation effect was utilized in order to test the mediating role of the following variables: enjoyment of reading, the metacognitive strategy of summarizing, and the metacognitive strategy of reading and comprehension. With respect to the effect of the variable of gender on reading literacy, it was revealed in the present research study that all the variables utilized in the study had a statistically significant partial mediating role in the variable of enjoyment of reading, which was the strongest mediator variable. As for the effect of the economic, social and cultural status on reading literacy, it was revealed that there were statistically significant variables that played a mediating role; however, as these variables contributed very little to the explained variance, these variables were concluded to have no mediating role.

Keywords: Causal Mediation Analyses, Direct Effect, Indirect Effect, Reading Literacy

The Effect of Creative Drama-based Activities on Acquisition of Values by 5-Year-Olds

Zeliha Kılıç & Ayşegül Oğuz Namdar

pp. 392 - 403   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.329.25


Values education is central to early childhood education. However, it rarely provides real-life opportunities to engage students. This study investigates the effect of creative drama in acquisition of values by preschoolers. Experimental design with a pre-post-test control group was used. The study group consisted of 44 children aged 5 to 5 ½ attending a public kindergarten in Turkey. For data collection, the Pre-School Values Scale Teacher Form, Parents Form, Student Form, and a Personal Information Form, and observations were used. Quantiative data was analysed using descriptive statistics, the Mann Whitney U Test, and Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test. Qualitative data was analysed using content analysis. There was a significant difference in both groups, with the experimental group showing significantly higher scores than the control group in the post-test. In teaching of values to preschool children, the activities based on creative drama proved more effective than the activities provided in the curriculum.

Keywords: Creative Drama, Preschool Education, Values, Values Education, Early Childhood

The Problems Faced by Teachers in Turkey During the COVID-19 Pandemic and Their Opinions

Tufan Aytaç

pp. 404 - 420   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.329.26


The aim of this research is to reveal the problems faced by teachers in the education period during COVID-19 pandemic and to discuss their opinions regarding the process. As one of the qualitative research methods, the phenomenology pattern was used in the research. The study group consists of 80 teachers selected by using purposeful criterion sampling technique who work at public and private schools in different provinces of Turkey in 2019-2020 academic year. Within the context of the results of this study, it is observed that EBA TV/education portal plays an important role in meeting the educational needs of students and ensuring the continuity of education in COVID-19 pandemic process. Considering the themes and opinions that stand out in the context of teachers’ opinions, EBA TV/education portal is considered positive while there are problems with content, presentation and connection. According to the findings, the most common problems faced by the teachers during COVID-19 pandemic are students’ technical and hardware problems related to the internet connection, the inability of students to maintain their motivation to learn, the inability of parents to create a learning environment, and the lack of their support at home for their children. The majority of teachers have the opinion that the psychology of the students has been negatively affected during COVID-19 pandemic process, but there are also the students who could adapt to this process. An important finding in this study is that teachers think that their colleagues do not have necessary skills to use technology and they are low in motivation to use distance education technologies. Teachers think that after COVID-19 pandemic, things shall not be the same as before; the importance of school, teachers and face-to-face education shall be recognized again, and blended learning methods shall come to the fore.

Keywords: COVID-19, Pandemic, Education, Teacher, School, Student

What Do Pre-service Science Teachers Views about the Nature of Scientific Inquiry?

Seda Çavuş-Güngören & Elif Öztürk

pp. 421 - 438   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.329.27


The nature of scientific inquiry is a concept associated with the nature of science and is an important product of inquiry-based teaching. Inquiry-based teaching is an important method proposed in science education all over the world. The aim of this study is to determine the pre-service science teacher’s views about nature of scientific inquiry. As a data collection tool, The Views about Scientific Inquiry (VASI) questionnaire which developed by Lederman et al. (2014) was used. The questionnaire was translated in to Turkish by the researchers, and experts were assisted by their opinions and arrangements. The pilot data of the study were obtained with the participation of 56 pre-service teachers in the mathematics teacher program and 252 pre-service science teachers participate to get the main data. In addition, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 pre-service teachers. The results of the data variety are used to confirm the analysis of each other. In the analysis of the data, the participant's views are coded as uncategorized, naive, mixed, and informed. The results are presented as frequency and percentage. The data were evaluated by comparing with the pre-service teachers' grade levels.  It was determined that the views of pre-service teachers about nature of scientific inquiry were not sufficient, but they were informed in terms of some aspects.

Keywords: Scientific Inquiry, Scientific Inquiry Questionnaire, VASI, Pre-Service Teachers

An Investigation of Feedback Strategies Used by Science Teachers in the Classroom Setting: A Mixed-Methods Research

Ufuk Özkale & Sedat Kanadlı

pp. 439 - 457   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.329.28


This study classifies the verbal feedback of science teachers into praise statements, effort-based feedback statements, negative feedback statements, and ability-based statements, which are also regarded as feedback strategies. The study aims to investigate the feedback strategies used by science teachers in the classroom setting using descriptive research with a general survey design within an exploratory sequential design of mixed-methods research. It employs the Science Course Feedback Perception Scale in data collection. The population of the study consists of the 6th, 7th, and 8th-grade students (N = 1696) and secondary school science teachers (N = 51) affiliated to the Turkish Ministry of National Education in the central districts of Mersin, Turkey in the 2016-2017 and 2017-2018 school years. The sample is formed through a theoretical sampling method for qualitative data and convenience sampling and cluster sampling methods for quantitative data. The qualitative data are collected by open-ended questions designed based on expert opinion. The items are reviewed based on expert opinion and the content validity index of the scale is examined. Following that, exploratory factor analysis is performed to test the construct validity of the scale. The factor analysis identified a 4-factor model with 34 items explaining 55.73% of the total variance of the scale. Then, the 4-factor structure of the scale is tested by confirmatory factor analysis. Lastly, the types of feedback given by teachers to the students in the science course are analyzed in terms of gender and grade level.

Keywords: Feedback Strategies, Feedback Types, Science Course, Teacher Feedbacks

How Much Do Children Interpret Television and Animated Film Contents?

Mustafa Türkmen

pp. 458 - 478   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.329.29


Animated films have an undeniable place in children's entertainment culture. The worldwide box office revenues indicate that these films reached many children in cinemas and were viewed on televisions by almost all children. The extent to which children can make sense of such content is still a question mark in minds. This study aims to demonstrate how children can interpret the animated film and the content of television they watch in general. The research was carried out by a mixed-method using both qualitative and quantitative methods. The study group consisted of 210 children between the ages of 4-10. An average of 30 children was included in each age group. In this way, it is aimed to examine the change in the level of interpretation of the animated film and television content by children in each age group as age increases. In the research, a film (Toy Story 3) was selected and the realism of the characters, values and events in its content was examined through content analysis. Besides, a structured interview form consisting of values and reality section regarding the content viewed on TV has been developed. The children were allowed to watch the animated film and they were interviewed about the viewed content and relevant data was collected. As a result of the research, it was found that children in 4 and 5 age groups differed significantly from the children in 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 age groups in good-bad distinction, meaning and reality in the animated film. The same was found to be true for value and reality on television.

Keywords: Child Development, Television, Animation, Child Media

The Effectiveness of an Early Intervention Program Developed based on Naturalistic Teaching Processes (DÖDEM) for Children with Down Syndrome and Their Families in Turkey

Gozde Tomrıs & İbrahim Halil Diken

pp. 479 - 497   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.329.30


Introduction: The main focus of early intervention is to strengthen the interaction of parents with young children with disabilities, and to ensure that parents become active participants in the development and education of their children. The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of an Early Intervention Program based on Naturalistic Teaching (DÖDEM), which has been developed in order to strengthen the interaction of parents with their children with Down syndrome and to introduce naturalistic teaching strategies to them.

Methods: The DÖDEM program was provided face-to-face through group family training sessions and home visits for a group of participants, while it was followed remotely by another group of participants via a tablet computer. The study was conducted with 10 parents and their children with Down syndrome aged 25-48 months. A mixed method research design was used in this study.

Results: The findings demonstrate that the parents in both groups made significant progress in interactional behaviours and increased the usage frequency of naturalistic teaching strategies. Furthermore, parents think that the program contributes positively to their interactions with their children and support the development of their children.

Conclusion: The results obtained demonstrated that following the DÖDEM program in both ways contributed to significant improvement in the parents’ interactional behaviours and the frequency of use of naturalistic teaching strategies. Thus, it can be said that this process has led to a change in both the parents’ and children’s behaviours.

Keywords: Parent-Child Interaction, Naturalistic Teaching, Parent-Implemented Interventions, Face-To-Face Parent Education, Offline Distance Education

Investigating Secondary School Students’ Motivation for Chemistry Class in Terms of Various Variables

Engin Meydan

pp. 498 - 512   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.329.31


The aim of this study is to investigate the motivation of secondary school students for chemistry class in terms of gender, class standing, school type, grade point average, average score in chemistry class, parents’ marital status, parentals’ bereavement, mother’s educational background, and father’s educational background. The survey model of the quantitative research methods was used for the purpose of the study. The data were collected with Chemistry Lesson Motivation Scale for Secondary School Students[sic] by Eskicioğlu and Alpat (2017). The sample consists of 475 female and 399 male students, adding up to 874 students. The obtained data were analyzed with SPSS 20.0, a statistical software program. The study revealed no statistically significant difference between the sub-domains self-efficacy and extrinsic motivation but between anxiety and intrinsic motivation.Statistically significant differences were found between the students’ motivation for chemistry class and school type, class standing, grade point average (GPA), average score in chemistry class, and father’s graduation status.There was no statistically significant difference between parental’s bereavement and mother’s graduation status. No relationship was determined between anxiety and self-efficacy sub-domains of the chemistry motivation scale. However, the study observed a moderate relationship between self-efficacy and intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, a weak negative relationship between anxiety and intrinsic motivation, and a moderate positive relationship between extrinsic motivation and intrinsic motivation.

Keywords: Chemistry Class, Motivation For Chemistry Class, Secondary School Students

Investigation of the Effect of the "Violence Reduction Psychoeducation Program" on Anger, Violence and Aggression Levels of Students

Yunus Akan

pp. 513 - 533   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.329.32


The study aimed to examine the effect of the "Violence Reduction Psychoeducation Program (VRPP) for Students 11-18 Years Old" on the anger, violence, and aggression levels of students. "Quasi-experimental Designs with Pre-test and Post-test Control Group" were used in the study. The sample of the study consisted of 114 students studying in Selçuklar secondary school affiliated to Mersin Provincial Directorate of National Education in the 2018-2019 academic year. The program was applied to the experimental group for 8 weeks with 1 session per week and 60-70 minutes in the conference hall of the school. To test the effectiveness of the program, the "Continuous Anger and Anger Expression Style Scale," "Buss Perry Aggression Questionnaire" and "Aggression Scale" were used as measuring instruments. "Independent Sample T-Test," "Covariance Analysis" and "Two-Way Variance Analysis for Repeated Measurements" were used for data analysis. As a result of the research, it was observed that the program was effective in reducing the anger, violence, and aggression levels of the students and it was concluded that it is a valid and reliable program applicable to secondary school students in Turkey. Suggestions that such programs to prevent anger, violence, and aggression to be placed on the system of education and school curricula within the scope of preventive and developmental guidance and to be applied to students from an early age by the school psychological counselors have been made. It is thought that the program will contribute to the field of Psychological Counseling and Guidance as preventive guidance and will also be a pioneer in new studies in this field.

Keywords: Violence Reduction Program, Violence, Aggression, Anger, Adolescent Students

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