International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 2834-7919   |  e-ISSN: 1554-5210

Original article | International Journal of Progressive Education 2021, Vol. 17(1) 35-53

Determination of Predictive Relationships between Problematic Smartphone use, Self-regulation, Academic Procrastination and Academic Stress through Modelling

Tuncay Akınci

pp. 35 - 53   |  DOI:   |  Manu. Number: MANU-2007-14-0006.R1

Published online: February 01, 2021  |   Number of Views: 479  |  Number of Download: 747


In this study, the relationship between problematic smartphone use, self-regulation, academic procrastination and academic stress among university students was examined. The theoretical model constructed to explain the predictive relationships between variables was tested using path analysis. Research data was collected from a sample of 632 university students (68.2% male, 31.2% female) using scales for smartphone addiction, academic procrastination, academic self-regulation, and academic-expectations-related stress. Collected data was checked for suitability for path analysis, thereafter a valid model was constructed making appropriate data modifications in the process. Path analysis results showed that; (i) self-regulation is a significant negative predictor for problematic smartphone use, (ii) problematic smartphone use is a significant predictor for both academic procrastination and academic stress, while (iii) self-regulation is a significant negative predictor for academic procrastination and a significant positive predictor for academic stress. Therefore, it can be said that problematic smartphone use has a negative impact on academic development for university students.

Keywords: Academic Procrastination, Academic Stress, Problematic Smartphone Use, Self-Regulation

How to Cite this Article?

APA 6th edition
Akinci, T. (2021). Determination of Predictive Relationships between Problematic Smartphone use, Self-regulation, Academic Procrastination and Academic Stress through Modelling . International Journal of Progressive Education, 17(1), 35-53. doi: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.329.3

Akinci, T. (2021). Determination of Predictive Relationships between Problematic Smartphone use, Self-regulation, Academic Procrastination and Academic Stress through Modelling . International Journal of Progressive Education, 17(1), pp. 35-53.

Chicago 16th edition
Akinci, Tuncay (2021). "Determination of Predictive Relationships between Problematic Smartphone use, Self-regulation, Academic Procrastination and Academic Stress through Modelling ". International Journal of Progressive Education 17 (1):35-53. doi:10.29329/ijpe.2021.329.3.

  1. Ahn, D., Park, G., Baek, K. J., & Chung, S. I. (2007). Academic motivation, academic stress, and perceptions of academic performance in medical students. Korean Journal of Medical Education, 19(1), 59-71. [Google Scholar]
  2. Akgün, S., & Ciarrochi, J. (2003). Learned resourcefulness moderates the relationship between academic stress and academic performance. Educational Psychology, 23(3), 287-294. [Google Scholar]
  3. Anderson, M., & Jiang, J. (2018). Teens, social media & technology 2018. Pew Research Center, 31. [Google Scholar]
  4. Ang, R. P., & Huan, V. S. (2006). Academic expectations stress inventory: Development, factor analysis, reliability, and validity. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 66(3), 522-539. [Google Scholar]
  5. Anshari, M., Almunawar, M. N., Shahrill, M., Wicaksono, D. K., & Huda, M. (2017). Smartphones usage in the classrooms: Learning aid or interference?. Education and Information Technologies, 22(6), 3063-3079. [Google Scholar]
  6. APA, (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, Fifth Edition. Arlington: American Psychiatric Publishing. [Google Scholar]
  7. Avci, S. (2013). Relations between self regulation, future time perspective and the delay of gratification in university students. Education, 133(4), 525-537. [Google Scholar]
  8. Baltaş & Baltaş (2008). Stres ve başa çıkma yolları. [Stress and ways to cope] Ankara: Remzi Kitabevi. [Google Scholar]
  9. Bembenutty, H. (2007). Self-regulation of learning and academic delay of gratification: Gender and ethnic differences among college students. Journal of advanced academics, 18(4), 586-616. [Google Scholar]
  10. Bembenutty, H. (2009). Academic delay of gratification, self-regulation of learning, gender differences, and expectancy-value. Personality and Individual Differences, 46(3), 347-352. [Google Scholar]
  11. Bian, M., & Leung, L. (2015). Linking loneliness, shyness, smartphone addiction symptoms, and patterns of smartphone use to social capital. Social Science Computer Review, 33(1), 61–79. [Google Scholar]
  12. Bilgi ve İletişim Teknolojileri Kurumu, (2019). Üç aylık pazar verileri raporu. [Quarterly market data report] Retrieved December 15, 2019, from [Google Scholar]
  13. Billieux, J., Maurage, P., Lopez-Fernandez, O., Kuss, D. J., & Griffiths, M. D. (2015). Can disordered mobile phone use be considered a behavioral addiction? An update on current evidence and a comprehensive model for future research. Current Addiction Reports, 2(2), 156–162. [Google Scholar]
  14. Braham, B. J. (2004). Stres yönetimi: Ateş altında sakin kalabilmek  [Stress management: staying calm under fire](VG Diker, Trans.). İstanbul: Hayat Yayınları.  [Google Scholar]
  15. Brodmann, J., Rayfield, B., Hassan, M. K., & Mai, A. T. (2018). Banking Characteristics of Millennials. Journal of Economic Cooperation & Development, 39(4), 43-73. [Google Scholar]
  16. Byrne, B. M. (2013). Structural equation modeling with LISREL, PRELIS, and SIMPLIS: Basic concepts, applications, and programming. Psychology Press. [Google Scholar]
  17. Cheng, D., Leong, F. T., & Geist, R. (1993). Cultural differences in psychological distress between Asian and Caucasian American college students. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 21(3), 182-190. [Google Scholar]
  18. Çakıcı, D.Ç. (2003). Lise ve üniversite öğrencilerinde genel erteleme ve akademik erteleme davranışının incelenmesi.[ An examination of the general procrastination behavior and academic procrastination behavior in high-school and university students]  Unpublished master’s thesis. Ankara üniversitesi. [Google Scholar]
  19. Cakir, M. (2017). Investigating Prospective teachers' perceived problem-solving abilities in relation to gender, major, place lived, and locus of control. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 5(6), [Google Scholar]
  20. 1030-1038. [Google Scholar]
  21. Dayapoglu, N., Kavurmaci, M., & Karaman, S. (2016). The relationship between the problematic mobile phone use and life satisfaction, loneliness, and academic performance in nursing students. International Journal of Caring Sciences, 9(2), 647-652. [Google Scholar]
  22. Demir, A. G. Y., & Kutlu, M. İnternet bağımlılığı, akademik erteleme ve akademik başarı arasındaki ilişkiler [The relationship between internet addiction, academic procrastination and academic success]. The Journal of Academic Social Science Studies international Journal of Social Science 61, 91-105. [Google Scholar]
  23. Demirci, K., Akgönül, M., & Akpinar, A. (2015). Relationship of smartphone use severity with sleep quality, depression, and anxiety in university students. Journal of behavioral addictions, 4(2), 85-92. [Google Scholar]
  24. Domoff, S. E., Borgen, A. L., Foley, R. P., & Maffett, A. (2019). Excessive use of mobile devices and children's physical health. Human Behavior and Emerging Technologies, 1(2), 169-175. [Google Scholar]
  25. Dorsey, E. R., McConnell, M. V., Shaw, S. Y., Trister, A. D., & Friend, S. H. (2017). The use of smartphones for health research. Academic Medicine, 92(2), 157-160. [Google Scholar]
  26. Elhai, J. D., Dvorak, R. D., Levine, J. C., & Hall, B. J. (2017). Problematic smartphone use: A conceptual overview and systematic review of relations with anxiety and depression psychopathology. Journal of affective disorders, 207(2017), 251-259. [Google Scholar]
  27. Elhai, J. D., Levine, J. C., Dvorak, R. D., & Hall, B. J. (2017). Non-social features of smartphone use aremost related to depression, anxiety and problematic smartphone use. Computers in Human Behavior, 69(2017), 75–82.  [Google Scholar]
  28. Esichaiku, D., Guha, P., Dailey, D., & Matthew, N. (2016). Relationship of Smartphone Addiction and Academic Procrastination: The Role of Self-Regulated Learning Strategies. Retrieved January 1, 2020 from xmlui/handle/123456789/822.  [Google Scholar]
  29. Ezoe, S., Toda, M., Yoshimura, K., Naritomi, A., Den, R., & Morimoto, K. (2009). Relationships of personality and lifestyle with mobile phone dependence among female nursing students. Social Behavior and Personality, 37(2), 231-238. [Google Scholar]
  30. Ferrari, J. R. (2010). Still procrastinating? The no regrets guide to getting it done. New York: J. Wiley & Sons, Inc [Google Scholar]
  31. Fisher, S. (1994). Stress in academic life: The mental assembly line. Open University Press. [Google Scholar]
  32. Gökçearslan, Ş., Mumcu, F. K., Haşlaman, T., & Çevik, Y. D. (2016). Modelling smartphone addiction: The role of smartphone usage, self-regulation, general self-efficacy and cyberloafing in university students. Computers in Human Behavior, 63, 639–649. [Google Scholar]
  33. Hair, J. F. Jr., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L. & Black, W. C. (1995). Multivariate Data Analysis (3rd ed). New York: Macmillan. [Google Scholar]
  34. Haug, S., Castro, R. P., Kwon, M., Filler, A., Kowatsch, T., & Schaub, M. P. (2015). Smartphone use and smartphone addiction among young people in Switzerland. Journal of behavioral addictions, 4(4), 299-307. [Google Scholar]
  35. Hj Ramli, N., Alavi, M., Mehrinezhad, S., & Ahmadi, A. (2018). Academic stress and self-regulation among university students in Malaysia: Mediator role of mindfulness. Behavioral Sciences, 8(1), 12. [Google Scholar]
  36. Hoffner, C. A., & Lee, S. (2015). Mobile phone use, emotion regulation, and well-being. Cyberpsychology. Behavior and Social Networking, 18(7), 411–416.  [Google Scholar]
  37. Hu, L.T. and Bentler, P.M. (1999). Cut off criteria for fit ındexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6 (1), 1-55. [Google Scholar]
  38. Hussain, Z., Griffiths, M. D., & Sheffield, D. (2017). An investigation into problematic smartphone use: The role of narcissism, anxiety, and personality factors. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 6(3), 378–386. [Google Scholar]
  39. Hystad, S. W., Eid, J., Laberg, J. C., Johnsen, B. H., & Bartone, P. T. (2009). Academic stress and health: Exploring the moderating role of personality hardiness. Scandinavian journal of educational research, 53(5), 421-429. [Google Scholar]
  40. Jumoke, S., Oloruntoba, S., & Blessing, O. (2015). Analysis of mobile phone impact on student academic performance in tertiary institution. International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering, 5(1), 361-367.  [Google Scholar]
  41. Kang, K. A., & Park, S. H. (2018). The mediating effect of self-efficacy on the relationship between university life stress and smartphone overuse. Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, 19(2), 210-218. [Google Scholar]
  42. Kaplan, E. (2014). Beden eğitimi ve spor öğretmenliği öğrencilerinde öz-düzenleme: ölçek uyarlama çalışması.[ Self-regulation in students of physical education and sport teaching departments: scale adaptation work] Yayımlanmamış yüksek lisans tezi. Akdeniz Üniversitesi, Antalya. [Google Scholar]
  43. Karoly, P. (1993). Mechanisms of self-regulation: A systems view. Annual Review of Psychology, 44(1), 23–52. [Google Scholar]
  44. Kelecioğlu, H., & Bilge, F. (2009). Akademik beklentilere ilişkin stres envanterinin uyarlanması: Geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışması [Adaptation of stress inventory regarding academic expectations: a study on validity and reliability]. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 36(36), 148-157. [Google Scholar]
  45. Khan, M. (2008). Adverse effects of excessive mobile phone use. International journal of occupational medicine and environmental health, 21(4), 289-293. [Google Scholar]
  46. Kim, D., & Lee, M. (2019, March). The structural relationship among smartphone dependency, teaching presence, deep approach to learning and satisfaction in online deeper learning. In Proceedings of the 2019 8th International Conference on Educational and Information Technology (pp. 27-32).  [Google Scholar]
  47. Kim, J. I. (2019). The relationship between the life stress and smartphone addiction in nursing college students. Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, 20(4), 391-400. [Google Scholar]
  48. Kline, R.B. (2005). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (2nd Edition ed.). New York: The Guilford Press. [Google Scholar]
  49. Kuss, D. J., & Pontes, H. M. (2018). Internet addiction (Vol. 41). Hogrefe Verlag. [Google Scholar]
  50. Kwon, M., Kim, D. J., Cho, H., & Yang, S. (2013). The smartphone addiction scale: development and validation of a short version for adolescents. PloS one, 8(12), e83558. [Google Scholar]
  51. Lay, C. H., & Schouwenburg, H. C. (1993). Trait procrastination, time management, and academic behavior. Journal of Social Behavior & Personality, 8(4), 647-662. [Google Scholar]
  52. Lopez-Fernandez, O., Kuss, D. J., Romo, L., Morvan, Y., Kern, L., Graziani, P., Rousseau, A., Rumpf, H. J.,Bischof, A., Gässler, A. K., Schimmenti, A., Passanisi, A., Männikkö, N., Kääriänen, M., Demetrovics, Z.,Király, O., Chóliz, M., Zacarés, J. J., Serra, E., Griffiths, M. D., Pontes, H. M., Lelonek-Kuleta, B., Chwaszcz, J., Zullino, D., Rochat, L., Achab, S., & Billieux, J. (2017). Self-reported dependence on mobile phones in young adults: A European cross-cultural empirical survey. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 6(2), 168-177. [Google Scholar]
  53. Lopez-Fernandez, O., Männikkö, N., Kääriäinen, M., Griffiths, M. D., & Kuss, D. J. (2018). Mobile gaming and problematic smartphone use: A comparative study between Belgium and Finland. Journal of behavioral addictions, 7(1), 88-99. [Google Scholar]
  54. MacGeorge, E. L., Samter, W., & Gillihan, S. J. (2005). Academic stress, supportive communication, and health. Communication Education, 54(4), 365-372. [Google Scholar]
  55. Martinez-Pons, M. (2000). Emotional intelligence as a self-regulatory process: A social cognitive view. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 19(4), 331-350. [Google Scholar]
  56. Misra, R., & Castillo, L. G. (2004). Academic stress among college students: Comparison of American and international students. International Journal of stress management, 11(2), 132-148. [Google Scholar]
  57. Moon, S. M., & Illingworth, A. J. (2005). Exploring the dynamic nature of procrastination: A latent growth curve analysis of academic procrastination. Personality and Individual Differences, 38(2), 297–309. [Google Scholar]
  58. Noyan, C. O., Enez Darçın, A., Nurmedov, S., Yılmaz, O., & Dilbaz, N. (2015). Akıllı telefon bağımlılığı ölçeğinin kısa formunun üniversite öğrencilerinde Türkçe geçerlilik ve güvenilirlik çalışması [The evaluation of validity and relaibility of the short form of smartphone addiction scale in Turkish among university students]. Anatolian Journal of Psychiatry/Anadolu Psikiyatri Dergisi, 16(1), 73-81. [Google Scholar]
  59. O'Brien, W. K. (2002). Applying the transtheoretical model to academic procrastination. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of Houston. [Google Scholar]
  60. Odaci, H. (2011). Academic self-efficacy and academic procrastination as predictors of problematic internet use in university students. Computers & Education, 57(1), 1109–1113. [Google Scholar]
  61. Oh, Y. J., & Kim, H. D. (2019). The differences of perceived parenting attitude and academic stress on smartphone addiction according to the classification of addiction-risk group among middle school students. Journal of Convergence for Information Technology, 9(5), 86-94. [Google Scholar]
  62. Orem, D. M., Petrac, D. C., & Bedwell, J. S. (2008). Chronic self-perceived stress and set-shifting performance in undergraduate students. Stress, 11(1), 73-78. [Google Scholar]
  63. Özen, S., & Topcu, M. (2017). Tıp fakültesi öğrencilerinde akıllı telefon bağımlılığı ile depresyon, obsesyon-kompulsiyon, dürtüsellik, aleksitimi arasındaki ilişki. [The relationship of smartphone addiction with depression, obsession-compulsion, impulsivity, alexithymia among medical faculty students] Bağımlılık Dergisi, 18(1), 16-24. [Google Scholar]
  64. Park, K. R., & Kim, J. L. (2018). A Comparative Study on Elderly Persons' Adoption Patterns of Media Information (Newspaper, Smartphone, Etc.) and Digital Divide. International journal of advanced smart convergence, 7(2), 127-134. [Google Scholar]
  65. Pastorino, E. E., & Doyle-Portillo, S. M. (2012). What is psychology? Essentials. Cengage Learning. [Google Scholar]
  66. Poushter, J., Bishop, C., Chwe, H., (2018). Social media use continues to rise in developing countries but plateaus across developed ones. Retrieved December 12, 2019, from [Google Scholar]
  67. Rozgonjuk, D., Kattago, M., & Täht, K. (2018). Social media use in lectures mediates the relationship between procrastination and problematic smartphone use. Computers in Human Behavior, 89, 191-198. [Google Scholar]
  68. Sahin, Y. L. (2014). Comparison of users’ adoption and use cases of Facebook and their academic procrastination. Digital Education Review, 25, 127–138. [Google Scholar]
  69. Samaha, M., & Hawi, N. S. (2016). Relationships among smartphone addiction, stress, academic performance, and satisfaction with life. Computers in Human Behavior, 57, 321-325. [Google Scholar]
  70. Schouwenburg, H. C. (2004). Academic procrastination: Theoretical notions, measurement, and research. In H. C. Schouwenburg, C. H. Lay, T. A. Pychyl, & J. R. Ferrari (Eds.), Counseling the procrastinator in academic settings (pp. 3–17). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. [Google Scholar]
  71. Selye, H. (1983). The stress concept: Past, present and future. In Cooper, C. L. (ed.). Stress Research Issues for the Eighties. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons. pp. 1–20. [Google Scholar]
  72. Senecal, C., Koestner, R., & Vallerand, R. J. (1995). Self-regulation and academic procrastination. The journal of social psychology, 135(5), 607-619. [Google Scholar]
  73. Seo, B. J. (2018). In the impact of academic stress on smartphone addiction among teenagers-focusing on dual mediating effects of depression and aggression. Kore Kriz Yönetimi Raporu [Korea Crisis Management Report], 14(6), 77-90. [Google Scholar]
  74. Siraj, H. H., Salam, A., Roslan, R., Hasan, N. A., Jin, T. H., & Othman, M. N. (2014). Stress and its association with the academic performance of undergraduate fourth year medical students at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. The International Medical Journal Malaysia, 13(1), 19-24. [Google Scholar]
  75. Soror, A. A., Steelman, Z. R., & Limayem, M. (2012). Discipline yourself before life disciplines you: Deficient self-regulation and mobile phone unregulated use. In: System Science (HICSS), 2012 45th Hawaii International Conference on (pp. 849–858). New Jersey: IEEE. [Google Scholar]
  76. Steel, P. (2007). The nature of procrastination: A meta-analytic and theoretical review of quintessential self-regulatory failure. Psychological bulletin, 133(1), 65. [Google Scholar]
  77. Stein, Dan J.; Hollander, Eric; Rothbaum, Barbara Olasov (31 August 2009). textbook of anxiety disorders. American Psychiatric Pub. pp. 359 [Google Scholar]
  78. Struthers, C. W., Perry, R. P., & Menec, V. H. (2000). An examination of the relationship among academic stress, coping, motivation, and performance in college. Research in higher education, 41(5), 581-592. [Google Scholar]
  79. Şahin, Y. L. (2014). Comparison of users' adoption and use cases of Facebook and their academic procrastination. Digital Education Review, (25), 127-138. [Google Scholar]
  80. Şimşek, Ö. F. (2007). Yapısal eşitlik modellemesine giriş (temel ilkeler ve lisrel uygulamaları).[Introduction to structural equation modeling (core principles and applications with LISREL)] Ekinoks Yayınları. Ankara. [Google Scholar]
  81. Tabachnick, B.G. and Fidell, L.S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics (5th ed.). New York: Allyn and Bacon. [Google Scholar]
  82. Talib, N., & Zia-ur-Rehman, M. (2012). Academic performance and perceived stress among university students. Educational Research and Reviews, 7(5), 127-132. [Google Scholar]
  83. Thomas, D. (2016, October). Cellphone addiction and academic stress among university students in thailand. In International Forum, 19(2), 80-96. [Google Scholar]
  84. Van Deursen, A. J., Bolle, C. L., Hegner, S. M., & Kommers, P. A. (2015). Modeling habitual and addictive smartphone behavior: The role of smartphone usage types, emotional intelligence, social stress, self-regulation, age, and gender. Computers in Human Behavior, 45, 411–420. [Google Scholar]
  85. Van Eerde, W. (2000). Procrastination: Self‐regulation in initiating aversive goals. Applied Psychology, 49(3), 372-389. [Google Scholar]
  86. Wang, J. L., Wang, H. Z., Gaskin, J., & Wang, L. H. (2015). The role of stress and motivation in problematic smartphone use among college students. Computers in Human Behavior, 53, 181-188. [Google Scholar]
  87. Yang, Z., Asbury, K., & Griffiths, M. D. (2019). An exploration of problematic smartphone use among Chinese university students: Associations with academic anxiety, academic procrastination, self-regulation and subjective wellbeing. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 17(3), 596-614. [Google Scholar]
  88. Yurdakoş, K., & Biçer, E. B. (2019). İnternet bağımlılık düzeyinin akademik ertelemeye etkisi: sağlık yönetimi öğrencileri üzerine bir araştırma.[ The effect of internet addiction level on academic procrastination: a research on health management students] Yüzüncü Yıl Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 16(1), 243-278. [Google Scholar]