International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 2834-7919   |  e-ISSN: 1554-5210

Volume 16 Issue 3 (June 2020)

Issue Information

Issue Information

pp. i - vi   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.248



Original Articles

Ethical Dilemmas: A Problematic Situation for Teachers

Neşe Börü

pp. 1 - 17   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.248.1


During the decision-making process, finding two or more ethically correct alternative solutions is known as facing an ethical dilemma. The current study aimed to determine ethical dilemmas faced by teachers in high schools in Turkey. The study uses a qualitative research method. The data was collected through a semi-structured interview technique. A descriptive analysis method was used in analyzing the data. In the data, 6 main themes were found; individualized education, school regulations, administrators, parents, colleagues, and democratic & social values. Situations causing ethical dilemmas are the centralized curriculum, the testing system, the disciplinary system, class-size and class culture, because of a lack of suitability for individualized education. Other situations causing ethical dilemmas are related to complying with the administrators or school regulations; showing or not showing compassion to parents, students and colleagues; and the disagreement between democratic values ​​and society's values.

Keywords: Ethical Dilemma, Education Politics, Student-Centered Education, Education Curriculum, School Principals, Democratic & Social Values, Testing System, Disciplinary System

District Leadership Study: A Bivariate Analysis of Language Descriptors in Defining Educational Leadership Constructs

Sean Lennon

pp. 18 - 33   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.248.2


In 2013, a bivariate designed instrument of personality descriptors was given to a district school system to correlate difference between the teacher population and that of the administration.  Results indicated a correlated population grouping where the two groups were similar in generalized personality constructs.  Results indicate the leadership population is similar, in general, to the teachers, but some specific traits registered higher for the latter group.  An inferential analysis using a paired sample, students’ t analysis of the survey instrument confirmed that the educational leadership group was different in response than that of the teacher population.

Keywords: Teaching, Educational Leadership, Personality Constructs

Determining the Standards of Teaching and Learning Process as a Component of Curriculum

Ferdi Bahadır & Murat Tuncer

pp. 34 - 52   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.248.3


In this research, it is aimed to determine the standards of learning teaching process as a component of curriculum.On the basis of the Delphi technique, standards were determined through the opinion of two hundred and ninety-five educational sciences experts from ten universities from all regions of Turkey in this study which was performed in three rounds. As a result, ten standards and two hundred six indicators were determined in terms of educational process. These standards have been categorized as 101 items for teachers oriented, 18items for school administration, 11 items for Education and Training Policies, 19 items for Learning Environment, 22 items for Teaching Material, 9 items for Content, 2 items for Evaluation, 5 items for Teaching Process, 8 items for Learning and 11items for Curriculum Standards. These standards, which the expert group agreed on independently, were significantly related to both national and international standards in the literature. It will be useful to conduct researches on the extent to which these standards are met in the education process. This research is considered to be very important to be the first research on this subject in Turkey and to provide opportunity to evaluate the curriculum based on standards.

Keywords: Teaching and Learning ProcessStandards, Program Development, Standard Development, Delphi Technique, Standards in Teaching

Gender Gap and Career Choices in STEM Education:  Turkey Sample

Ayse Ciftci, Mustafa Sami Topcu & Ibrahim Erdogan

pp. 53 - 66   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.248.4


This study aims to explore middle school students' attitudes towards STEM fields and their interest in STEM careers in terms of gender. Furthermore, this study examines the relationship between middle school students’ attitudes towards STEM fields and their interest in STEM careers. Seven hundred and seventy four students from 10 cities located in 6 geographical regions of Turkey completed the STEM Attitude Scale and STEM Career Interest Survey. It was determined that middle school students’ attitudes towards STEM were not statistically significant in terms of gender. In addition, it was found that students’ interest in STEM careers differed in terms of gender. When the scores of attitudes towards engineering and technology fields and the interest in careers in these fields were compared in terms of gender, significant difference in favor of male students was found. Furthermore, a positive correlation between the middle school students' attitudes towards STEM fields and their interest towards STEM careers was determined. Results indicate that approximately 43% of the total variance of interest towards STEM careers stems from attitudes towards STEM fields. The results obtained from this study will give an insight into how to shape the aims and applications of the future STEM education programs.

Keywords: STEM Attitude, STEM Career Interest, Gender, Middle School Students

Relationship Between High School Students’ Motivation Levels and Learning Strategies

Gülçin Saraçoğlu

pp. 67 - 83   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.248.5


This study aims to reveal high school students’ learning strategies and motivation levels, the relationship between their learning strategies and motivation levels and to determine if these two variables differ according to gender and grade at school. This study was conducted in correlational survey model. Besides, “Motivation and Learning Strategies Scale” (GOSO), which was adapted to Turkish by Büyüköztürk, Akgün, Karadeniz, Kiliç Çakmak and Demirel, was used in the study. Data of the study were collected from 251 high school students studying in Safranbolu district of Karabük province in Turkey in 2017-2018 school year. Results of the study reveal that students’ motivation levels and frequency of using learning strategies are slightly higher than average. According to the findings of the study, gender variable does not affect high school students’ motivation levels, but female students use learning strategies more than male students do. It was also found that students’ grades at school do not affect their motivation levels and frequency of using learning strategies. Lastly, findings of the study reveal that there is a meaningful relationship between students’ motivation levels and their learning strategies. In the light of the findings of the study it is recommended that online and digital applications be used in class in order to increase students’ motivation levels and develop their learning strategies.    

Keywords: Motivation, Learning Strategies, High School Students, Education

Investigating Invariant Item Ordering Using Mokken Scale Analysis for Dichotomously Scored Items

Ezgi Mor Dirlik

pp. 84 - 96   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.248.6


Mokken models have recently started to become the preferred method of researchers from different fields in studies of nonparametric item response theory (NIRT). Despite increasing application of these models, some features of this type of modelling need further study and explanation. Invariant item ordering (IIO) is one of these areas, which the present study aims to exemplify using a real dataset and comparing the findings of different methods. The main purpose of this study is to check the IIO assumption for a large scale test by using different methods. Data relating to the high school placement test (applied in 2016) was investigated. The sample size was determined as being 250, which complies with NIRT. Two different methods have been used for dichotomous items in the IIO testing: rest-scores and P-matrix methods. The HT coefficients were also calculated in order to define the placement of item response functions. Findings show that the test battery is not suitable for Mokken scaling. IIO property was not met for any of the tests, and findings from the different methods were not consistent with each other. As for the results, the rest-score method defined more items violating IIO properties than the P-matrix method for all the tests. The HT coefficients were also estimated from the critical value, which shows that the tests do not have IIO properties. The conflicting results indicate that there is a need for new studies to investigate IIO empirically..

Keywords: Invariant Item Ordering, Nonparametric Item Response Theory, Mokken Models

The Element of Water in the Tales and Strories of Ferda İzbudak Akinci

Esma Dumanlı Kadızade & Ayşe Tahta

pp. 97 - 110   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.248.7


This is a study conducted on the works in the field of children’s literature by Ferda İzbudak Akıncı who has achieved important goals and created works in the field of children’s literature. It has become necessary to conduct the study due to the fact that the author and her works had not been studied with a comprehensive analysis, and the element of water used frequently and functionally in her works has reached remarkable dimensions. We determined the sample group randomly selected among the works of the author in the field of children’s literature, in order to determine with which functions the element of water appeared or did not. In the study, we used document analysis as a qualitative research method. We obtained various codes related to the element of water in the documents analysed. These are; rescue, revival, relief and entertainment. In the traditional sense, we observed that mother figure was created based on the element of water; missing parents were replaced with the nature. However, given that the mother figure is not just any random mother, her attributes reach up to supernal dimensions; we believe that the author intended to create a “mother goddess” from a species existing in the form of “Kybele”. Since the works contain not only the good aspects of water, but also the destructive sides, we have concluded that god-like aspect of water is completed by using a punishing structure. Water’s having protection and auxiliary elements bonded to it, and accepting the natural formations hosting water as sanctuaries can be listed among grounds of our conclusion.

Keywords: Water, Story, Children Literature, Ferda İzbudak Akıncı

Comparing Performance of Different Equating Methods in Presence and Absence of DIF Items in Anchor Test

Neşe Gübeş & Şeyma Uyar

pp. 111 - 122   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.248.8


This study aims to compare the performance of different small sample equating methods in the presence and absence of differential item functioning (DIF) in common items. In this research, Tucker linear equating, Levine linear equating, unsmoothed and presmoothed (C=4) chained equipercentile equating, and simplified circle arc equating methods were considered. The data used in this study is 8th-grade mathematics test item responses which obtained from Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2015 Turkey sample. Item responses from Booklet-1 (N=199) and Booklet-14 (N=224) are chosen for this study. Data analyses were completed in four steps. In the first step, assumptions for DIF detection and test equating methods were checked. In the second step, DIF analyses were conducted with Mantel Haenszel and logistic regression methods. In the third step, Booklet 1 was chosen as base form and Booklet 14 chosen as a new form, then test equating was conducted under common item nonequivalent groups design. Test equating was done in two phases: the presence and absence of DIF items in the common items. Equating results were evaluated based on standard error of equating (se), bias and RMSE indexes. DIF analyses showed that there were two sizeable DIF items in anchor test. Equating results showed that performances of equating methods are similar in presence and absence of DIF items from anchor test and there is no notable change in se, bias and RMSE values. While the circle arc equating method outperformed other equating methods based on se, 4-moment presmoothed chained equipercentile equating method outperformed other methods based on bias and RMSE evaluation criteria.

Keywords: Test Equating, Small Samples, Differential Item Functioning

Career Planning Scale of Students Studied in Sports Sciences (CPS): Validity and Reliability Study

Sultan Yavuz Eroglu & Erdem Eroğlu

pp. 123 - 131   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.248.9


The purpose of this study was to develop a scale towards career planning of sports sciences students. Study group consisted of 543 students who were attending in physical education and sports teaching, sports management, and coaching departments in Siirt University. Construct validity of scale was tested through factor analysis [WK1] and confirmatory factor analysis. Reliability of scale was measured through Cronbach Alpha and test-retest test. Discrimination of scale was tested between down %27 and up %27. Correlation analysis was made between scale factors. In order to calculate the reliability of 23 items in Career Planning Scale, Cronbach Alpha which is a inner consistency coefficient was calculated. General reliability of scale were found to be high as alpha=0.885. Analysis results have demonstrated that adjustment statistics calculated through confirmatory factor analysis showed a significant adjustment and positive correlations were determined between scale sub-dimensions and general scores as a result of correlation analysis (p<0,05).

Keywords: Career, Career Planning, Sports, Physical Education and Sport

Why Do Students Prefer Different Question Types?

Nihan Sölpük Turhan

pp. 132 - 141   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.248.10


Measurement tools that are used in education are important factors that affect course success and motivation of students. This study aims to determine the opinions of high school students on different question types. As the subgoals of the research, the study aims to determine the reasons for multiple choice test preference and its effect on learning motivation level according to the grade. Study group consists of 355 students who are 10th, 11th and 12th graders in state schools in Istanbul province center in spring term of 2018-2019 school year. Mixed method and convergent parallel design were utilized for the study. “Academic Motivation Scale (AMS)” that was developed by Bozanoğlu (2004) and “Inventory of Motives to Prefer Written, Short-Answer, True-False and Multiple-Choice Questions (IMP)” that was developed by Eser (2011) were used for data collection in the study. Interview method was utilized to determine the opinions of teachers on test types. Therefore, semi-structured interview form was prepared as a data collection tool. Data analysis was made by using Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA). As a result, the study found that the motives to prefer multiple-choice questions and averages of learning motivation vary significantly in favor of 10th grade students and final year students in high school. The study revealed that student performance varies by question type. The study also found that multiple-choice questions can be considered as a motivation factor for high school students and a good way of testing the goals and achievements.   

Keywords: High School Students, Learning Motivation, Mixed Method, Question Types

Determination of Science and Primary Teachers' Teaching and Learning Conceptions and Constructivist Learning Environment Perceptions

Tuğba Ecevit & Pınar Özdemir

pp. 142 - 155   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.248.11


The significance of both science education and scientific communication has increased in parallel to increase in scientific knowledge and rapid advances in technology. In producing students who have science literacy, skills of scientific process and higher-level thinking skills teaching-learning approach of teachers and communication between teachers and students are very significant. The purpose of this study is to determine the science teachers’ and primary teachers’ learning and teaching conceptions and constructivist learning environment perceptions. The sample of the study consists of 100 participants from science teachers and primary teachers working at the public schools in the Central Anatolia region. "Easily accessible sampling method" was used for the selection of the participants.  The study is quantitative research and comparative screening model which is directed to the determination of the current state has been used. Teaching-Learning Conceptions Questionnaire (TLCQ) and Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (CLES) have been used as the means of data collecting.   The findings of the study suggest that the classroom teachers had a constructivist approach in contrast to a conventional approach in regard to learning and teaching (X= 4,45 and X=3,37, respectively). Similarly, it was found that the science teachers had a constructivist approach in contrast to a conventional approach in regard to learning and teaching (X= 4,49 and X=3,49, respectively). It was found that the participants generally had a constructivist approach and that their perception about constructivist learning setting is higher than the medium level. It was also found that the science teachers had higher perceived levels of about constructivist learning setting than the classroom teachers. The results of the MANOVA indicated that the professional experience of the participants had a significant effect on the perception levels about the constructivist learning-teaching approach. That’s why the research for the reflections in application gains importance in this study.

Keywords: Constructivist Learning Environment Perceptions, Primary Teachers, Science Lesson, Science Teachers, Teaching And Learning Conceptions

The Relationship Between Teacher Candidates' Critical Thinking Standards and Reflective Thinking Skills

Eray Eğmir & İjlal Ocak

pp. 156 - 170   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.248.12


The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between teacher candidates' critical thinking standards and reflective thinking skills. The study investigated the level of critical thinking standard and reflective thinking skills of teacher candidates, as well. Also, another sub-problem of the study was whether reflective thinking skills significantly differentiated according to critical thinking standards divided into three sub-levels. When the findings were examined, it can be stated that students had a high level of critical thinking standards, “depth, width, and competence”, “precision and accuracy”, and “importance, relevance, and clarity” sub-dimensions, and reflective thinking skills. Also, there was a significant and positive correlation between teacher candidates’ reflective thinking skills with critical thinking standards, “depth, width, and competence”, “precision and accuracy”, and “importance, relevance, and clarity” sub-dimensions. When the data were examined, it can be said that teacher candidates’ reflective thinking skills differed significantly according to critical thinking standard level. Besides, it can be stated that the mean ranks determined in all scale were high in favor of teacher candidates with high critical thinking standard level. However, compound effect of the level of critical thinking standards with gender and grade was not significant on reflective thinking skills; compound effect of critical thinking standards with department on reflective thinking skills was significant.

Keywords: Critical Thinking Standards, Reflective Thinking, Teacher Candidates

A Follow-up Study on the Metaphoric Perception of Secondary School Students from TEOG to LGS

Pinar Tağrikulu & Alper Kesten

pp. 171 - 188   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.248.13


This study aims at determining what kind of images represent the practices of TEOG and LGS in the minds of students during the transition from secondary to high school. It attempts to reveal through comparisons conducted whether any metaphorical change occurred in the minds of students during the transition from TEOG to LGS. A data gathering technique through metaphors from qualitative research methods was used in gathering data in this study, carried out with the participation of 187 students in 2017 and 189 students in 2018 at three secondary schools in Samsun, Turkey. The data gathered was analysed using the steps of coding and sorting, compiling a sample metaphor image, category development, validity and reliability. It was observed that exam change did not cause any change concerning the metaphors used by students in defining the exam as a result of the comparison of metaphors regarding both the above mentioned exams.

Keywords: TEOG, LGS, Metaphor, Exam, Transition to High Schools Examination

Use of the Public Service Ads in Human Rights, Citizenship and Democracy Courses: A Mixed Method Study

Nuray Kurtdede-Fidan & Tuğba Selanik-Ay

pp. 189 - 200   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.248.14


The aim of the study is to identify the effects of using the public service ads as a teaching and learning material in the course of human rights, citizenship and democracy on the empathy skills of the primary school students and to reval the views of the primary students about the course of human rights, citizenship and democracy in which the public service ads are employed as a teaching and learning material. The participants of the study are 45 primary school students (25 female and 20 male) who were attending the fourth grade of a public school in Afyon during the fall semester of the school year of 2017-2018. The empathic tendency scale developed by Kaya and Siyez (2010), namely “KA-SI empathic tendency scale child form”, was administered to the participants as both pre-test and post-test. The study lasted for three weeks and a total of twelve public service ads were used in the course of human rights, citizenship and democracy. In addition, the qualitative data of the study were collected through the student diaries kept by the students following the courses. The findings show that the courses of human rights, citizenship and democracy in which the public service ads were employed lead to a significant difference in the emphatic tendency of the participants.  The qualitative findings also supports these findings. In the diaries the participants reported that they used empathy  towards the people and events which they saw in the public service ads.

Keywords: Course of Human Rights, Citizenship and Democracy, Public Service ads, Primary School Students, Emphatic Tendency

Early Predictors for Kindergarten Students at Risk for Dyslexia: A Two-Year Longitudinal Study

Emine Balcı

pp. 201 - 210   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.248.15


This study aim to determine early clues that can be seen in kindergarten students at risk of dyslexia. The sample consisted of 27 students selected from two kindergartens through purposeful sampling. The Kindergarten Dyslexia Pre-Determination Observation Form was developed by researcher, Personal Information Form and Colorado Learning Disability Questionnaire-Reading Sub-Scale (CLDQ-R) were used as a data collection tool. Firstly, the students were observed by the kindergarten teachers during the education period through the scale that was developed by researcher and in the following next year, the classroom teachers in the schools where these students started the first year and the researcher identified the students who were thought to be at risk dyslexia. Finally the early clues in the kindergarten were tried to be reached by following the last measurements. The data were analyzed using Mann Whitney U test and descriptive analysis techniques. As a result of this study, it can be said that kindergarten students at risk of dyslexia have problems to recall the informations (songs, rhymes, words, names and names),  phonologic development, rapid automatic naming skills, simple sequencing and arithmetic skills, experienced in time and spatial skills and have less vocabulary than their peers and this situation is reflected in their speeches.

Keywords: Dyslexia, Kindergarten, Dyslexic, Early Symptoms

Relationships between Job Satisfaction, Motivation and Life Satisfaction in the Teachers: A Structural Equation Modeling Study

Halil Sari & Alper Yetkiner

pp. 211 - 222   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.248.16


The purpose of this study is to explore the effects of life satisfaction and job motivation to job satisfaction in the teachers, and examining mediating roles of job motivation between the other two variables. The online form consisted of 24 items was voluntary filled by 264 teachers. A structural equation modeling analysis was carried out when analysing data. The fit indices of the hypothesized structural model indicated perfect fit the data. It was found that the life satisfaction was a significant predictor of teacher job motivation and job satisfaction. This means that as the life satisfaction level of teachers increased, the level of job motivation and satisfaction positively increased. We concluded that in order to increase job satisfaction of teachers, any action which might increase the motivation level and the life quality of the teacher should be supported by the schools and ministries.

Keywords: Teacher Education, Job Satisfaction, Job Motivation, Life Satisfaction, Structural Equation Modelling

Investigation of the Relationships among Psychological Counselor Candidates’ Counseling Self-Efficacy, Multicultural Competence, Gender Roles, and Mindfulness

Fuad Bakioğlu & Ayşe Sibel Türküm

pp. 223 - 239   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.248.17


The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between counseling self-efficacy, multicultural competence, gender roles and mindfulness of counselor candidates. Participants of this study were 431 senior students studying in the Guidance and Psychological Counseling Undergraduate Programs of 14 different Turkish universities. According to the results, psychological counselor candidates’ gender roles and mindfulness significantly predicted their counseling self-efficacy through the mediation of multicultural competence. The authors discuss implications of these findings.

Keywords: Counseling Self-Efficacy, Multicultural Counseling Competency, Gender Roles, Mindfulness

Investigation of the Relationship Between Preschool Teachers' Perceptions of Efficacy in Mathematics Education and Their Attitudes Towards Mathematics Education

Maide Orçan Kaçan, Seda Ata, İlayda Kimzan & Mustafa Nişan

pp. 240 - 252   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.248.18


In this study, the relationship between preschool teachers' perceptions of efficacy in mathematics education they give and their attitudes towards mathematics education was investigated. The research method of the study is the relational screening model, one of the quantitative research methods. The research was carried out on 122 preschool teachers actively working in 2018-2019. Random sampling method was used to determine the sample of the study. In this research, self-report based measurement tools were used to collect data. In the analysis of the data obtained, t-test, one-way analysis of variance and correlation coefficient were used. As a result of the analyzes, it was found that teachers' perceptions of efficacy in mathematics education they gave and their attitudes towards mathematics education were generally high. It was seen that teachers' perceptions of efficacy in mathematics education did not differ according to the teachers' professional seniority and the in-service training they received. No significant relationship was found between preschool teachers' perceptions of efficacy in mathematics education they give and their attitudes towards mathematics education. These results were discussed in the light of the relevant literature, and a number of suggestions were made.

Keywords: Preschool, Mathematics, Attitude, Perception of Efficacy

Testing the Bidirectional Relationship Between Reading and Writing Skills

Ozen Yıldırım, Safiye Bilican Demir & Ömer Kutlu

pp. 253 - 269   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.248.19


Reading and writing have an essential place in the social life of individuals as well as in school learning. In this study, the bidirectional relationships between reading and writing skills were examined after gender and socioeconomic level of students were controlled. The participants of this research are 5th grade 240 students from ten primary schools in four different districts of Ankara in Turkey. A text has been chosen to evaluate students’ comprehension and writing skills and a test that includes questions related to the text has been developed. In order to evaluate the reading and writing skills of the students, the analytic and holistic rubrics were used. Hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to reveal the bidirectional relationship between reading and writing skills. Results indicate that reading and writing skills are important predictors of each other and support the possibility of a bidirectional relationship between the two. One possible explanation of this is that reading and writing skill influence each other. Researchers, practitioners, and parents may need to target both reading and writing skill to best help poor readers become proficient.

Keywords: Language Skills, Reading, Writing, Bidirectional Relationships, Hierarchical Multiple Regression

Effect of Digital Writing Workshop Activities on Writing Motivation and Development of Story Writing Skills

Nurhan Aktaş & Hayati Akyol

pp. 270 - 287   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.248.20


The aim of this study is to determine the effect of digital writing workshop activities on fourth grade primary students’ story writing skills and writing motivation. The study was carried out in Ankara province during the 2017-2018 academic year. A true experimental design, one of the quantitative research methods, was used in the study. The study group of the research consisted of a total of 30 students (15 in the experimental group and 15 in the control group) studying in the fourth grade of primary school. The Motivation to Write Scale, the Story Elements Evaluation Scale, and the 6+1 Analytical Writing and Evaluation Scale were used as data collection tools for the study. The experimental implementation process lasted 14 weeks. During the implementation, students were asked to write stories using a different digital platform at each stage of the writing process. In the study, t-test for independent groups and ANOVA test were used for the data analysis. The SPSS software program was used for analysis of the data. The findings obtained in the study reveal that with regard to the use of story elements by students who participated in the digital writing workshop implementation and in the dimensions of ideas, organisation, word choice, sentence fluency and spelling in their stories, there was a significant difference in favour of the experimental group. This situation reveals that the digital writing workshop implementation was effective for the improvement of the students’ story writing skills. However, it was determined that there was a significant decrease in the writing motivation scores of the experimental group students who participated in the digital writing workshop, whereas there was no significant change in the writing motivation scores of the students in the control group. This situation reveals that, contrary to expectations, the digital writing workshop activities decreased the students’ writing motivation.

Keywords: Digital Writing Workshop, Story Writing Skills, Writing Motivation, Primary School Students

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