International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 2834-7919   |  e-ISSN: 1554-5210

Volume 18 Issue 4 (August 2022)

Issue Information

Issue Information

pp. i - vi   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.459



Original Articles

Academic Entitlement Expectations of Preservice Primary School Teachers

Naci̇ye Aksoy & Ülkü Çoban Sural

pp. 1 - 20   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.459.1


The aim of this study is to examine whether the academic entitlement expectations of preservice teachers studying at primary school level differ according to their gender, grade level and the type of university they attend (public or foundation). The sample consists of a total of 397 preservice primary school teachers in one foundation and one public university. The data were collected with the “Academic Entitlement Expectation Scale”, after assessing the validity and reliability of the instrument. The independent samples t-test was performed to analyze whether the preservice primary school teachers’ academic entitlement expectations differed according to the variables of gender and type of university; while one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine whether they differed according to the grade level variable. In the study, it was found that academic entitlement expectations of male students compared to female students; students attending the foundation university compared to those at the public university, and students in the first grade compared to those in the fourth grade were higher.

Keywords: Academic Entitlement, Higher Education, Teacher Candidates, Gender, Grade Level, University Type

Higher-Order Thinking Skills and Scientific Attitudes Components as Predictors of Scientific Creativity Among Preservice Biology Teachers

Adeyinka Kareem

pp. 21 - 30   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.459.2


The study assessed preservice biology teachers' higher-order thinking skills (HOTS), scientific attitudes, and creativity in the study area. The study also evaluated how the components of HOTS and scientific attitudes predict scientific creativity  to determine which elements were strong predictors of scientific creativity. The study adopted a correlational survey research design. The population consists of all preservice Biology teachers in Southwestern Colleges of education, from which five hundred were randomly selected from five colleges of education. Three instruments, including Higher Order Thinking skills Test, Scientific Attitude questionnaire, and Scientific Creativity Test, were used to collect data for the study. The result showed that the HOTS scores of the respondents were low, with low mean scores of 2.54, 1.22, and 1.88 from a total maximum possible score of 9, 5, and 6, respectively, the cognitive (=20.00), emotional (=19.05), attitudinal components (=26.67). The mean score for fluency, flexibility, and originality were 14.00, 12.00, and 13.00. It was also seen that a correlation exists between sex and HOTS. The study finally showed that the Analysis (t=2.597, p<0.05) and evaluation (t= 2.115, p<0.05) components of HOTS predict scientific Creativity while cognitive component teachers (t=2.373, p<0.05) of Scientific attitude predicts Scientific Creativity.

Keywords: Scientific Creativity, Scientific Attitudes, Higher-Order Thinking Skills, Preservice Teachers

The Relationship Between Secondary School Teachers’ Creativity and Job Satisfaction

Rezzan Uçar

pp. 31 - 42   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.459.3


This research aims to determine secondary school teachers' creativity and job satisfaction. For this purpose, a simple random sampling method was used in the study conducted with teachers working in secondary schools in Bağlar, Kayapınar, Sur, and Yenişehir districts of Diyarbakır province. The research used short forms of the "Minessota Job Satisfaction Scale" and the "Teacher Creativity Scale" as data collection tools. Teachers' perceptions about the sub-dimensions of job satisfaction and teacher creativity scales were described with arithmetic mean and standard deviation. Whether the job satisfaction levels of the teachers can be estimated from the creativity levels was tested by multiple regression analysis. According to the research findings, teachers have found themselves highly creative. In addition, the teachers expressed that they were satisfied with their work. Furthermore, it has been observed that teachers' job satisfaction levels can be estimated statistically from their expertise, creative thinking skills, and motivation perceptions. The relative importance of the predictive dimensions on job satisfaction is as follows; "motivation," "expertise," and "creative thinking skills."

Keywords: Teacher, Teacher Creativity, Job Satisfaction

Relationships among Traditional Gender Roles, Acceptance of External Influence and Self-Alienation: The Mediator Role of Internalized Sexism

Bi̇naz Bozkur & Fatma Arıcı Şahi̇n

pp. 43 - 53   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.459.4


This study dealt with the relationships among the frequency of messages about traditional gender roles that women receive throughout their growing up processes, their acceptance of external influence and their self-alienation. In addition, it was examined whether the relationship between traditional gender roles and acceptance of external influence, and the relationship between traditional gender roles and self-alienation, are established through internalized sexism. The participants of the study were 443 women studying at the undergraduate level at various universities of Turkey. For the study, the Traditional Gender Roles Subscale of the Socialization of Gender Norms Scale, the Internalized Sexism Scale and the Authenticity Scale's dimensions of Acceptance of External Influence and Self-Alienation were used. The results revealed the full mediating role of internalized sexism in the relationship between the frequency of traditional gender role messages and acceptance of external influence and self-alienation. The results were discussed and interpreted within the framework of the relevant literature, and suggestions were presented for future studies.

Keywords: Acceptance of External Influence, Gender Socialization, Internalized Sexism, Self-Alienation, Traditional Gender Roles

Comparative Analysis of The History of Mathematics Content in The Secondary School Mathematics Textbooks of Turkey, Singapore, Ireland and Canada

Nazan Mersin & Mehmet Aki̇f Karabörk

pp. 54 - 74   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.459.5


This study seeks to offer a comparative analysis of the History of Mathematics (HoM) elements identified in the secondary school mathematics textbooks of different countries. Drawing on document analysis method, this study analyzes the secondary school mathematics textbooks of Turkey, Singapore, Ireland and Canada. The HoM elements in the textbooks are examined in terms of famous mathematicians they present, civilization they are related to, content type, associated learning area and whereabouts they are inserted in the text. This study concludes that the textbooks of Ireland present the highest number of HoM elements quantitatively, and Ireland is followed by Turkey, Singapore and Canada, respectively. The most mentioned mathematicians in the HoM elements are Al-Khwarizmi and Pythagoras; further, the most mentioned civilization is Ancient Egypt. Further, Singapore and Canada prioritize discussion-project whereas Ireland and Turkey focus on history of concepts. Moreover, Turkey, Ireland and Canada present the highest number of HoM elements in the learning area of geometry and measurement.  Singapore has the highest number of HoM elements in the area of numbers and operations. This study reveals that the countries do not sufficiently incorporate HoM into their textbooks. The countries with relatively higher number of HoM elements like Ireland use HoM for motivational purposes, rather than for teaching purposes.

Keywords: History of Mathematics Textbooks, International Comparison, Comparative Education Mathematics Education

Developing a Reading Comprehension Support Program for Primary School Students with Specific Learning Disabilities

Engi̇n Yılmaz & Macid Ayhan Melekoğlu

pp. 75 - 89   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.459.6


Specific learning disabilities (SLD) is a general term referring to a heterogeneous group of disorders displayed by individuals with special needs. SLD refers to disorders in reading, writing and mathematics. A large proportion of students with SLD need support in reading as well as in reading comprehension skills, an important component and ultimate goal of reading. In this direction, this study aimed to develop the content of a reading comprehension program for second, third and fourth grade students with SLD. Designed as phenomenology which is a qualitative research approach, this study used semi-structured interview, observation, assessment tool administration, literature review and document analysis. Teachers reported that students with SLD have difficulties in reading, writing, reading fluency and reading comprehension; they lack self-confidence and need to be educated in special learning environments; they need support in Turkish and mathematics classes and a reading comprehension program is necessary for them. It was identified that expository and narrative texts and poems were used in primary school programs and some reading comprehension skills were acquired. There were two acquisitions related to reading comprehension in the SLD support program without any specifications as to how these should be taught and what content should be used. This study was limited to interviews conducted with five teachers and observations with 14 students with SLD and eight students with typical development. Although the studies on students with SLD have increased in Turkey in recent years, support programs that can be used at different education levels to improve reading, reading comprehension, writing and math skills for students with SLD are still limited. The program developed within the scope of this research was developed as printed material. Further studies can be planned to use the program in technological platforms by using tablets, computers, etc.

Keywords: Specific Learning Disabilities, Reading Comprehension, Reading Comprehension Program, Dyslexia

The Dream School: Exploring Children’s Views About Schools

Nurı Barıs Ince, Nergi̇z Kardaş İşler, Burcu Akhun & Mine Canan Durmuşoğlu

pp. 90 - 104   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.459.7


Children should have a say in matters that concern them such as the characteristics of their learning environments, and their imaginations can be used when designing these environments. This study aimed at revealing the dream school characteristics of children attending kindergarten classes and primary school, and was designed as a case study. The study group consisted of 5 to 10 years old children from three schools with different socio-economic status. In the data collection process, semi-structured interviews were conducted with the children about the characteristics of their dream school. In addition to this, they were requested to draw pictures of these schools and a second interview was held for these drawings. Findings showed that children had fantastic and creative dreams as well as dreams about the socio-emotional and physical environments of the schools. These findings were presented comparatively according to school level. Taking these findings into account, the characteristics of the dream school are important in terms of changing and transforming the ongoing school systems. This way, the basis for creating learning environments designed according to children’s interests and needs will be provided and the children will feel better and feel that they belong to these environments.

Keywords: Dream School, Children, Views, Learning Environment

Views of Preservice Social Studies Teachers regarding the Use of Virtual Tours during the Pandemic

Hafize ER TÜRKÜRESİN & Esra Sevi̇

pp. 105 - 119   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.459.8


This research aims to determine the views of preservice social studies teachers regarding the use of virtual tours during the pandemic period. The study was carried out with the phenomenology design, one of the qualitative research designs. 20 preservice Social Studies teachers studying at Kutahya Dumlupinar University participated in the study in the 2021-2022 academic year. The criterion sampling method, one of the purposeful sampling types, was used to determine the research group. The criteria were being a preservice social studies teacher and participating in virtual tour application training. The research data were collected with a semi-structured interview form developed by the researchers and analysed with the content analysis technique. As a result of the data analysis, it was seen that the views of the preservice teachers about the virtual tour application were primarily positive. The data obtained from the interviews were divided into six themes: informative, persistent and embodied, attractive and entertaining, practical and easy, economic and providing equal opportunity, and negative opinions. The informative theme is divided into two sub-themes as giving preliminary information and explanation.

Keywords: Pandemic, Virtual Tour, Virtual Museum, Social Studies

Parents’ Metaphors About Outdoor Play

Hi̇lal İlknur Tunçeli̇ & Eslem Gözde Şenöz

pp. 120 - 131   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.459.9


The aim of this study is to examine the parents’ perceptions about outdoor play through metaphors. The study is conducted with 107 parents, 96 mothers and 11 fathers, with children between 0-72 months. The data has been collected via an online questionnaire. Parents completed the prompt “Playing outside is like… Because ...” to indicate their conceptualization of outdoor play.  In addition, interviews were conducted to obtain more in-depth data about parent’s views about outdoor play. Content analysis technique is used in the evaluation of the data obtained in the research and eight conceptual categories were identified. The metaphors developed about outdoor play are, in order of frequency, freedom, healing, need, fun, instruction, happiness, peace, and exploration. As a result, it has been found that parents of preschoolers have positive perceptions towards outdoor play. Also, parents are aware of the benefit of outdoor play for the child, perceive it positively, but limit their children’s outdoor play opportunities, or try to structure it especially because of their concerns about security and health.  Thus, it will be possible for children to benefit from outdoor play at the maximum level by eliminating the difficulties faced by parents and increasing their awareness about outdoor play.

Keywords: Early Childhood; Play; Outdoor Play; Parents; Metaphor

Teaching Locally, Acting Globally: The Effect of Pre-Service Teachers’ Cultural Intelligence Levels on Their Perceptions of Global Citizens

Mehmet Melik Kaya

pp. 132 - 147   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.459.10


The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between cultural intelligence and global citizenship. The study group of the research consisted of 336 pre-service teachers, including pedagogical formation students, selected by a random sampling method from a state university in eastern Turkey, where the immigrant population is dense. Both the "Cultural Intelligence Scale" and "Global Citizenship Scale" were used as data collection tools. In order to statistically determine the levels of cultural intelligence and global citizenship by demographic variables, independent samples t-test and one-way ANOVA were employed by the researcher. Likewise, while the Pearson product-moment correlation analysis was implemented to examine the relationships among the variables, multiple regression analysis was used to determine the predictive coefficients between the variables. Based on the research findings, cultural intelligence was positively correlated with global citizenship. The behavioral dimension of cultural intelligence was the best predictor of global competence. Cultural intelligence levels of pre-service teachers seem to have a significant impact on shaping their process of becoming global citizens. If a person could be able to change his or her body language, spoken language, expressions, and behaviors when encountering any person or people from different ethnic groups and identities, this would mean that s/he is using the behavioral component of cultural intelligence. In this respect, cultural intelligence facilitates being a global citizen and increases adaptation. Therefore, the dimension of cultural intelligence evidently appears to be an essential factor for global citizenship.

Keywords: Teaching Locally, Acting Globally: The Effect of Pre-Service Teachers’ Cultural Intelligence Levels on Their Perceptions of Global Citizens

The Mediating Role of Resilience in the Relationship between Fear of COVID-19 and Mental Health Continuum during the COVID-19 Pandemic Process

Ahmet Kara & Ebru Çanakçı

pp. 148 - 165   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.459.11


The general purpose of this study is to determine the mediating role of resilience in the effect of fear of COVID-19 on the mental health continuum. 443 volunteer individuals who experienced the COVID-19 pandemic process in Turkey participated in this study. In data collection, The Fear of COVID-19 Scale, The Brief Resilience Scale and Mental Health Continuum Short Form were used. Data were analyzed with the two-stage Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) technique. The full mediating role of resilience has been proven in the impact of fear of COVID-19 on the mental health continuum.

Keywords: Mental Health Continuum, Mental Health, Resilience, Fear of COVID-19

Development of the General Teaching Principles Scale

Metin Aşçı

pp. 166 - 174   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.459.12


The aim of this study is to develop a scale to determine how often secondary school teachers adhere to general teaching principles. For this purpose, 211 teachers who work in secondary education institutions in Yunus Emre District of Manisa Province were included in the research group with the stratified sampling method. The 54-item experimental form of the scale was subjected to expert opinion, and as a result of the analysis, a 50 -item candidate scale was created. In order to determine the construct validity of the General Teaching Principles Scale, Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was performed using the geominQ rotation method. Cronbach's Alpha coefficient was calculated for the reliability index and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was performed to test the accuracy of the structure revealed by EFA. SPSS 26.0 software was used for reliability analysis, Jasp 0.13.1 for Exploratory Factor Analysis and R Studio 1.2.5033 software for Confirmatory Factor Analysis. The results of the validity and reliability studies conducted on teachers working in secondary education show that this developed scale gives valid and reliable results.

Keywords: General Teaching Principles, Scale Development. Academic Achievement

A Study on the Relationship Between Secondary School Students' Digital Game Addiction Awareness and Participation Motivation to Physical Activity

Bekir Çar & Aziz Onurhan Ahraz

pp. 175 - 190   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.459.13


This study is conducted so as to investigate the relationship between secondary school students` digital game awarenees(SDGA) and participation motivation to physical activity (PMPA). 456 female and 241 male  secondary school students studying in the Keçiören district of Ankara participated voluntarily. Personel information form, Digital Game Addiction Awareness Scale(DGAAS) developed by Tekkurşun-Demir ve Cicioğlu (2020) and Participation motivation to physical activity Scale(PMPAS) developed by Tekkurşun-Demir ve Cicioğlu (2018) are employed as data collection set. In the analysis of the data obtained, mean( ), standart deviation(sd), percentage(%) and frequency(n) values are utiSecondary Schoold. The pearson product-moment correlation coefficient in pearson correlation analysis, ANOVA in one-way analysis of variance and T-Test in unrelated samples were used. While statistically significant differences were found the relationship between secondary school students' PMPA, SDGA and gender, educational level of father and daily technology usage(p<0,05), the relationship with gender and educational level of mother was trivial (p<0,05); In sum, study results demonstrate that there is a positive and significant relationship between PMPA  of secondary school students and the SDGA. In other words, as students' awareness of digital game addiction increases, participation motivation to physical activity increase.

Keywords: Physical Activity(PA), Digital Game(DG), Awareness, Motivation

Curriculum Literacy Levels of English Teachers: A Mixed Method Research

Ayşenur Kuloğlu & Fatma Tutuş

pp. 191 - 208   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.459.14


The aim of this study was to investigate the English teachers’ curriculum literacy levels and their views on the English curriculum. The convergent parallel approach, which is one of the mixed research method, was used in the study. The population of the study consisted of English teachers working in secondary schools and high schools a city in the east of Turkey during 2020-2021 academic year. The sample of the study consisted of 198 English teachers in the quantitative part and 70 in the qualitative part, selected by convenience sampling method. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected simultaneously and analyzed separately. Then, it was tried to present a generalizable and in-depth perspective for the purpose of the study. The "Curriculum Literacy Scale" was used to collect quantitative data. The scale consisted of 18 items and three sub-scales: knowing the program, planning and implementation. The Cronbach’s alpha value of the curriculum literacy scale was .774. An interview form developed by the researcher was used to collect qualitative data. The results revealed that the participants had high levels of curriculum literacy. A significant difference was not found between participants’ curriculum literacy levels and gender, school type and work experience. The participants stated that the curriculum was sufficient for teaching reading skills, however it was insufficient for teaching speaking skills, that they used games to make the program interesting, and that intensive curriculum was a problem while implementing the program. It was concluded as a result of the study that the participants’ high level of curriculum literacy levels may increase their curriculum awareness and may contribute to conduct their teaching in a more conscious way.

Keywords: Curriculum Literacy; English Teachers; Mixed Method

A Meta-Evaluation Research on Teacher Training Programs in Türkiye

Muhammed Akıncı & Erdoğan Köse

pp. 209 - 222   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.459.15


The purpose of this research is to make a meta-evaluation of the program evaluation studies on teacher training programs in Turkey. Meta-evaluation is the process of revealing the deficiencies and errors of the research as the last stage of the program evaluation process. In this context, the steps of the meta-evaluation processes were followed methodically. In the in this research, 9 program evaluation studies conducted between 2010 and 2020 about teacher training programs, using any program evaluation approach and model, were meta-evaluated. The sampling method of the research is criterion sampling.. Research data was collected using the "Program Evaluation Standards Checklist developed by the researchers. During the development of the relevant data collection tool, the Program Evaluation Standards created by the Joint Committee on Standards for Educational Evaluation (JCSEE) were benefited. The studies included in the research were examined by 6 program experts who formed the meta-evaluation team. Each expert evaluated 3 studies using the checklist. Research data was analyzed using descriptive analysis method. Research findings indicate that the examined program evaluation studies meet the program evaluation standards by 55.67%. From this point, some suggestions that are believed to contribute to future program evaluation and meta-evaluation studies on teacher training were presented.

Keywords: Meta-Evaluation, Program Evaluation, Teacher Training, Evaluation Standards, Program Standards

Self-Regulated Learning Strategies Used by Students to Prepare Mathematics Exams

Belma Türker Biber

pp. 223 - 238   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.459.16


This study aims to determine self-regulated learning strategies used by students to prepare for mathematics lesson exams. The data were collected from high- and low-achievement students considering their general grade point averages and grade point averages in mathematics courses. The students were enrolled in the 7th grade of two different middle schools during the time of data collection. Case study method, which is a qualitative research approach, was used in this study. Data were collected with an interview form containing questions on potential sample events and situations that students may encounter while preparing for mathematics lesson exams. Descriptive analysis method was utilized for data analysis. Considering students’ mathematics achievement and academic averages, it was concluded that the high-achievement students used all the strategies more or less, but the low-achievement students used only some of these strategies. According to the findings, these self-regulated learning strategies that used by low-achievers determined as self-assessment, seeking information and help, environmental regulation, and reviewing notes before maths exams.

Keywords: Self-Regulation Learning; Self-Regulation Learning Strategies; Mathematics Exams; Student Academic Achievement

Examination of Individual and Environmental Factors Affecting Reading Comprehension with Structural Equation Model

Seval Çiğdemir

pp. 239 - 254   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.459.17


This study aims to examine the individual and environmental factors affecting the reading comprehension level through the structural equation model. To test the research questions, the relational scanning model, one of the quantitative research methods, was adopted. The research was conducted in Ankara in the 2019-2020 and 2020-2021 academic years. The research group consists of 365 fourth-grade students and their parents. Reading comprehension scale, prosodic reading scale, reading attitude scale, reading motivation scale, vocabulary knowledge scale, meaningless word list (short-term memory) pre-knowledge test, and family effectiveness scale in creating reading culture were used in data collection. In the analysis of the data, the AMOS program was applied to create the structural equation model. According to the findings obtained from the structural equation model, all variables in the model are significant predictors of students' reading comprehension scores. Individual factors have higher predictive power than environmental factors. Among the individual elements, the variable with the highest predictive power was determined as "prior knowledge," and then "vocabulary", "Family participation in reading" was the variable with the highest predictive power among environmental factors. It is observed that the family income level significantly predicts reading comprehension. Among the environmental factors, the variable with the lowest predictive power is "parental education level". As a result, a model has been obtained that will help educators in the applications to be made, in which the factors affecting reading comprehension can be classified according to a specific structure and level of influence.

Keywords: Reading Comprehension, Structural Equation Model, Individual Factors, Environmental Factors

Investigating the Effect of Concept Teaching Strategy on Academic Success

Eda Bütün Kar

pp. 255 - 266   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.459.18


This study examined the effect of concept teaching on students’ learning level of concepts through concept teaching strategy; hence, a quasi-experimental design with pretest–posttest measurements and experimental and control groups was employed. An achievement test was created by the researcher to determine the experimental and control groups; this test was administered to 129 students studying in Grade 3, and the KR20 reliability coefficient was found to be .846. The pretest data were analyzed by independent groups’ t-test. As a result of the analysis, two groups that were identical to each other were randomly assigned as experimental and control groups. While the concepts such as governor, district governor, mayor, and headman, which are the concepts determined from the life science curriculum, were taught to the experimental group with the help of concept teaching strategy, a program-based teaching was conducted for the control group. After 5 weeks of application, a posttest was administered to the experimental and control groups. As a result of the dependent group t-test, a significant increase in the posttest scores of the experimental and control groups was observed. As a result of the independent groups’ t-test, a significant difference was noticed in favor of the posttest scores of the experimental group.

Keywords: Concept Teaching Strategy, Concept Development, Life Science, Primary Education, Early Childhood

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