International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 2834-7919   |  e-ISSN: 1554-5210

Volume 19 Issue 2 (April 2023)

Issue Information

Issue Information

pp. i - vi   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2023.534



Original Articles

Are iGen Freshman Different? Notetaking Habits of STEM Students: A Descriptive Study

Marie-Christine Potvin, Monique Chabot, Abigail Garrity, Richard Hass, Colleen Zane & Anne Bower

pp. 1 - 18   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2023.534.1


Notetaking practices (e.g., modality, strategies) as well as confidence with notetaking has been linked to college success. A descriptive study was undertaken to explore the notetaking practice of a sample of freshman STEM students (n=139) over the duration of their first semester in college. The study found that iGen STEM students prefer taking handwritten notes when entering college, and that this preference persists throughout the first semester. Students report using a variety of strategies consistently throughout the semester while taking notes (e.g., abbreviation, summarizing, highlighting) and a desire to improve their time efficiency with notetaking.  Students report use of more active learning strategies when interacting with their notes by the end of the first semester. While the amount of time spent engaging with their notes remained constant at 2.5 to 3 hours per week per class, more students created their own test questions, used drawing and labelling, and wrote connections between concepts by the end of the first semester.  STEM students from the iGen generation demonstrate a preference for handwritten notes.  They appear to adjusted their notetaking strategies over the semester and interacted with their notes in ways that supported learning.

Keywords: Note-Taking, iGen, Freshman

Eliminating Reading Difficulty in an Elementary 4th Grade Student Based on Learning Style

Metin Gül & Olcay Özdemir

pp. 19 - 36   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2023.534.2


This study determines and corrects reading mistakes made during oral reading by a fourth grader with reading difficulty, and examines the effects of learning styles in reading comprehension development. Designed with the action research method, the study was conducted with a student from a state primary school in one of the city of Black Sea region selected in line with the purpose of the study. In the determination of the student participating in the research, "critical situation sampling’’ method which is one of the purposeful sampling methods, was used. Even though the student had no mental, auditory or visual insufficiency, her reading comprehension success is under peer averages, experienced a lot of difficulty and made many mistakes during oral reading. The study conducted with this student experiencing reading difficulty lasted 49 hours over twelve weeks. According to the Marmara Learning Styles Scale, the student’s dominant learning preference is ‘‘tactile learning style”. Therefore, the student’s sense of touch was engaged with word box strategy, sandpit activity and the method of dictation. In order to improve his reading comprehension skill, the story mapping method was used. As a result of the 49-hour practice, the grade 2 word recognition and reading comprehension level rose from the “Frustration Level’’ to grade 4 word recognition and reading comprehension level known as the ‘’Independent Level’’. The story mapping method is rather successful in developing the reading comprehension success of students with reading difficulty. The results of the study revealed that reading difficulty can be eliminated with reading practice based on learning styles.

Keywords: Fluent Reading, Story Mapping Method, Reading Difficulty, Learning Styles

Caught Off Guard: Parenting Children with Disabilities During COVID-19 Pandemic

Salih Rakap, Meryem Vural Batık, Mustafa Karnas, Sinan Kalkan, Uygar Bayrakdar & Halil Ibrahim Sari

pp. 37 - 53   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2023.534.3


Families of children with disabilities faced significant challenges during COVID-19 pandemic due to the social isolation and restrictions put in place to reduce or stop transmission of the virus. Using a qualitative approach, this study aimed to identify the challenges children with disabilities and their families have faced during COVID-19 pandemic as a result of changes in their daily routines; examine the strategies and resources families used to deal with these problems; and determine the supports they needed to address them. Data were collected from 40 parents of children with disabilities through semi-structured interviews and analyzed using inductive content analysis. Results of qualitative analysis showed that challenges encountered by families of children with disabilities included changes in daily routines and family priorities, increased problem behaviors exhibited by children, difficulties regarding virtual learning, and adverse impact in intra-family relationships. Consulting with teachers and other professionals, getting help from close family members or friends, using different education platforms, and bonding with family members were among the strategies and resources families used to address challenges they faced. Parents reported needs for psychological, economic, and education support for themselves and their children. COVID-19 pandemic significantly impacted lives of children with disabilities and their families in multiple ways. Findings of this study have potentials to guide the future efforts in providing support services to families of children with disabilities and allocating resources in similar situations.

Keywords: COVID-19 Pandemic, Children With Disabilities, Parents, Challenges, Resources, Supports, Needs

The Destruction Seen in Disadvantaged Bilingual Students in Rural Regions of Turkey: A Theoretical Study of Sad Portraits

Yusuf Kızıltaş

pp. 54 - 73   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2023.534.4


There are significant numbers of disadvantaged bilingual students in rural areas of Turkey, such as Southeastern and Eastern Anatolia. These students face various problems, especially while acquiring Turkish as a second language. Each of the emerging problems represents a sad portrait. So much so that almost all of these portraits reflect some harsh truths in our faces. Revealing sad portraits is very important. Because most of these situations lead to irreparable results, the effects of the damage they cause cannot be erased. Purposes such as better explaining the distinction between looking and seeing, presenting the traumas and destructions inherent in this narrative, and revealing the realities and results boldly make the study meaningful. To achieve this aim, a literature review was conducted on disadvantaged bilingual students. Then, the studies on this subject were examined and the relevant information was revealed and evaluated. In this theoretical research, which is a first in the context of literature in Turkey, sad portraits representing disadvantaged bilingual students in rural areas are discussed. Sad portraits; absenteeism and early school leaving, child marriages, uninsured child labor, juvenile delinquency, substance abuse, and academic failure. Each sad portrait causes serious problems in the long run.

Keywords: Rural Regions, The Bilingual Students, The Sad Portraits, Destructions

Developing a Culture-Adapted Mindfulness Stress Reduction Program

Hali̇l İbrahi̇m Özok & Fuat Tanhan

pp. 74 - 91   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2023.534.5


Stress is part of survival as a driving force, but excessive stress can cause mental and physical harm. According on the circumstances and time of time, stress manifests itself in various ways and causes a variety of symptoms. In this context, numerous sorts of studies on stress and coping mechanisms have been conducted since people's methods of dealing with stress vary from one individual to the next and from one culture to another. This study, which uses empirical research, looks at the outcomes of a stress-reduction program developed using mindfulness principles that have been culturally adjusted. This program has been tested on the level of life satisfaction, mindfulness, and stress levels of individuals. The program was called as the “Culture-Adapted Mindfulness Stress Reduction Program” (CAMSR). In this study, 2x3 experimental model was used with the pre-test, post-test, follow-up test, and control-experimental groups.  As a result of the analyzes, it can be said that culture-adapted stress reduction program has shown significant differences between the groups (control and experimental groups) in terms of three variables. The results show that CAMSR has a positive and lasting impact on each of the three factors.

Keywords: Mindfulness, Culture-adapted, Stress, Program

Teaching and Learning Conceptions of Pre-service English Language Teachers

Hilal Güneş

pp. 92 - 101   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2023.534.6


In this research, pre-service English language teachers’ teaching and learning conceptions were explored with regards to gender and grade level. A total of 227 pre-service English language teachers studying at a state university in Turkey participated in the study. Data were collected through “The Teaching and Learning Conceptions Questionnaire (TLCQ)” and analysed quantitatively. Results showed that pre-service English language teachers have higher level of constructivist conception when compared to traditional conception. In addition, a statistically significant difference was detected between the participants’ constructivist conceptions and their gender, in favour of females. Also, the participants’ traditional conceptions differed significantly based on grade level with lower-level participants having higher level of traditional conception. The study concluded with the discussion of the results in relation to the earlier research and offered some pedagogical implications and suggestions. This study attempts to be helpful for English language education policy-makers, teacher educators, teachers, and material designers.

Keywords: English Language Teaching (ELT), Teaching and Learning Conceptions, Constructivist Approach, Teacher Education

Teacher Leadership and Classroom Management: A Research on Preschool Teachers

Rengin Zembat, Hilal Yılmaz, Şeyma Değirmenci & Büşra Çelik

pp. 102 - 117   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2023.534.7


In this research, it was aimed to determine the relationship between preschool teachers' leadership levels and classroom management skill levels and to examine these two variables according to the demographic characteristics of the teachers. This study was conducted with a survey model, one of the quantitative research methods. The study group of the research consisted of 190 preschool teachers working in preschool education institutions located in Ataşehir, Eyüp, Kağıthane and Üsküdar districts of Istanbul, which were selected by the convenience sampling method in the 2016-2017 academic year. “Teacher Leadership Scale” and “Classroom Management Skills Scale for Preschool Teachers” were used as data collection tools. As a result of the study, it was identified that there was a significant relationship between the leadership levels of preschool teachers and their levels of classroom management skill. The level of leadership of preschool teachers showed a significant difference according to the variables of age, choosing the profession willingly and the presence of assistant personnel in the classroom. Similarly, the classroom management skills of preschool teachers revealed a significant difference with regard to the variables of age and the presence of assistant personnel in the classroom.

Keywords: Preschool Teacher, Leadership, Classroom Management

Rubric for Evaluating Text Structure-Oriented Reading Tasks: A Study of Validity and Reliability

Zeynep Çetinkaya Edizer, Melda Oryaşın, Şükran Dilidüzgün & Duygu Ak Başoğul

pp. 118 - 134   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2023.534.8


In this study, it was aimed to develop a rubric for evaluation of text-based reading tasks and to provide proofs of validity and reliability. In the study, data were collected from the participants who studied at the undergraduate and graduate level in the field of Turkish education. In the development of the rubric, a literature review was conducted, and dimensions (text structure activities, task-based activities) and sub-dimensions (small-scale structure, large-scale structure and superstructure; general tasks and text-oriented reading tasks) were determined. A draft rubric was created by determining 5-point Likert-type score levels for these criteria. The draft rubric was rearranged by taking the opinions of 4 text structure language teaching, 4 task-based language teaching and 2 assessment-evaluation experts. The designed rubric was applied to the participants by using three text types (story, poem and article). Reading activities collected from the study group were scored by 6 raters within the framework of the rubric prepared. Validity (Lawshe, exploratory factor analysis) and reliability (consensus reliability analysis, Cronbach Alpha, correlation coefficient) analyses were performed on the collected data. As a result of Lawshe analysis, the content validity rate was between 0.80 - 1.00, and the content validity index was found to be 0.98. The KMO value for three types was found to be 0.898, and it was determined that the data were suitable for factor analysis. The Cronbach Alpha coefficient is 0.919. The correlation coefficient varied between 0.501 and 0.836 and it was determined that there was a significant, positive and strong correlation at the level of 0.01 among the items. It was concluded that the developed rubric is a valid and reliable measurement tool.

Keywords: Text Structure, Reading Tasks, Rubric, Validity, Reliability

Review of Researches on Pedagogical Content Knowledge Published in ESERA (2009-2019) Conference Books

Şeyma Ulukök Yıldırım

pp. 135 - 151   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2023.534.9


This study aims to examine the papers prepared on pedagogical content knowledge published in European Science Education Research Association (2009-2019) conference books from a thematic and methodological point of view. For this purpose, 65 papers were examined. Data were collected through document analysis within the framework of the qualitative research approach. Descriptive analysis was used in the analysis of the data. NVivo 12 program was used to present the research data. Researchers mainly conducted studies on the development/detection of PCK. It has been determined that student knowledge and teaching methods knowledge, which are the components of pedagogical content knowledge, are investigated more. As a sample, it mostly worked with secondary school teachers. The qualitative research method was mainly preferred in the research. It has been determined that tests, interviews, and questionnaires are used primarily as data collection tools. In the data analysis, it was seen that the focus was more on content analysis.

Keywords: Pedagogical Content Knowledge, Conference Proceedings ESERA, Science Education

The Examination of Representations in Primary School Science Textbooks from the Perspective of Multimodal Genre Analysis

Elif Güven Demir

pp. 152 - 172   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2023.534.10


This study conducted a genre analysis to determine the representations in primary school science textbooks. Multiple representations in textbooks indicate multimodality. This study adopted a multimodal genre analysis approach to review the multiple representations in textbooks within the framework of the “scientific” genre. The sample consisted of two primary school textbooks taught to third and fourth graders within the scope of “the science” course in the 2021-2022 academic year. The data were gathered based on document analysis and analyzed using content analysis. Frequency and percentage were used for analysis. The results show that the most common representations in the textbooks are photographs and iconic diagrams. The third-grade textbook has more representations than the fourth-grade textbook. The representations in the textbooks are primarily associated with the scientific genres “explanation” and “information report.” Of the scientific genres in the textbooks, photographs are primarily used in “information report,” “explanation,” and “narration.” Iconic diagram representation is preferred in “experimental,” “argumentative,” and “technical procedure.” Certain representations are predominantly used in the textbooks, indicating that the textbooks lack a diversity of representations. In addition, the scientific genres are underrepresented in the textbooks, suggesting that the textbooks underutilize the advantages offered by different types of representations. We recommend that textbooks should be enriched with representations and scientific genres.

Keywords: Genre Analysis, Multimodality, Representation, Science, Textbook

Development of Turkish Speaking Anxiety Scale

Mahmut Ayaz, Süleyman Kasap & Zafer Açar

pp. 173 - 189   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2023.534.11


This study aims to develop a Turkish speaking anxiety scale (TSAS) for secondary school students whose mother tongue is not Turkish. Likewise, our study aims to develop a measurement tool that will determine the effect of this difference on second language speaking anxiety, since the subjects of our study are individuals who do not receive education in their mother tongue but receive education in a second language. The scale, which was prepared during the scale development process, was applied to 368 8th grade students whose mother tongue was Kurdish and who learned Turkish later. The results of the exploratory factor analysis (EFA) showed that the 25 items in the scale were collected in three factors. These are: "Anxiety", "Reluctance" and "Inadequacy". This three-factor structure obtained as a result of the EFA analysis was confirmed by Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). It is seen that these three factors contribute %43,923 to the total variance. It is seen that the factor load values of the items are between 0.375 and 0.746. Considering the item analysis results, it was concluded that the items in the scale were distinctive. In addition, as a result of ANOVA, it was revealed that students' Turkish speaking anxieties differed significantly in terms of gender, mother's knowledge of Turkish, and the language that parents wanted to be spoken at home. However, it was observed that there was no significant difference in the father's Turkish proficiency. The Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficients of this triple factor structure in the scale were calculated as 0.904, 0.829, and 0.733, respectively, and the alpha coefficient for all items of the scale was calculated as 0.927. As a result of the reliability and validity analyzes, it was concluded that the Turkish speaking anxiety scale is a reliable and valid measurement tool.

Keywords: Language Acquisition, Speech Anxiety, Bilingualism, Mother Tongue Education

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