International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 2834-7919   |  e-ISSN: 1554-5210

Volume 17 Issue 6 (December 2021)

Issue Information

Issue Information

pp. i - vi   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.382



Original Articles

Reflections of a Web Based Application Tool on Classroom Management

Pınar Girmen, Müyesser Ceylan & İrfan Süral

pp. 1 - 15   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.382.1


The purpose of this study is to determine how a web-based assessment tool developed for a social studies course is reflected on classroom management and how much students reflect their learning at school to their lives. In line with this purpose, the study was designed according to the mixed method research where both quantitative and qualitative methods are used. The participants of the study consisted of students who were in the second grade of a primary school with a medium socio-economic environment. The quantitative data of the study were based on the scores the students achieved in the assessment tool. The qualitative data of the study were collected through semi-structured interviews with both the students and the teachers.  According to the results obtained from the study, it was observed that using a web-based assessment tool in the learning environment positively affected both the students’ motivation and the process of attracting their attention. However, it was observed that the students could not reflect their learning at school to their lives.

Keywords: Primary School, Classroom Management, Social Studies, Web-Based Application

The Effect of Using Social Networks in The Inquiry-Based General Chemistry Laboratory Course

Ahmet Unal & Zekeriya Yerlikaya

pp. 16 - 31   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.382.2


The aim of this research is to examine the effect of social network environment supported use of inquiry-based activities developed for the general chemistry laboratory course. Throughout the research, Attitude Towards General Chemistry Laboratory Scale and Science Process Skills Perception Scale were used as quantitative data gathering means and applied to students before and after the implementation. Eighty-three pre-service science teachers participated in this study. Study group was chosen from first graders who take "General Chemistry Laboratory" course with criterion sampling method that is one of the purposive sampling methods. Laboratory activities which were developed in terms of Science Process Skills (SPS) were used for Experimental Group 1 and these activities were also supported by social network and were applied for group Experimental Group 2, for group Control Group the Laboratory activities in curriculum textbooks that are weak in terms of SPS were applied. The effects on students' attitudes towards general chemistry lab and their perception of SPS were studied for all three groups. As a result of the research, it has been determined that the inquiry-based learning approach positively affects the Science Teaching students' perceptions of SPS but has no positive or negative effect on their attitudes towards the general chemistry laboratory. Moreover, it turned out that social network support positively contributed to students' attitudes towards the laboratory. When designing and implementing the activities included in the Science Education curriculum, it is important to consider all valuable teaching technologies, including internet and social networking sites. In case of an effective injury from these, efficiency in education and training can also increase positively.

Keywords: Inquiry, Laboratory, Social Networking, Science Process Skills

A Career Adaptability Model for Psychological Counselors

Ahmet Kara & Ali Eryılmaz

pp. 32 - 53   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.382.3


The main aim of this research is; to propose and test a model of structural equality that examines career adaptability of psychological counselors, career calling and skills used in the fields of vocational identity experience for psychological counselors. This research was designed as a causal pattern. 231 volunteer psychological counselors participated in the study. The data were collected by “career adaptability scale, career calling scale, communication skills scale and perceived self- efficacy in counseling competencies scale”. Structural equation modeling was used for data analysis. According to the research findings, career calling predicts career adaptability in a statistically positive and meaningful way. At the same time, it was found that the skills used in the fields of vocational identity experience (communication skills and competence perception) for psychological counselors positively and significantly predicted career calling. Finally, the relationship between career adaptability and skills used in the fields of vocational identity experience for psychological counselors (communication skills and competence perception) has been shown to have a full mediating effect of career calling. As a result of this research, a career adaptability model for psychological counselors was reached. Experimental programs that will be prepared to increase career adaptability of psychological counselors can include dimensions of the model discussed in this research.

Keywords: Career Adaptability, Career Calling, Fields of Vocational Identity Experience, Counselor

Developing Anxiety Scale For Arabic Translation Course

Abdulmuttalip Işıdan, Halil İbrahim Şanverdi & Ersin Çilek

pp. 54 - 65   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.382.4


Translation courses in foreign language teaching are an important and integral part of language teaching at almost every level. Knowing how the translation course, which has such an important place in the eyes of students will help the language instructor to apply different methods and techniques during translation education. In addition, knowing the existence of foreign language department students' anxiety about translation courses may provide various benefits in language teaching. Accordingly, this study aimed to develop an Arabic translation course anxiety scale for the students of Arabic Translation and Interpretation departments. For this purpose, the item pool prepared by the researchers was presented to field experts for their opinion, and 19 items were deemed appropriate for the application. The designed scale was applied to 114 students from the Department of Arabic Translation and Interpretation, and a 5-point Likert-type 19-item scale was developed under a single factor in line with their analysis. The developed scale is a valid and safe tool and it is thought to be useful in determining the anxiety of Arabic Translation and Interpretation students towards translation lesson.

Keywords: Translation, Arabic Translation, Anxiety, Translation Anxiety

Teachers’ Views on Teacher Leadership: A Qualitative Analysis

Hülya Kasapoğlu & Bilal Karaca

pp. 66 - 82   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.382.5


Contemporary theories emphasize the importance of teacher leaders who can impress and sincerely value the student and become a model and guide in the process of learning and production in order to be successful in the transformation and development of the educational organizations. The purpose of this study is to investigate the phenomenon of teacher leadership from the teachers' perspective and raise the awareness of teachers on their teacher leadership level. In that sense, the teachers were asked about the qualities a teacher leader must have, the obstacles to become a teacher leader, and the ways to improve leadership skills. The study group consists of 40 teachers who serve in primary, secondary, high school, and private schools in Trabzon province of Turkey. A semi-structured interview form was used to collect the research data, and the data were analyzed manually by using the content analysis technique. As a result of the research, key characteristics of teacher leaders were found to be being fair and reliable as a person, self-developing and a role model as a professional, and having effective communication skills as a social person. The emerging results from the views of the teachers showed that administration, colleagues and hierarchical structure of the system pose crucial obstacles for teacher leaders, and in order to nurture teacher leadership in schools teachers should be provided with professional development opportunities especially through with trainings focusing on improvement of leadership skills.

Keywords: Teacher Perceptions, Teacher Leader Characteristics, Teacher Leadership Obstacles, Teacher Leadership Supports

Teachers’ Opinions About the Impact of the Covid-19 Pandemic on Values

Nazike Karagözoğlu

pp. 83 - 92   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.382.6


Values are social acceptances that affect and guide behaviors and decisions in daily life. Developments in science and technology and natural or human disasters play an essential role in the maintenance or disappearance of the values in society. The COVID-19 pandemic, which appeared in December 2019 and became a global challenge, also influenced and changed individual and social values. This study aimed to determined teachers’ opinions about the impact of the pandemic on values. This research was designed in terms of qualitative research methodology. The study sample consisted of 100 volunteer teachers from different primary and secondary schools in different provinces. The data were collected using interview forms and analyzed by using descriptive analysis methods. According to teachers' opinions, the values positively emphasized during the pandemic were patience, responsibility, helpfulness, self-control, respect, love, and friendship. The damaged values included justice, honesty, respect, and patience. The participant teachers suggested organizing activities that promote psychological support, education, empathy, patience, and communication to overcome the challenges related to values.

Keywords: Values, Pandemic, Teachers, Impact

English as an International Language Teaching and Perceptions: A Case Study of Thai Tertiary English Language Teachers

Kewalin Jantadej

pp. 93 - 114   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.382.7


This study scrutinized English as an international language teaching (EILT) and perceptions of Thai tertiary English language teachers through a 20-item Likert Scale questionnaire and a 7-question semi-structured interview protocol. The results from these two instruments disclosed some inconsistencies. Although the questionnaire results revealed that the participants (n=15) perceived the role of EILT to a great level, the semi-structured interview results indicated that they did not entirely implement EILT in their classroom. It was manifest that participants were confused with the concept and principles of EILT as they considered it a new language teaching paradigm. Therefore, they were uncertain how to implement EILT into practice. Some were misunderstood and misled to provide linguistic and cultural literacy to their students. Besides, they disregarded to raise awareness on the dispossession of English and underline the proud localism concept to their students. However, it was noteworthy that participants best applied English as an international language interpretation in their classroom. Overall results evidenced that a case study of the English teaching situation found from this study remained far from the progress of moving toward EILT and suggested that the EILT paradigm should be urgently and sustainably endorsed and integrated into the English teaching curriculum in Thailand.

Keywords: English as an International Language Teaching (EILT), English as a Foreign Language (EFL), English as a Global language (EGL), World Englishes (WE)

Developing a Scale to Measure Syrian Students' Attitude Towards Turkish (SSATT) and Examining Its Psychometric Properties

İdris Kaya & Mustafa Onur Kan

pp. 115 - 129   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.382.8


The aim of the present study was to develop a valid and reliable measurement tool for identifying the attitudes towards Turkish of Syrian university students learning Turkish as a foreign language. The study group was comprised of a total of 489 individuals with 285 for exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and 204 for confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Student opinions, relevant literature and expert opinions were utilized when developing the scale items thus putting forth a 53 item form. Eight items were excluded following the pilot application on first form for linguistic clarity thus conducting EFA with 45 items. A total of 20 items were excluded as a result of the EFA thus obtaining a 25 item, three factor form that explains 49.42 % of the variance. CFA was conducted with a new study group for examining the model fit of the obtained three factor structure and the results of CFA (X2/sd= 2,46; RMSEA= .085; CFI= .92; NNFI= .91; SRMR= .085; GFI: .79) set forth that the model fit of the scale is at a sufficient level. The dimension including items on the purpose and function for the use of Turkish by Syrian students was named as “Purpose/function”; items related with the daily use of Turkish were named as “Daily life” whereas the dimension including items including a negative approach towards Turkish was entitled as “Dysfunctional approach”. Reliability analyses were carried out for the scale as a result of which the Cronbach’s Alfa and Spearman-Brown coefficients were obtained as (.90) and (.86) for the “purpose/function”, (.83) and (.82) for the “daily life”, (.76) and (.74) for the “dysfunctional approach”. The findings of the present study indicate that SSATT is a valid and reliable tool in measuring the attitudes of Syrian university students towards Turkish.

Keywords: Turkish, Attitude, Syrian University Students, Scale

Determining The Cognitive Levels of Preservice Science Teacher in Daily-life Problems Prepared on The Density Subject

Asiye Berber & Aytaç Kurtuluş

pp. 130 - 143   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.382.9


The aim of this study is to evaluate the cognitive levels of pre-service science teachers according to Bloom's Taxonomy about "density" using daily life problems. The case study design was used in the study. This study was carried out with 45 pre-service teachers.  In order to identify the cognitive levels of pre-service teachers about the density subject, a cognitive level test have been used created in line with the Bloom’s Taxonomy, formed with the purpose of identifying their views about daily life problems requiring higher level thinking skills. When the cognitive levels of pre-service teachers have been analysed, it has been found out that all the pre-service teachers have completed the knowledge, comprehension and application levels while 20 of them have got through analysis level. 13 of them have passed into the synthesis level which requires a higher level thinking skill while 9 of them have reached the last stage, ‘evaluation’. According to the findings, in order to progress within the cognitive thinking levels while learning ‘density’ subject, students should overcome the mathematical deficiencies and concentrate more on daily life problems which require a higher-level thinking skill.

Keywords: Cognitive Levels, Daily-Life problems, Density, Pre-service Science Teacher

A Comparative Review of Articles on Education of Patriotism: A Thematic Analysis

Serdar Malkoç & Fatih Ozturk

pp. 144 - 157   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.382.10


Patriotism is an important and well-accepted value in educational institutions. As a civic virtue, it has always been included in education/training programs. This study aims to compare research articles on teaching of patriotism that were conducted in the last 20 years. The document analysis method was employed in the study for this purpose. The data were collected through the international databases e.g. Wiley, Jstore, Elsevier, Taylor&Francis. 218 articles were found by searching the keywords “patriotism”, “patriotic education”, and “teaching of patriotism”. Upon initial analysis, it was decided that 110 articles would serve the purpose of this study. Content analysis technique was employed to reveal patterns of the selected articles. The number of articles published on patriotic education in each countries, the publication dates of these articles and the comparison of these articles according to countries, purposes, is presented in this study. The paper at hand shows that  only some articles have a critical perspective on patriotism. Implications is made based on results.

Keywords: Patriotism, Patriotic Education, Social Studies, Citizenship Education

Investigation of Teacher Candidates' Teaching Maths Anxiety and Teaching Maths Competencies

Meryem Çelik

pp. 158 - 167   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.382.11


Considering the fact that teacher candidates' maths teaching anxiety levels and maths teaching competency levels will affect their maths teaching in future, the desired beliefs should be tried to gain teacher candidates. Therefore, a positive contribution will be made to achieve the desired gains in maths education. In the study, it is aimed to examine the competency levels of pre-school teacher candidates in maths teaching and their maths teaching anxiety levels in terms of various variables and to determine whether there is a relationship between the maths teaching anxiety of the candidates and their level of competency for teaching maths. The research is in relational scanning model. The "Maths Teaching Anxiety Scale" and "Maths Teaching Competencies Scale" were implemented to 104 pre-school pre-service teacher candidates studying in 2019-2020 academic year, which constitutes the sample of the study. As a result of the analysis, it has been found that while teacher candidates' maths teaching anxiety levels do not change by gender, female teacher candidates consider themselves more competent than male teacher candidates in maths teaching and 4th-grade teacher candidates have significantly less anxiety of maths teaching compared to 3rd grades. Besides, it has been determined that there is a statistically significant negative correlation between the maths teaching anxiety scores of the candidates and the average of the maths teaching efficacy scores.

Keywords: Maths Teaching Anxiety, Maths Teaching Competency, Teacher Candidates

Factors in Preschool Period Affecting Reading and Writing Achievements of Turkish Children in the First Grade

Elife Nur Saydam & Muhammet Baştuğ

pp. 168 - 182   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.382.12


This study’s aim was to determine the factors affecting Turkish children's reading- writing achievements in the first grade in the preschool period. The prediction level of attention, visual perception (VP), rapid automatic naming (RAN), writing development (WD), and phonological awareness (PA) of the children in the preschool on their success in reading, reading comprehension (RC), and writing in the first grade was investigated longitudinally. In the preschool, 269 kindergarden students participated in the research, 187 out of those who proceeded to the first grade participated the second year of the study. The study was carried out in the screening design. As the result of research, it has been established that VP, PA, RAN, and WD predict the reading rate in the first grade, and that PA and RAN predict the reading accuracy. It has been found out that PA predicts RC and that VP, WD, and PA predict writing.

Keywords: Attention, Visual Perception, Phonological Awareness, Rapid Automatic Naming, Writing Development

The Effects of Scientific Argumentation on High School Students’ Critical Thinking Skills

Nejla Gültepe & Ziya Kılıç

pp. 183 - 200   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.382.13


One needs higher order thinking skills in positioning perspectives for any kinds of problems that affect one’s view of life in order to develop a fundamental scientific understanding. For this reason, science teaching requires thinking skills instruction to be included in classes. This study aimed observing the effects of student-centered activities,  which were formed through scientific argument centered teaching method, on the critical thinking development of students, comparing it with those of traditional approach in chemistry classes. The research was conducted in two 11th grade classes of a high school in the city of Çankırı in Turkey. Classes were carried out with the teaching approach based on scientific argumentation in the experiment group with 17 students and with the conventional teaching approach in the control group with 17 students. The study lasted for 29 weeks with 11th grade students in two groups. In the experimental group, argumentation-centered instruction activities, which were based on Toulmin’s argument model, were conducted. Data were obtained through Watson Glasser Critical Thinking Scale and achievement tests named Achievement Test 1: Reaction Rate, Achievement Test2: Chemical Equilibrium, Achievement Test 3: Solubility Product, Achievement Test 4: Equilibrium in Acid-Base Solutions were applied at the beginning and end of the intstructions as pre-test and post-test. Wilcoxon test and Mann Whitney U test were used to analyze the data quantitaviely. With regard to the results, critical thinking skills of experimental group and control group students made progress but there was a statistically significant difference between the two groups. Also, when students’ answers in achievement tests are analyzed qualitatively in terms of critical thinking subskills, it can be seen that all critical thinking sub skills of the experimental group students have developed more than the control group.

Keywords: Scientific Argumentation, Critical Thinking, Science Education, High School

Self-Compassion as a Mediator Between Perfectionism and Life-Satisfaction Among University Students

Ezgi Ekin Şahin

pp. 201 - 214   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.382.14


Using a correlational method, this study investigates the mediation role of self-compassion in the relationship between perfectionism dimensions and life satisfaction among university students. A sample of 246 students (171 females and 75 males, M = 21.40 years, SD = 2.02) from several universities participated in the study. Turkish versions of the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised, the Self-Compassion Scale, and the Satisfaction with Life Scale were used as data collection tools. Using structural equation modeling, the results show that self-compassion fully mediates the relationship between maladaptive perfectionism and life-satisfaction. On the other hand, there is no significant relationship between adaptive perfectionism and life-satisfaction. The Bootstrap Method that was used to assess the magnitude of the indirect effects indicates that the indirect effect of self-compassion on the relationship between maladaptive perfectionism and life-satisfaction is significant. The implications of these findings for research and practice are discussed in line with the related literature.

Keywords: Life-Satisfaction, Perfectionism, Self-Compassion, Structural Equation Modeling

Reflections of National Education Councils on School Administration: Should the Councils Be on the Agenda again?

Abdullah Balıkçı & Muhammet Emin Türkoğlu

pp. 215 - 231   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.382.15


The aim of this research is to examine the National Education Councils (NECs) in the context of school management and to reveal the NECs’ reflections on today's education system. The documents within the scope of the study (19 NECs and 14 official documents) were analyzed through descriptive analysis. As a result of the analysis, decisions regarding school administration were made in 12 of the councils. In addition, 4 dimensions came to the fore in terms of school administration. These are (i) personal rights, (ii) training needs, (iii) duties and responsibilities, and (iv) management style. According to the research findings, decisions regarding school administration have important reflections on today's education system. Therefore, NECs can be considered as an implementation of governance and educational planning. As a result, it will be beneficial to continue the NECs to effectively solve the problems of today's education system with the participation of stakeholders.

Keywords: National Education Council, Governance, Educational Planning, School Administration

The Effect of Tales on the Development of Turkish Language Skills: A Meta-Analysis Study

Perihan Gülce Özkaya

pp. 232 - 245   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.382.16


The purpose of the current study is to determine the effect of tales on the development of the Turkish language skills of students from different grade levels in Turkey. To this end, a meta-analysis of the studies investigating the effect of tales on the development of the Turkish language skills was conducted. 5 studies were included in the current meta-analysis study. The total sample size of the studies included in the meta-analysis is 256 students; 126 in the control groups and 130 in the experimental groups. The studies included in the meta-analysis are heterogonous. In addition to result of the funnel scatter plot related to publication bias, absence of the publication bias was confirmed with Orwin’s Safe N Analysis, Duval and Tweedie’s Trip and Fill and Egger’s regression analysis. Effect sizes were calculated according to the random effects model. In the calculations of the effect sizes, Cohen’s d coefficient was used. In the current study, moderator variable effect of the variables of grade level, type of publication and skill area on the effect sizes calculated according to the effect of tales on the development of the Turkish language skills was also examined. In the determination of the moderator variable effect, Q test and p significance coefficient were used. In the current study, tales was found to have a high level of effect on the development of the Turkish language skills. When the results of the moderator variable analysis were examined, it was found that for grade level, type of publication and skill area moderator variables, the between-studies variance is not significant in terms of the development of the Turkish language skills. In light of the current meta-analysis study, it was concluded that tales are an effective method to be used to develop students’ Turkish language skills. Thus, tales can be used to support the development of students’ language skills in mother tongue education. According to results, it can be argued that tales have a positive effect on the development of all the Turkish language skills in all the Turkish language skill areas. It has been observed that applied research on the use of tales as a learning tool in Turkish language education is quite limited. Therefore, the number of applied studies that examine the effects of tales on the development of Turkish language skills as well as on academic achievement, student motivation, and the retention of the learned information in Turkish language education can be increased.

Keywords: Turkish Language Education, Turkish Language Skills, Tales, Meta-Analysis

Physical Education, Art and Music Pre-Service Teachers' Life Satisfaction and Automatic Negative Thought Perception

Mergül Çolak & Ülviye Bilgin

pp. 246 - 258   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.382.17


The purpose of this study is to examine the life satisfaction and automatic negative thoughts perception of physical education, art and music pre-service teachers. Students (n=387) who training in physical education and sport, art work and music departments participated in this study. Results showed that physical education teacher candidates' life satisfaction scores were significantly higher than those of art and music teacher candidates. On the other hand, the automatic negative thought perceptions of the art and music pre-service teachers were found to be higher than the physical education teacher candidates. Life satisfaction levels of the physical education pre-service teachers are found to be high, negative thought levels were low. Current findings emphasize the importance of participating in sports activities in order to increase the life satisfaction levels of pre-service teachers and decrease their negative automatic thinking levels.

Keywords: Student, Teacher Candidate, Negative Feeling, Happiness, Subjective Well-Being

An Investigation on the Relationship Between Learner's Skills and Perceptions to Use Information and Communication Technologies (Ict) and 21st Century Skills (C21 Skills) in Education

Ramazan Karatepe & İsmail Karakuş

pp. 259 - 269   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.382.18


This research was conducted to reveal the relationship between learner’s skills and their perceptions of efficacy in using ICT and C21 skills in Education. Research data were collected from 456 teacher candidates studying at a state university in 2021. As the data collection tools, C21Learner Skills Usage Scale and The Efficacy Perception Scale of Using Information and Communication Technologies were used. As a result of the research, it was highlighted that the scores of the candidate teachers from both scales are medium-high. A moderately positive (r=509) relationship was found between the scales. In addition, ICT Usage Competencies in Education predicts C21 learner skills at (R=259) level.

Keywords: C21 Skills, Information and Communication Technologies, Teacher Candidates

Use of the Web Adventure Method in Teaching Turkish as a Foreign Language (Example of A2 Level)

Vedat Halitoğlu

pp. 270 - 288   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.382.19


In this study, a three-week sample application for the use of the WebQuest method in Turkish language teaching was developed, and the effectiveness of the application was tried to be determined through a "achievement test" and students’ views. The study employed the mixed methods design, in the quantitative stage of the study, experimental and control groups of 28 people each with similar Turkish language levels were formed randomly among foreign students studying Turkish at Alaaddin Keykubat University. The WebQuest method was used in the experimental group while the traditional teaching method was used in the control group. A “achievement test” was applied to the groups as a pre-test and post-test, and the results were analyzed with the SPSS 25 software. In the qualitative stage of the study, the control group’s views on the teaching process were obtained through interview forms, mails, and focus groups, and the obtained data were subjected to content analysis in the Nvivo 12 software to reveal codes and themes. To increase the content validity of the theme achievement test, more than one expert was consulted. The study found that the Turkish teaching process involving the use of the WebQuest method was more effective.

Keywords: Keywords: Language, Education, Technology

The Emergency Remote Teaching: A State University Experience

Fatmanur Özen & Mustafa Serkan Abdusselam

pp. 289 - 308   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.382.20


Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, emergency remote teaching in higher education institutions across Turkey in 2020 has become mandatory as of March. Emergency remote teaching practices added new applications for most of the instructors such as virtual classroom, online teaching, distance evaluation; those revealed different opinions based on experience on the positive and negative aspects and quality of the applications. This research was conducted to evaluate all these experiences held at a state university with a distance education center and a distance education database system but having only limited experiences on online courses before the emergency remote teaching in Turkey. The data set of the study was composed of the opinions of a group of instructors who participated in the distance teaching process for the first time and the official correspondence and reports made to organize, manage and evaluate the process during the first period of emergency remote teaching. The research is a qualitative case study where data obtained from different data sets are analyzed comparatively, inductively, and deductively. The results of the research show that within the scope of emergency remote teaching, the regulations regarding the application content in different faculties of the university should be differentiated, and this can be partially met during the emergency distance education process. In the context of effective and efficient use of the emergency remote teaching process, positive/negative situations have been experienced in terms of adapting to the database used in the teaching process, adapting existing teaching approaches, measuring and evaluating learning outcomes, and ensuring the participation of students in all these. Although instructors generally consider distance education as more student-centered practices and find the opportunities, it will provide positive in this context, but the effect of compulsory emergency remote teaching on learning outcomes was uncertain. Some suggestions are presented for the efficacy, effectiveness, and efficiency of the implementation.

Keywords: Emergency Remote Teaching, Adoption to Emergency Remote Teaching, Efficacy-Effectiveness-Efficiency of Emergency Remote Teaching

Determining Self-Efficacy Perceptions of Pre-Service Turkish Language Teachers Towards Critical Reading

Fidan Geçici & Aliye İlkay Yemenici

pp. 309 - 323   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.382.21


This study aims to reveal the self-efficacy perception levels of pre-service Turkish language teachers towards critical reading and to determine whether these levels vary by various variables. This study draws on a general survey model, which is one of the descriptive research methods. The study group of this research consists of a total of 210 freshman, sophomore, junior, and senior level pre-service Turkish language teachers studying at the Department of Turkish Language Education in the faculty of education at a state university. To collect data, “The Critical Reading Self-Efficacy Perception Scale” developed by Karabay (2013) is used. The findings of this study indicate that the self-efficacy perception levels of the pre-service Turkish language teachers towards critical reading are moderate. Furthermore, the pre-service Turkish language teachers’ self-efficacy perception levels towards critical reading do not significantly vary between the groups in the total score and in the sub-dimensions by variables of gender and academic achievement. Yet, there is a significant difference between the groups in the total score and in the sub-dimensions by variables of grade level and reading frequency. Based on these findings, this study also offers some insights and suggestions for researchers and teaching staff.

Keywords: Critical Reading, Self-Efficacy Perception, Pre-Service Turkish Language Teachers

The Growth of Independent Education Alternatives in New Zealand

Lucila Rudge

pp. 324 - 354   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.382.22


The New Zealand schooling system is well-known for its progressive and innovative approach to education (Couch, 2012; Mutch, 2013; Wells, 2016). Their national curriculum is inclusive and flexible, allowing schools and teachers to select the content they deem necessary to meet the competencies in the designated learning areas (Ministry of Education, 2007). Additionally, the NZ education system provides choice to parents by offering a range of alternative approaches to schooling, such as Steiner Schools, Montessori Schools, Catholic Schools, or Kura Kaupapa Mãori (Mãori language immersion schools). Within such progressive public schooling system, one would not expect that there would be interest in alternative private schools. Yet, this study found the opposite. To examine the growing interest in independent alternative programs in New Zealand, this study uses a qualitative multiple-case study design of four independent educational programs in the North Island of New Zealand.

Keywords: Alternative Education, Progressive Education, Holistic Education, Independent Schools, Private School

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