International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 2834-7919   |  e-ISSN: 1554-5210

Volume 19 Issue 1 (February 2023)

Issue Information

Issue Information

pp. i - vi   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2023.517



Original Articles

A Phenomenological Study of the Experiences and Meaning of Participating in a Syndicate for Completing an Action Learning Project on a Short Study Programme at a Business School

Moreoagae Bertha Randa, Mirose Muhlarhi, Marlize E. Cochrane, Marlize E. Cochrane & Marlize E. Cochrane

pp. 1 - 10   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2023.517.1


The paper is based on a study of the experiences of a syndicate consisting of five members forced by the course management in a nine month Future Leaders in Digital Business study programme at the Wits Business School in Johannesburg, South Africa. Syndicates were formed to complete the research component when the other modules were done at individual level. The Action Learning Project component, required syndicates to undertake a study that would be implemented to improve some real work problem. Qualitative study design was followed to uncover the meanings from the experiences narrated, using phenomenology to reveal the meanings and implications of these experiences. Purposive sampling required the participation of the five students from the syndicate. The findings revealed synergistic gains that came through the activities, and showed the possibility of teams functioning at optimal levels that can lead to no one underperforming while everybody over-performs and benefits plentifully.

Keywords: Coerced Membership, Smart Objectives, Synergy, Value-Add

Towards Engagement in Self-Leadership Practices in the Era of Reforms: South African Nurse Teachers’ Views on Own Personal Mastery

Vhothusa Edward Matahela

pp. 11 - 28   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2023.517.2


Nurse teachers are expected to be agile and adequately prepared to cope with a continuously changing and competitive academic environment. This requires nurse teachers to continually strive for high levels of personal mastery, that is, the motivation to continue learning to improve teaching and learning. However, little is known about nurse teachers’ personal mastery within a nursing education environment.  The article aims to understand nurse teachers’ perceptions of their personal mastery and how their personal mastery could be promoted in a nursing education institution (NEI) context.An explorative, descriptive qualitative design was utilised. Data were collected from nurse teachers working in purposively selected NEIs in South Africa. Four semi-structured focus group interviews were audio-taped, and the interviews were conducted until data saturation was reached. Tesch’s methods were used for thematic data analysis. The two themes that emerged were: views about the meaning of personal mastery in nurse teachers, and views on how nurse teachers’ personal mastery can be enhanced in an educational institution. Nurse teachers should engage in self-leadership practices in order to stimulate their personal mastery. Institutions should provide enabling environments that support the continuous learning of nurse teachers. Teaching nurses in today’s competitive environment requires nurse teachers who are agile and striving to achieve high levels of self-leadership and personal mastery.

Keywords: Continuing Professional Development, Learning Organisation, Motivation, Nurse Teachers, Nursing Education İnstitution, Personal Mastery, Self-Leadership, South Africa

Views of Vocational School Students About Distance Education Applications During The Covid-19 Pandemic

Mehmet Nuri Gömleksiz, Emine Kübra Pullu & Sinem Baylas

pp. 29 - 46   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2023.517.3


The aim of this study is to determine the views of vocational school students about the positive and negative effects of distance education applications during the COVID-19 pandemic. Qualitative research method and phenomenology design were used in the study. Maximum variation sampling was preferred in sample selection. The sample group consisted of 39 second-year students studying at Technical Sciences Vocational School of Bingöl University in the city centre of Bingöl in the 2021-2022 academic year. The researcher collected data by using a student interview form with 13 questions in order to get the views of the participants in detail. The descriptive analysis method was employed to analyse the data. As a result of the research, findings regarding the first changes in feelings and thoughts, the positive and negative effects of distance education applications on courses, their suggestions for distance education applications and the continuity of distance education applications were obtained.

Keywords: Distance Education, COVID-19, Pandemic

Critical Reading Self-Efficacy and Metacognitive Reading Strategies: A Relational Study

Yelda Kökçü

pp. 47 - 61   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2023.517.4


Critical reading strengthens students' metacognitive reading strategies and allows them to reflect on their current reading strategies. The relationship between metacognitive reading techniques and critical thinking and reading must be stressed, given that critical thinking is an intentional and self-regulated choice mechanism. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between pre-service teachers’ critical reading skills and their use of metacognitive reading strategies. The relational survey model was used and 124 preservice teachers studying at the Turkish Language Education Department of a University located in the east of Turkey participated in this study. Critical Reading Self-Efficacy Perception Scale (CRSPS) and Metacognitive Reading Strategies Questionnaire (MRSQ) were used in data collection tools. The data were analyzed using Pearson Correlation analysis and simple linear regression analysis. The findings showed that there was a positive and significant relationship between the participants’ critical reading perceptions and their use of metacognitive reading strategies. It was determined that the critical reading skills of pre-service teachers should be improved for which educational content should be developed. In addition, the preservice teachers should be offered training metacognitive reading. In order to obtain more in depth information, qualitative or mixed method studies should be carried out in the future.

Keywords: Critical Reading, Metacognitive Reading Strategies, Turkish Teacher Candidates

Investigation of Leadership Type of School Administrators and Burnout of Teachers According to Teacher Perceptions in the Emergency Distance Education Process

Muammer Ergün & Burcu Karabulut Coşkun

pp. 62 - 83   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2023.517.5


This study aims to examine the relationship between the burnout status of teachers and the type of leadership that school administrators have, according to teacher perception, in the emergency distance education process, which is seen as the only solution for the continuation of education and training activities during the covid-19 global epidemic process. In this context, data were collected from 418 teachers randomly selected from among the teachers working in schools affiliated with the Ministry of National Education in our country through the Leadership Type scale for School Administrators and the Teacher Burnout in the Emergency Distance Education Process scale developed by the researchers. Scale items were shared with teachers through online survey applications. As a result of the analysis of the collected data; According to the total burnout status, it was found that female teachers experienced more burnout than male teachers, male teachers performed more obsessive thinking, on the other hand, female teachers exhibited more professional inadequacy, the tendency to reactive personality and deterioration of health compared to male teachers. It was found that the sub-dimensions of developing obsessive thoughts, orientation to reactive personality and professional inadequacy were related to the school level, teachers' perception of inadequacy and orientation to reactive personality did not differ according to age, but the scores of developing obsessive thoughts, deterioration of health and total burnout differed according to age. The variables predicting teachers' burnout, the liberal leadership style of the school administrators, the gender of the teachers and the age of the teacher have emerged as a result of the analysis.

Keywords: Professional Burnout in teachers, Leadership Types, Emergency Distance Education

A Comparative Evaluation of Social Studies Preservice Teachers’ Views on Face-to-Face and Electronic Service Learning

Kudret Aykırı

pp. 84 - 98   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2023.517.6


There have been transformations in the SL approach due to technological advances and mandatory processes such as the pandemic. Thus, besides the traditional (face-to-face) service learning (T-SL) approach, two more types of SL approaches emerged: Electronic service learning (E-SL) and hybrid service learning (H-SL). The aim of this study is to compare the social studies preservice teachers' views on T-SL and E-SL. In this context, the case study method, one of the qualitative research methods, was used in the study. Participants in the study were selected according to criterion sampling, one of the purposive sampling methods. The participants are 30 preservice teachers studying in the department of social studies education at a state university. Preservice teachers experienced the H-SL type during the emergency remote education process in the spring semester of 2019-2020. The data were collected with a semi-structured interview form, which underwent expert review and was piloted. The obtained data were analyzed with descriptive analysis technique. Validity and reliability were ensured in the study. The role of the researcher was given and attention was paid to ethical considerations. According to the results of the study, most of the participants found the T-SL process more meaningful. There were also participants with a tendency to H-SL. Still, participants had a tendency to H-SL That is because the advantages of E-SL (increasing digital competence, providing motivation, providing convenience) were many. However; there were many problems (lack of infrastructure, unwillingness of the target audience, lack of opportunities, not being able to arrange the meeting time and confusion during the meeting, difficulty in finding the target individual/group/audience, and insufficient digital competence) in the E-SL process. These problems were sometimes unresolved. However, the participants had experienced methods and suggestions regarding its resolution. In the context of all this information, recommendations were made for future studies.

Keywords: E-Service Learning (E-SL), Traditional Service Learning (T-SL), Hybrid Service Learning (H-SL), Emergency Remote Education, Distance Education, Hybrid Education

The Relations between Preschool Children's Self-Regulation Skills and Play Skills

Dondu Neslihan Bay

pp. 99 - 111   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2023.517.7


Preschool education develops self-regulation and plays skills in children. This study aims to determine preschool children's self-regulation skills and play skills and reveal the relationship between them. The study, designed according to the relational screening model, was carried out with 338 children aged 4 and 5 attending kindergarten and preschool. The children were observed for a month, and each child's self-regulation and play skills were evaluated by the teachers using the "Self-Regulation Skills Scale for 4-6-year-old Children (Instructor Form) (SRSS)" and "Play Skills Scale (PSS)". Descriptive statistics, difference tests, and correlation analysis were used to analyze the collected data. As a result of the study, it was found that children's self-efficacy skills and play skills are high, there is no significant difference in skills between girls and boys, and there is a positive and strong relationship between these skills. In this context, it is recommended that preschool teachers include practices that will support both skills.

Keywords: Preschool Children, Self-Regulation Skills, Play Skills

Impact of Pre-Service Teachers' Awareness of Using Multiple Representations on the Argumentation-Based Inquiry Process

Funda Yeşildağ-Hasançebi

pp. 112 - 130   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2023.517.8


This study aimed to investigate how awareness of pre-service teachers is reflected in the process when making oral and written arguments, the effect of using modal representations on the quality of the argument, what modal representations students use when making arguments, and what modal representations they consider important (especially when defending their claims). The method of the research is the convergent parallel design, one of the mixed research methods. The sample of the study consists of 2nd grade pre-service teachers (N=83) studying at a state university in the north east of Turkey, selected by convenience sampling method. In the quantitative dimension of the study, Argumentation-based inquiry (ABI) reports evaluation form was used, while in the qualitative dimension, video recordings, semi-structured interviews and photographs (presentation board pictures) and ABI reports were used as data collection tools. Analysis shows pre-service teachers need an education or an activity to raise awareness.  The pre-service teachers who gained this awareness use different types of representation in a larger number and variety and do this in order to serve a purpose (such as defending their claims).

Keywords: Argumentation-Based Inquiry, Multi Modal Representation, Multiple Representation, Quality of the Argument

Comparison of Face-to-Face and Distance Education:  An Example of a Vocational High School

Burcu Duman & Nurgün Gençel

pp. 131 - 153   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2023.517.9


The primary objective of the research is to determine the opinions of vocational high school teachers related to the effectiveness of face-to-face and distance education. The case study method was used in the research. Typical case sampling was preferred from purposive sampling methods in selecting the study group. Besides, 43 teachers who work in different branch types and have various seniority levels in a vocational high school constituted the research study group. The semi-structured interview form developed by the researchers was used as a data collection tool. The data were analyzed descriptively through NVIVO 12 Plus program. As a result of the research, teachers working in a vocational high school stated that positive aspects of face-to-face education include communication, classroom control, efficiency, learning by doing and living, the transmission of emotion, motivation, attracting, socialization, classroom climate, application of methods-techniques, equal opportunity for each student, the use of the whiteboard, participation, and empathy. The positive aspects of distance education were specified as providing discipline, material diversity, accessibility, voluntary participation in class, the applicability of the curriculum, self-expression (or the ability express on self), technological opportunities, saving time, and a healthy environment. There are, however, both positive and negative student attitudes toward distance education. While most teachers prefer face-to-face education in the future, hybrid education was also included among the preferences.

Keywords: Face-to-face Education, Distance Education, COVID-19, Vocational High School

An Online Training for Increasing Language Teachers’ Awareness of Feedback Literacy Based on the Developing Engagement with Feedback Toolkit (DEFT)

Özlem Canaran, Ilknur Bayram & Belgin Elmas

pp. 154 - 169   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2023.517.10


This study aims to identify in-service language teachers’ knowledge and experiences of feedback literacy and examine their reflections on an online training based on the Developing Engagement with Feedback Toolkit adapted for foreign language teaching.  The study was designed as practical action research. 17 K-12 English language teachers participated in the study. Data were collected through a survey, focus group interviews, and e-journal entries. The results showed that language teachers were unfamiliar with feedback literacy and perceived themselves as partially effective feedback providers. Assessment methods were based on homework, quizzes, and projects followed by generic feedback information. Teachers reflected on the positive impact of the training on their feedback giving practices and learners’ engagement in lessons.  They highlighted the points still open for improvement in personal feedback practices.  The findings imply that the training can be adapted to language teacher education programs to grow feedback-literate teachers and learners.

Keywords: Action Research, DEFT, Feedback Literacy, Foreign Language Teachers, Online Training

Examination of Primary Teacher Candidates’ Experiences in Distance Education Teaching Practices

Işıner Sever

pp. 170 - 186   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2023.517.11


In this research, we aimed to examine and understand the experiences of the participants regarding the teaching practice courses held with distance education during the pandemic. The participants of the research are all eight students who took teaching practice courses in the primary school education program of a university in Turkey in the 2020-2021 academic year. The research was designed as basic qualitative research. Research data were obtained from semi-structured interviews conducted via video call individually with the participants. Content analysis was used for data analysis. Results show that participants experienced problems due to the lack of interaction with the primary school students and practice teachers. In the problems that arise in the distance education process; we can say that the lack of infrastructure, knowledge and experience of the stakeholders are effective. It is necessary to eliminate the infrastructure problems related to distance education and to provide information and experience to the stakeholders by integrating distance education into formal education processes. In this way, we can be prepared for the next pandemics or similar extraordinary situations.

Keywords: Distance Education, Elementary Education, Pandemic, Teacher Education, Teaching Practices

The Relationship Between the Emotional Literacy Skills and Communication Skills of Pre-Service Turkish Teachers

Didem Çetin

pp. 187 - 204   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2023.517.12


The aim of the current study is to determine the relationship between the emotional literacy skills and communication skills of the pre-service Turkish teachers. The population of the study employing the relational survev model based on discriptive model, is comprised of 249 pre-service teachers attending the Department of Turkish Teaching in Mugla Sitki Kocman University while the sample is comprised of 196 pre-service teachers who could be reached from the population without any sampling. As the data collection tools, a personal information form, the “Emotional Literacy Skills Scale (ELSS)” and the “Communication Skills Evaluation Scale” were used. In order to determine the emotional literacy and communication skills of the pre-service teachers, t-test was used in binary comparisons, and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for comparisons having more than two dimensions. Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated to determine the relationship between the levels of emotional literacy skills and communication skills of the pre-service teachers. In the analysis of the collected data, descriptive statistics such as arithmetic means and standard deviations were used. As a result of the study, it was concluded that the levels of the emotional literacy skills and communication skills of the pre-service Turkish teachers are high. The pre-service teachers’ emotional literacy skills and communication skills were found to be varying significantly depending on gender in favour of the female pre-service teachers, yet, they were found to be not varying significantly depending on grade level. It was also found that with the increasing level of emotional literacy skills, the pre-service teachers’ level of communication skills also increased and that there is a positive, medium and significant correlation between their emotional literacy skills and communication skills.

Keywords: Emotional Literacy, Communication Skill, Pre-service Turkish Teachers

The Main Stressors of Tertiary Level EFL Instructors Teaching Remotely Amidst Covid-19

Oğuzhan Yangöz & Burcu Ünal

pp. 205 - 222   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2023.517.13


With the global COVID-19 pandemic outbreak, our lives, especially education, have been adversely affected. This research investigates the relationship between technostress and burnout levels of English language instructors amidst the pandemic and makes recommendations about the role of online language education in the coming years. In this study, Turkish adaptation of Maslach’s MBI-ES and Defining Teacher’s Technostress Level Scale was administered to 188 English instructors working at State and Foundation Universities in Turkey. Semi-structured interviews were also conducted with 10 English language instructors. The findings indicate that instructors have medium level of technostress and low level of burnout. Age and gender were found to be an important contributing factor for both technostress and burnout levels. Correlation analyses showed a relationship between subscales of burnout and technostress measures. The research findings suggest adapting the curriculum of English language teaching programs to increase the technology literacy of prospective English language teachers and prepare them for the increasing role of online language teaching in the coming years as well as providing professional development opportunities for in-service language teachers.

Keywords: Teacher burnout, technostress, pandemic, online education, Covid-19

Examination of Alexander Mccall Smith's Children's Stories According to the Theories of Humor

Bekir Yıldız & Esma Dumanlı Kadızade

pp. 223 - 242   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2023.517.14


Humour has existed in numerous fields throughout history, including philosophy, psychology, medicine, athletics, and art and literature. In literature, humour has been employed as a mode of expression, a mode of communication. The purpose of this study is to examine the children's stories of British author Alexander MacCall Smith in light of humour theories. Document analysis, which is one of the qualitative research approaches, was utilized to conduct this study. Nineteen of Alexander MacCall Smith's children's literature works were studied through a literature review, and eleven children's stories were picked using criterion sampling as the research's data source. The selected stories were assessed based on the superiority theory, the incongruity theory, and the relief theory. Using descriptive analysis, the humorous components of the narratives were identified and evaluated in accordance with the theoretical framework of humour theories. It was concluded that Alexander MacCall Smith's hilarious children's stories contained 25% superiority theory, 42.5% incongruity theory, and 32.5% relaxation theory-based humour. The conclusion was that the author's children's stories featured funny facts that were consistent with the theoretical foundations of all three theories. The author's conception of comedy is based on the conceptual framework of the incongruity theory, which defines discordant and conflicting mental states.

Keywords: Theories of Humor, Alexander MacCall Smith, Story, Laughter

Culture Shocks and Adaptation Processes Experienced by Turkish Novice Teachers

Yahya Han Erbaş

pp. 243 - 261   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2023.517.15


This study aims to examine the culture shock of teachers who have just started teaching in rural areas and their solutions for their adaptation to the new cultural environment. Case study, one of the qualitative methods, was used as part of this research. The participants are 17 classroom teachers who recently started teaching in the villages in the Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia Regions of Türkiye in the 2021-2022 academic year. Criterion sampling was used in the selection of the participants. A semi-structured interview form prepared by the researcher was used as the data collection tool. The stages of thematic analysis were used in the research. The themes obtained as a result of the analysis of the data collected during the interviews with newly appointed teachers were grouped under four headings: Initial Culture Shock, Factors that Facilitate Cultural Adaptation, Factors that Make Cultural Adaptation Difficult, and Support to Novice/Prospective Teachers. According to the data collected from the teachers participating in the study, it is the language differences that cause culture shock the most. While the climate of the region they live in, lifestyles, differences in the communication channels used, and economic problems make cultural adaptation difficult, colleague support, acceptance, learning cultural elements, family support and certain personal characteristics facilitate the cultural adaptation process. In addition, teachers think that supporting new pre-professional teachers by communicating with experienced teachers, giving courses on cultural diversity in undergraduate education and holding orientation meetings will accelerate cultural adaptation.

Keywords: Cultural Shock and Adaptation, Novice Teachers, Case Study, Türkiye

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