International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 2834-7919   |  e-ISSN: 1554-5210

Volume 16 Issue 5 (October 2020)

Issue Information

Issue Information

pp. i - vi   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.277



Original Articles

Impact of a SSI Program on Prospective Teachers’ Character and Values for Global Citizens

Nurcan Uzel

pp. 1 - 16   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.277.1


Raising global citizens has been included in education systems, especially in the 21st century objectives. In their education systems, countries have turned towards more global level objectives rather than local level objectives that only meet their own needs. The importance of the character and values expected from the global citizens to be raised has also increased. For this reason, in this study, it is aimed to investigate the change in the character and values of prospective biology teachers as global citizens who are trained with a Socioscientific Issues (SSI) program. The study used a one group pretest-posttest design. The study group of the research consists of 19 prospective biology teachers studying in the first year of a state university in Ankara. A SSI program was used to ensure the development of some desired character and values in the prospective teachers. Character and Values as Global Citizens Assessment (CVGCA) questionnaire was applied before and after SSI program. It has been determined that there is a significant difference between the scores of prospective biology teachers obtained from the CVGVA scale and its sub-dimensions before and after the SSI program. The findings of the study showed that SSI program improved prospective biological teachers' ecological worldview, socioscientific accountability, and social and moral compassion character and values. In addition, it was understood that the characteristics of prospective teachers such as empathy, taking action, producing solutions, and noticing different perspectives became evident.

Keywords: Socioscientific Issues (SSI), Global Citizenship, Character and Value Education, Teacher Education, Environmental Issues

Indicators of Reading Comprehension: Example of Narrative Text and Open Ended Question

Yasemin Kuşdemir

pp. 17 - 29   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.277.2


Reading comprehension is a mental skill that requires establishing connections between the content of the text and the individual's prior knowledge. The purpose of the current study is to examine the reading comprehension levels of primary school fourth grade students based on their answers to open-ended questions about a narrative text in relation to different variables. The current study employing the descriptive survey model was conducted with the participation of 115 primary school fourth grade students from a city in the Central Anatolian Region of Turkey. An inventory consisted of 10 open-ended questions based on a narrative text was used to collect data. The level of reading comprehension of the students participating in the study was found to be in the stage of transition from the difficulty level to the instructional level and this level can be expressed as insufficient. Although the students' reading comprehension levels do not vary significantly according to the gender variable, girls' reading comprehension levels are higher than boys. Through open-ended questions, it is easy to observe how students structure their answers, how they manage the process of constructing the meaning of the text, and what they focus on in the text. In this way, strategy teaching and activity design can progress more concretely in order to improve students' meaning construction skills. In addition, it provides the teacher with a good opportunity to get acquainted with students whose understanding skills are at the instructional level, realize their approach to text and question, and provide individual support to the student. The results of the current study provide consistent and meaningful data for new research and educational practices in schools.

Keywords: Narrative Text, Open-Ended Questions, Reading Comprehension

The Sources of Cognitive and Metacognitive Strategies Used By 7th Grade Students While Reading the ” Cells and Divisions " Unit

Emine Hatun Diken

pp. 30 - 48   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.277.3


The purpose of this research is to determine the sources of cognitive and metacognitive strategies that 7th-grade students use when studying the “Cell and Divisions” unit that belongs to the field of Biology. In the study, the case study which is one of the qualitative research methods was used. A total of 6 students from 3 different secondary schools in Kars participated in the study. In the research, 6 7th grade students who study in 3 different secondary schools read the "Cell and Divisions" unit in the 7th grade Science Textbook. Students were observed by the researcher in their process of reading this unit. Students were asked to think aloud to determine the cognitive and metacognitive strategies used in the process of reading the unit. To determine whether the strategies used in reading the unit are cognitive or metacognitive, and to determine the sources (from, where or how) of these cognitive and transcriptional strategies they are using, semi-structured interviews were conducted with them immediately after reading the unit. The observation records of the students' reading process of the unit and transcripts of the data obtained from the semi-structured interviews with the students after reading the unit were made. The transcripts of the data were analyzed. According to the results of the research; It was determined that the sources of the cognitive strategies used by the two students who study in the 1st secondary school and have high grade point averages while reading the "Cell and Divisions" unit were themselves and their teachers and the sources of metacognitive strategies of them were their teachers and friends. It was determined that the sources of the cognitive and metacognitive strategies used by the two students who study in the 2nd secondary school and have medium grade point averages were only themselves. It was determined that the sources of the cognitive strategies used by the two students who study in the 3rd school and have low grade point averages were only themselves, But it was determined that the sources of the metacognitive strategies of one student were himself/herself but since the other student did not use metacognitive strategies the sources of the strategies could not be determined.

Keywords: Cognitive and Metacognitive Strategies, Cell and Division Unit, Reading Strategies

Using Popular Productions in the Development of Counselor Candidates’ Preventive Competencies: 13 Reasons Why

Erol Esen & Melda Meliha Erbaş

pp. 49 - 69   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.277.4


The aim of this study is to examine the views of the counselor candidates about preventive interventions and problem behaviors, and the use of popular productions in increasing competencies related to preventive interventions in the context of “13 Reasons Why” series. The participants of this study are sanior students of Guidance and Counseling undergraduate program in Turkey. In this research, purposeful sampling method was used, and 30 students who attended the "School Based Preventive Guidance and Counseling" course and followed at least ten episodes of the "13 Reasons Why" series’ first season were participants. Phenomenological design which is a qualitative research methods was used in the study. The findings point out four themes; risk and protective factors, awareness of suicide, preventive interventions, and professional-personal development. The findings of the study were discussed in the light of the literature.

Keywords: Prevention, Counselor Candidates, “13 Reasons Why”

Socioeconomically Disadvantaged and Resilient Students’ Characteristics and Their Perceptions about School

Celalettin Özden & Ramazan Atasoy

pp. 70 - 89   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.277.5


This study aims to evaluate socioeconomically disadvantaged and resilient students’ opinions about school and their expectations from school. The research is designed in qualitative research methods, phenomenology patterns, and interview techniques. Twenty students consist of the working group of the research. The data has been analyzed with content analysis. The research concludes that the resilience source of resilient students exhibits an interactive and intertwine structure in educational, psychological, social, and personal dimensions. Significance of focusing on their characteristics with psychological frame backgrounds such as intrinsic motivation, commitment, self-confidence, and self-management to understand the resilience of these students have been detected. It is understood from the student views these two frameworks contribute to shaping life expectations, education processes, and being favorable to school and distinguish oneself despite socioeconomic disadvantages surrounding them. Psychological dimensions and personal characteristics are the main determinants of the perspective towards the educational framework. Active participation in lessons, achievement, discipline, school and teacher perceptions, fun learning approaches, and social environment relations reveal the power of their inner dynamics. Similarly, different learning strategies, the consciousness of taking responsibility, expressing oneself clearly, and self-efficacy beliefs that they could better reveal a personality structure that is open to change and development. Moreover, students have expectations from the school, such as improving the school’s physical and educational capacity, tight disciplinary practices, teachers’ self-renewal and sincere behavior, and the desire to participate in school decisions. This study will present a new point of view to curriculum development experts and school administrators in the formation of teaching programs that take into account student views.

Keywords: Academic Resilience, Academic Success, Disadvantaged Students, Education

Middle School Students’ Environmental Attitudes and Informal Reasoning Regarding an Environmental Socioscientific Issue

Nejla Atabey & Mustafa Sami Topcu

pp. 90 - 105   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.277.6


The purpose of the current study is to reveal students’ environmental attitudes, their informal reasoning, and how their informal reasoning on a socioscientific issue changes depending on their environmental attitudes. The study participants were 104 eighth-grade students. A form consisting of a scenario and open-ended questions was used as data collection tools. During the analysis of the collected data, the descriptive analysis method and descriptive statistics were used. The findings revealed that the majority of the students had an anthropocentric attitude toward the socioscientific issue and largely presented rationalistic reasoning. Moreover, while the students with an anthropocentric attitude used rational reasoning more, students with an ecocentric attitude presented rationalistic, emotional, and rationalistic-emotional reasoning. Considering the findings of the current study, suggestions are made to develop students’ emotional reasoning as well as rational reasoning by means of training students to have an ecocentric attitude.

Keywords: Environmental Attitudes, Informal Reasoning, Middle School Students, Socioscientific Issue

Global Citizenship: From the Lens of the Education Faculty Instructors

Seda Baysal & Işıl Tanrıseven

pp. 106 - 120   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.277.7


Study objective: This research attempts to reveal the education faculty instructors’ views on the concept of global citizenship. Method: The research utilized a phenomenological design, one of the qualitative research designs. The participants of the research consisted of seven education faculty instructors who work at a higher institution in Turkey during the 2019-2020 academic year and who were selected by the convenience sampling method. This research employed a semi-structured interview method. Thus, a semi-structured individual interview form was prepared by the researchers as a data collection tool. The first part of the form includes questions related to the participants’ demographic information and the second part holds five questions regarding their views on global citizenship. The open-ended questions were prepared in line with the research questions by taking into consideration the relevant literature and two experts’ opinions to ensure scope validity. Content analysis was used during data analysis. Result: Research findings revealed that the instructors mostly focus on “values and attitudes” dimension of the global citizenship including respect for differences and values, sense of belonging, tolerance, concern for global issues, dedication to equal rights and sensitivity to global issues. Besides, all instructors were found to express that global citizenship is a must for pre-service teachers for both themselves and their professional life. All participants were identified to do practices in different ways by intermingling the issue of global citizenship with their course during the educational process to raise their students’ awareness towards global citizenship, and they mostly faced student-based challenges during the practices. The instructors mostly recommended that seminars should be organized in advance to raise both students’ and instructors’ awareness.

Keywords: Education Faculty, Instructor, Global Citizenship, Pre-Service Teacher

Teachers’ and School Administrators’ Views Regarding the Role of Recess for Students

Neşe Özkal

pp. 121 - 137   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.277.8


This study aimed to determine school administrators’ and teachers’ views regarding the role of recess for students. Phenomenology, one of the qualitative research designs, was used in this study. Maximum variation sampling method, a purposeful sampling method, was used to identify the research sample. The research data were collected through a semi-structured interview form and the collected data were analyzed by content analysis. The participants expressed their opinions about the effects of recess in terms of its cognitive, social, affective and physical effects. Participants stated that recess enables students to effectively participate in lessons cognitively, affectively, and behaviorally and that academic learning continued during recess. In addition, it is stated that recess has social effects such as forming friendships, learning about self, social skills and life. The participants stated that recess helps students to feel happy and relieve their tensions. Participants stated that recess can have positive effects on health since it provides students with the opportunity to move physically and it can decrease undesired behaviors. Participants stated that students can also experience negative emotions such as feelings of exclusion and loneliness during recess.

Keywords: Recess, Primary School, Secondary School

An Investigation into How Parental Literacy Experiences are Reflected in Literacy Tendencies and Experiences of Preservice Teachers

Ömer Faruk Tavşanlı, Ömür Sadioğlu, Gönül Onur Sezer & Abdullah Kaldırım

pp. 138 - 159   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.277.9


This study was undertaken to examine how parental literacy experiences were reflected in the literacy tendencies and experiences of preservice teachers. It is known that in order to offer an effective teacher education, it is necessary to know preservice teachers by analyzing their literacy practices originating from their parents and take into account their tendencies about how to develop reading skills of primary school children. The research presented here was a phenomenological study implemented with six senior preservice teachers of elementary education and their parents. The data of the study were collected through interviews with the preservice teachers and their parents and through observation notes. According to the results of the study, the preservice teachers’ literacy experiences reflected their parents’ characteristics, including parental literacy perceptions, literacy approaches developed by the parents for the preservice teachers, personal literacy experiences, general past experiences, number of literate people in the family, parental professional experiences, parental worldviews, and verbal communication within the family.

Keywords: Literacy, Teacher Education, Literacy Practices

Using Text Commentary Method in Reading Education

Efecan Karagöl

pp. 160 - 175   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.277.10


Reading skills are important in terms of listening, creating comprehension as well as supporting narrative skills (speaking and writing). There are various strategies, methods and techniques related to reading in the literature. Although it is not common today, text commentary method was common in the past. Text commentary method is described as the skills of comprehension and expression of comprehension. The purpose of this study is to explore how the text commentary method can be used in reading education. In alignment with this purpose, studies related to text commentary method were examined to identify the levels involved in text annotation. The identified levels were then compared to the reading gains in the Turkish Language Teaching Program published in 2018 and to the PISA reading skill area levels.  It was concluded that text commentary method is a suitable method to improve reading skills. Text commentary method can be used in reading studies which is part of Turkish language education.

Keywords: Text Commentary, Reading, Comprehension, Turkish Language Teaching Program, Turkish Education

Metaphoric Perceptions on the Concept of “Social Skills” of Preschool Teachers

Pınar Aksoy

pp. 176 - 198   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.277.11


The aim of this research is to reveal the metaphoric perceptions on the concept of “social skills” of preschool teachers. This study which has phenomenology design, one of the basic qualitative researches, was carried on 46 preschool teachers working in the provinces of Amasya, Çorum, Ordu, Samsun, and Tokat. The forms given teachers which were written an expression like “Social skills are like ……. Because………” were used to collect data as “documents” in the study. Content analysis was used in data analysis. It was seen that the preschool teachers generated metaphors such as tree, water, play dough, dough, ball, dessert, traffic, lego, mirror, heartbeat, tumbler, grinder, plastic ball, puppet, Rubik’s cube, living model, cake, mixer, bicycle, octopus, clown, safety belt, bag, soil, spider web, and food regarding the concept of “social skills”. The metaphors produced are categorized as “social skills in terms of their contributions”, “social skills in terms of acquisition processes”, “social skills in terms of the characteristics they have” and “social skills in terms of their indispensability”. Accordingly, a total of 38 different metaphors collected in four categories have been identified. As a result, it has been revealed that preschool teachers have general view of social skills and suggestions were asserted to increase their knowledge, skills and experience from theory to practice.

Keywords: Social Skills, Metaphor, Preschool Teacher, Perception

A Review of Educational Philosophy From Different Perspectives Through an Analysis of Period Movies During the Era of the War of Independence and the Early Republic of Turkey (1920-1940)

Emrullah Akcan & Ayhan Doğan

pp. 199 - 215   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.277.12


Movies, especially period movies, have the potential to convey information, ideas and experiences from previous era, are able to depict in a truthful manner fashion trends and the style of furniture that people used as furniture in their houses, can make the audience think and can even teach at times. This study examines the educational concepts and trends of the era spanning the War of Independence and the early years of the Republic through an analysis of the movies, Çalıkuşu, Vurun Kahpeye and Öğretmen Kemal. It involves the use of the document review and descriptive analysis method, which are qualitative research methods. The research data was collected using film observation forms developed uniquely by the authors. During the analysis process, firstly, the observation forms were decoded before identifying scenes in the specified movies pertaining to education and related themes. The results were underpinned by direct quotes from the movies, movie frames and direct references to the scenes themselves to improve reliability. According to the conclusions reached with the findings of the study, Re-constructionism was identified as the dominant educational philosophy of the time. The study also found that in the movies, teachers were shown to be expected to take up additional social duties, such as being community leaders, doctors or nurses, as well as their roles in teaching and education. Furthermore, according to the films, teachers perceive education as a tool for social development while it can be said that society sees education as a loss of labor and as culture poisoning. In this context, the conflict between teachers and society as a whole is included in the conclusions of the study.

Keywords: Educational Philosophy, Movies in Education

The Use of Open-ended Questions in Large-Scale Tests for Selection: Generalizability and Dependability

Hakan Atılgan, Elif Kübra Demir, Tuncay Ogretmen & Tahsin Oğuz Başokçu

pp. 216 - 227   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.277.13


It has become a critical question what the reliability level would be when open-ended questions are used in large-scale selection tests. One of the aims of the present study is to determine what the reliability would be in the event that the answers given by test-takers are scored by experts when open-ended short answer questions are used in large-scale selection tests. On the other hand, another aim of the study is to reveal how reliability changes upon changing the number of items and raters and what the required number of items and raters is to reach a sufficient degree of reliability. The study group consisted of 443 8th grade students from three secondary schools located in three different towns of the city of Izmir.  These students were given a test including 20 open-ended short answer questions which was developed within the scope of the study. Students’ answers were rated by four experienced teachers independently of one another. In the analyses, G theory’s fully crossed two-facet design p x i x r with students (p), items (I) and raters (r). The analyses found   and Φ=0,855 and it was concluded that well-educated raters in rating open-ended short answer questions can achieve consistent scoring at an adequate level.

Keywords: Large-Scale Tests, Open-Ended Question, Generalizability Theory, Rater Reliability, Generalizability, Dependability

From Gallipoli to Independence: Turkish and Australian Students’ Perspectives

Heather Sharp, Talip Öztürk & Filiz Zayimoğlu Öztürk

pp. 228 - 241   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.277.14


Given the broad public appeal of WWI commemorations and in consideration of their inclusion in school curriculum, the question is raised of how do Turkish and Australian students view the importance and ways of commemorating the Gallipoli campaign? This comparative study, the first of its kind approaches this current gap in understanding how high school students view this historical event. The focus of this paper is to report on research conducted in Australian and Turkish* high schools during the centenary years of WWI commemorations. 185 high school students agreed to participate and share their perspectives on commemorating Gallipoli and to respond to a series of five sources provided to them as part of the research activity. How students responded to the sources and engaged with questions of commemoration is detailed throughout this paper.

Keywords: History Education, High School, World War I, Commemoration, National Identity, Emotional Nationalism

Music Education With Educational Drama

Ayça Avcı

pp. 242 - 255   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.277.15


In an increasingly digitalizing world, there are fewer and fewer activities to develop children’s manual skills, creativity, and imagination. As children are readily presented toys without letting them to make discover discoveries, children become very quickly bored with a toy or the content of a game. There are many academic studies confirming the effectiveness of learning by doing and experiencing during the learning process. The value of creativity and the imagination that reveals this creativity are also evident. Using educational drama activities in music classes through a drama activity called “Music Country,” which is based on children’s imagining themselves in a completely different country is the focus of this study. Aim of this study is twofold: it aims both to find out whether there is a significant difference between the pre-test and post-test results of students who study music through educational drama in the 5th grade music classes and to determine their views on the method. The single-group pre-test post-test design was applied as the method. The quantitative data were collected with the “Music class attitude scale” and calculated by running the SPSS 15.0 program and the results were obtained by using the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test. In addition, a “semi-structured interview” form was used to obtain the qualitative data and this dataset was analyzed through content analysis. After applying the educational drama method in the music lessons, a significant difference was observed in the attitudes of the students in favor of the post-test. Further, the interview form analysis revealed that educational drama and music education in the affective and learning categories were interesting, motivating, engaging, and triggering the learner interest in the continuation of the course content.

Keywords: Educational Drama, Drama, Music, Music Education, Music Class

The Relationship Between School Principals' Leadership Styles, School Culture and Organizational Change

Ramazan Atasoy

pp. 256 - 274   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.277.16


The purpose of the study was to identify the relationship between the leadership styles of school principals, school culture and their organizational change management capacity according to the teachers’ perceptions. In the study, a quantitative research design was employed during data collection and the analysis phases. The sample of the study comprises randomly selected 382 teachers working in North Cyprus, during the 2019-2020 school year. The leadership styles scale of school principals, the scale for school culture and the scale of the organisational change management were used as data collection tools. Pearson correlation, regression, and path analysis were used for analysing data in addition to descriptive statistics. It was found that school principals exhibit transformational leadership characteristics, the perception of school culture by the teachers is strong and the perception of the organisational change is a medium level. It was also found that there are significant relationships between leadership styles, school culture, and organisational change, along with transformational and transactional leadership styles of school principals, which significantly predicted school culture, and school culture, which significantly predicted all sub-dimensions of organisational change. School culture has a mediator effect on both leadership styles and all sub-dimensions of organisational change, except that transformational leadership has only fully mediation effect with evaluating stage of organizational change. This research reveals the presumptions that transformational leadership executed by the principals supports to a greater extent positive effect on the teachers rather than transactional leadership and to contribute positive school culture and strengthening of organisational change process of the educational institutions. The models suggested in the study show that school culture might be effective in reducing negative behaviours of the teachers regarding the organizational change. To cope with resistance, prevent or reduce opposite opinions and negative indications of each stage of organizational change, strengthening teachers with the help of school culture is required.

Keywords: Leadership Styles; Educational Administration; School Culture; Organizational Change; Teachers

Teacher Candidates’ Cognitive Avoidance and Intolerance of Uncertainty Predicting Alexithymia

Esra Tekel & Hamdi Korkman

pp. 275 - 287   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.277.17


The aim of this research is to examine whether teacher candidates’ cognitive avoidance and intolerance of uncertainty predict alexithymia. The study was designed as correlational design. 254 senior students in Faculty of Education who were selected by simple random sampling method participated in the study. 20-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), Cognitive Avoidance Scale, and Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale were used to collect data. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis were conducted to analyse data. According to results, intolerance of uncertainty and cognitive avoidance explain 20% of total variance for alexithymia.

Keywords: Alexithymia, Cognitive Avoidance, Intolerance of Uncertainty, Teacher Candidate

A Conceptual Model for the Interaction of Mathematical and Financial Literacies

Abdullah Ozkale & Emel Ozdemir Erdogan

pp. 288 - 304   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.277.18


The concept of financial literacy, which has become popular as a 21st-century skill, is also a new field for mathematics education. Financial literacy, which has taken place in PISA since 2012, has not only been presented as a separate course and has also increased in density in related courses such as mathematics through tasks, curriculums and tests. The aim of this study was to present an interaction model in which mathematical and financial literacy competencies can be presented in a common framework. in the organization of this model, literacy literature, consisting of both mathematical literacy and financial literacy models, as well as the PISA literacy framework, were used. The focal point of the model was not individual skills but is the dimensions of this interaction that should be considered in the organization or analysis of an educational or an instructional document (tasks, applications, curriculums, etc.). While this model is built on the basis of the PISA literacy framework, it has some differences with respect to the components of the dimensions. It is expected that the model contributes to the financial literacy education integration initiatives, studies on the financial literacy education and the analysis of measurement tools of financial literacy, such as PISA.

Keywords: Mathematics Education, Mathematical Literacy, Financial Literacy, PISA, Financial Literacy Education, Conceptual Model

Student Incivility in Higher Education

Levent Vural & Seda Donat Bacıoğlu

pp. 305 - 316   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.277.19


Observed frequently within higher education settings, student incivility need to be dealt with since they affect teaching-learning process adversely. The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of student incivility in higher education and coping techniques employed by academics. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected together with a measurement tool developed by the researchers. The method of the research is a mixed method and qualitative and quantitative data were collected at the same time. A total of 250 academics working at universities in Turkey have voluntarily participated in the study. During the analysis process, construct validity concerning the quantitative data obtained from the data collection tool has been established through DFA, and parametric test statistics have been applied for data analysis. The results obtained from the study have indicated that not studying, playing with the cell phone, and not listening to the lecture are among the most frequent students’ uncivil behaviors the academic witness. A significant difference has been identified between the two independent variables of the research –“seniority & working period at the current university”- and student incivility. The academics think that as seniority and working period at the same workplace increase, students show less of uncivil behaviors. “Verbal warning” has been noted as the most frequent method used by academics to deal with these kinds of behaviors. The implications of these findings for intervention design and development and further research are discussed.

Keywords: Higher Education, University Students, Academics, Incivility, Coping With Incivility

Metaphoric Perceptions of the Teacher Candidates Regarding to the Concepts of Reinforcement, Hint, Feedback-Correction, Active Participation and Punishment Used in the Teaching-Learning Process

Dilek Yaralı

pp. 317 - 332   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.277.20


The aim of this research is to determine the metaphoric perceptions of the teacher candidates regarding the concept of reinforcement, hint, feedback-correction, active participation and punishment used in the teaching-learning process. The study group of this research consisted of students of Education Faculty who studying at Kafkas University in the 2018-2019 academic year. A semi-structured interview form used to determine teacher candidates’ perceptions of the concepts in the teaching-learning processes such as "reinforcement, hint, feedback-correction, active participation and punishment”. Content analysis was used for the data analysis in the research. As a result of the findings obtained from the research, it could be said the most metaphors produced by prospective teachers; metaphor of chocolate in the concept of reinforcement, metaphor of puzzle in the concept of hint, the most metaphors of easer in the concept of feedback-correction, the most metaphors of amusement park and game in the concept of active participation, the most metaphors of hot pepper in the concept of punishment.

Keywords: Teaching-Learning Process, Teacher Candidates, Metaphor

Analysis of the Attitudes of Physical Education Teachers towards Gifted Education According to Certain Variables

Turan Başkonuş & Vahit Çiriş

pp. 333 - 347   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.277.21


The purpose of this research is to identify the attitudes of physical education teachers regarding the education of gifted students. Physical education teachers working in Kırşehir province participated in the research on a voluntary basis. Sample selection is not made. Measurement tools were delivered to all teachers, but data collected from 91 teachers were processed. Relational screening method was used in this research. "Personal Information Form" and "Attitude Scale for Teachers on Gifted Education" were used in the data collection process of the research. Testing of the research data was performed at 0.05 significance level. In the analysis of the data, the items pertaining to the sub-problem were grouped and independent t-test and ANOVA techniques were used together with descriptive statistics such as frequency (f), percentage (%), weighted average (X̅) and standard deviation (SD). Cohen's d and eta-square (η2) were used to calculate the effect size of the significant difference. Research results showed that the attitudes of physical education teachers towards gifted education are highly positive in general. The attitudes of physical education teachers towards gifted education significantly differ according to the variables of department of graduation and years of service in the dimension of resistance to objections. However it was determined that there was statistically no significant difference concerning the variables of gender, type of school served and years of service.

Keywords: Physical Education Teacher, Giftedness, Attitude

How do you know me? How do you look at me? A Study on Teachers’ ways of getting to know their students

Şükran Calp & Alper Kaşkaya

pp. 348 - 369   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.277.22


Getting to know someone is to know what characteristics that person has. Teachers who know their students well and are aware of their individual differences can create quality educational environments designed according to their interests, abilities, needs and characteristics. This study focuses on ways that teachers frequently use to get to know their students. The aim of the study is to reveal what factors primary school teachers consider in order to get to know their students and how they evaluate their students. Participants consist of 307 primary school teachers working in primary schools in Turkey. The teachers were asked what ways they used to get to know their students and what they paid attention to about their students. Content analysis was used to determine the presence of certain words, themes, or concepts within qualitative data, and appropriate codes and categories were created. Our results demonstrated that the teachers mostly looked at the academic performance, especially the students' past and present grades, to get to know the students, and that teachers neglected the way of looking at student’s imagination, needs, wishes and expectations.

Keywords: Getting to Know, Personality, Primary School Teacher

Music Teacher Burnout: A Discussion in terms of Professional Status and the Value of School Music Education

Özlem Öztürk & Gökhan Öztürk

pp. 370 - 389   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.277.23


The international literature dating back to the 1980s has presented many field-specific proofs to reveal the presence of burnout in music teachers. However, the issue in Turkey still remains unclear. The aim of this study was to bring the problem of burnout through the data obtained from a group of music teachers up for discussion. The study was conducted with 48 music teachers who work as permanent staff, in a city located in the Central Black Sea Region of Turkey. The data were collected by Maslach Burnout Inventory-Educators Survey. Descriptive statistics were used in data analysis. In the study, it was determined that music teachers experienced low burnout in Emotional Exhaustion and Depersonalization dimensions and their perception of Personal Accomplishment was high. The results were discussed in terms of professional status of the music teacher and the value of school music education by associating them with workload, praxis shock, and occupational identity themes. The study was expected to provide a conceptual framework to future studies in Turkey.

Keywords: Music Teacher, Burnout, Professional Status, Occupational Identity, Praxis Shock

Effects of Intrinsic Motivation on Teacher Emotional Labor: Mediating Role of Affective Commitment

Esra Töre

pp. 390 - 403   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.277.24


Emotions have an important place in the survival of humankind since its existence. Despite the importance of the emotions in human life and it is not taken on the agenda for a long time in working life. This study aims to examine the impacts of intrinsic motivation on teacher emotional labor with mediating effect of affective commitment. In the study, the relational screening model one of the quantitative research methods was used. The research was carried out 345 teachers who work in ten public schools in Istanbul. As the data collection tools three different scales were used. The intrinsic motivation scale was developed by Lawler and Hall (1970) and adapted to Turkish language by Yılmaz (2008). The emotional commitment scale consists of six items as a sub-dimension of the organizational commitment scale developed by Allen and Mayer (1990). Emotional labor scale, by Diefendorff et al. (2005), it was created, and it was adapted to Turkish in the teacher sample by Basım and Beğenirbaş (2012). Scale has three dimensions as surface acting, deep acting, and natural behaviors. Results of the study suggest that intrinsic motivation has a negative impact on surface acting and has a positive impact on natural behaviors (genius emotions). On the other hand, affective commitment is not mediated this impact. The findings were discussed, and recommendations were made to the practitioners and researchers.

Keywords: Intrinsic Motivation, Emotional Labor, Affective Commitment, Teacher

The Relationship Between Workplace Friendship and Job Satisfaction in Educational Organizations

Tuba Yavuzkurt & Erkan Kıral

pp. 404 - 425   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.277.25


The study, which aimed to reveal the relationship between secondary school teachers’ workplace friendship perceptions and their job satisfaction, was conducted with 269 volunteer teachers. In accordance with this purpose, Workplace Friendship Scale and Minnesota Job Satisfaction Scale were used in the study. In this study, which was designed in the relational screening model, descriptive and inferential statistical techniques were used. As a result of the study, it was found that secondary school teachers’ friendship opportunity and internal job satisfaction perception levels were high. It was revealed that the teachers’ friendship perceptions differed significantly according to marital status and gender, and their job satisfaction levels differed significantly according to age, marital status and professional seniority. It was also revealed that there were moderate level and positive relationships between the teachers’ job satisfaction and workplace friendship perceptions. It was determined that the teachers’ friendship opportunity perceptions predicted their job satisfaction significantly and positively.

Keywords: Workplace, Friendship, Satisfaction, Teacher

Education of Syrian Refugee Children in Turkey: Reflections From the Application

Davut Gürel & Yasemin Büyükşahin

pp. 426 - 442   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.277.26


The goal of this research is to take a close look at the issue of immigration and education; views of 19 Turkish teachers who give education to Syrian refugee children in Turkey are analyzed for this purpose. It is attempted to determine the current problems in refugee education in Turkey and present solution suggestions. It is determined that the Turkish teachers didn’t receive any kind of proper training during university education and they received a two-week training before starting the education process. On the other hand, it is observed that gender is a significant determiner in the relations between Turkish and Syrian teachers in the education environment. According to the data, most of the students have violent behavioral disorders (ex. Bullying) and psychological problems; it is determined that it is highly important to support the emotional needs of students, especially the ones who witnessed violence acts back in Syria.

Keywords: Education, Syrian Refugees, Turkey

21st Century Skills: The Predictive Role of Attitudes Regarding STEM Education and Problem-Based Learning

Nur Akcanca

pp. 443 - 458   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.277.27


The objective of this research is to determine the predictive situation of the proficiency perceptions of preschool teacher candidates' attitudes regarding STEM Education and Problem-Based Learning (PBL) towards 21st century skills. Within the scope of this objective, correlational survey design, one of the quantitative research methods, was used. The sample of the research consisted of a total of 284 teacher candidates studying in the Department of Preschool Education. In order to measure the 21st century skills of the teacher candidates according to their own perspective, the ‘21st Century Skills and Competences Scale’ was used. To measure the attitudes of the teacher candidates towards STEM education, the 'STEM Education Attitude Scale'was used. In addition, the 'Problem-Based Learning Attitude Scale' was employed to identify the candidates' attitudes towards problem-based learning. Standard multiple linear regression analysis was performed while analyzing the data. As a result of the research, it was observed that the attitudes of the preschool teacher candidates regarding STEM education and PBL had a moderate and meaningful relationship with their proficiency perceptions towards 21st century skills. Additionally, it was found out that the candidates' attitudes towards STEM education and PBL explained 20% of their proficiency perceptions towards 21st century skills.  In the light of the results obtained from the research, in order for preschool teacher candidates and teachers to design appropriate and qualified learning environments, it is suggested that they can be compared with enriched teaching practices that will be supported with different and innovative approaches, such as STEM and PBL, and structured in the focus of developing 21st century skills.

Keywords: 21st Century Skills, STEM Education, Problem-Based Learning, Preschool Teacher Candidates

Examining the Relationship Between the Teachers’ Emotional Reactivity and Aggression Levels

Özgür Demirci Seyrek & Ercümend Ersanlı

pp. 459 - 471   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.277.28


Teachers have the basic role and responsibility in the provision of peace in schools. Therefore, in this study, it was investigated whether there was a relationship between the emotional reactions of the teachers and the level of aggression by gender and profession. The study was carried out on the data obtained from 266 teachers who participated in the study voluntarily. Pearson Product Moment coefficient and MANOVA analysis were performed on the data obtained. As regard the relationship between the teachers’ reactance and agression levels depending on the gender and the time spent in profession, there was a significant relationship for the former while there wasn’t for the latter according to the findings obtained via statistical analysis.

Keywords: Emotional Reactivity, Aggression, Teacher

Analysing Science Questions in terms of Visual Content in Higher Education Entrance Exams in Turkey

Tufan Inaltekin & Volkan Goksu

pp. 472 - 493   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.277.29


The aim of this study is to analyse the science questions in terms of visual content in the higher education entrance exams in Turkey. In this context, 1714 questions in total prepared by the Center for Measurment, Selection and Placement (CMSP) between 1999 and 2019 in the fields of Physics (n=631), Chemistry (n=553) and Biology (n=530) constitute the data source of the study. This study includes case study which is one of the qualitative research patterns. The data of the study are analyzed by descriptive analysis based on the visual content of questions according to the fields of science, their years and their roles in solving questions (partial role and full role). According to the results, the science questions: i) are concentrated on greatly physics in terms of visual content compared to biology and chemistry on the basis of fields; ii) although visual content varies slightly over the years in terms of its type, the formatted drawing image is used quite a lot compared to other types; iii) formatted drawing and measurement diagrams in the field of physics in many years, formatted drawing and graphics in the field of chemistry , and flowchart and graphics in the field of biology have been largely included and iv) the role of visuals in solving the question has been partial in physics in many years, and in chemistry and biology it has been found to have a partial role in some years and in some cases it has a full role. As a result of the study, it is understood that the science questions applied to students at the entrance to university in Turkey do not show a balanced distribution in terms of visual content type on the basis of fields.

Keywords: University Entrance Exams, Science Questions, Visual Representations

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