International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 2834-7919   |  e-ISSN: 1554-5210

Volume 15 Issue 5 (October 2019)

Issue Information

Issue Information

pp. i - vi   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2019.212



Original Articles

Using Inquiry-Based Experiments to Improve Pre-Service Science Teachers’ Science Process Skills

Bekir Güler & Mehmet Şahin

pp. 1 - 18   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2019.212.1


The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of inquiry-based experiments on pre-service science teachers’ science process skills. The study group consisted of 60 pre-service teachers in total, enrolled in the undergraduate program of Science Teacher Education, Faculty of Education at a state university. The study which used randomized quasi-experimental design with pre-test – post-test and control group, designed as a mixed method study. Experimental practices were performed within a 10-week period. Science Process Skills Observation Form, developed by the researchers, was used as data collection tool in the study. IBM SPSS Statistics software was used for the analysis of quantitative data and content analysis was employed for analyzing the qualitative data. As a result of the analyses, inquiry-based experiments were more successful than confirmatory ones in terms of improving the science process skills of pre-service teachers. It is estimated that the results of this study will significantly contribute to the planning processes of teacher education programs as well as to the future studies on inquiry-based learning.

Keywords: Inquiry-based science teaching, Science process skills, Pre-service science teachers, Science education.

Investigation of the Relationship Between the Empathic Tendency Skills and Problem Solving Skills of Turkish Primary School Students

Seda İmece & Belgin Arslan Cansever

pp. 19 - 31   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2019.212.2


The aim of this study is to investigate whether there is a relationship between empathy tendency skills and problem solving skills of 10 year old Turkish primary school students. At the same time, it is aimed to find out whether these students 'empathy level and problem solving ability differ according to the student's gender, number of siblings, socioeconomic level, parental age and parents' educational status. The study sample constitutes 418 fourth grade students from three primary schools in the city of Izmir, Turkey. In the study, the KA-SI Empathy Tendency Scale-Child Form developed by Kaya and Siyez (2010) and Problem Solving Inventory is developed by Serin, Bulut-Serin, Saygılı (2010). Independent Groups t Test, One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Kruksal Wallis H Test; Tukey and Mann Whitney U Test in determining which groups differ; Pearson Product Moment Correlation Analysis was applied to determine the relationship between groups. The findings of the study showed that there is a positive directional medium-strong relationship between the empathy score of the students and the confidence in problem solving skills and problem solving scores. There is a very weak positive relationship between empathy and avoidance score. It is thought that the results obtained in the research can contribute to the programs that will be prepared in order to develop empathy and problem solving skills in children.

Keywords: Primary school, empathy, empathic tendency, problem, problem solving skills

Statistics Anxiety of Graduate Students

Tugay Tutkun

pp. 32 - 41   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2019.212.3


Commonly described by psychologists; anxiety is a psychological construct, as a state of apprehension, a vague fear that is only indirectly associated with an object  (Scovel, 1991). A small amount of anxiety is believed to be needed for learners since it improves performance which is known as facilitating anxiety. Statistics anxiety is a feeling of anxiety when taking a statistics course or doing statistical analysis (Cruise, Cash, & Bolton, 1985). In general, statistics anxiety is a debilitating anxiety which negatively affect students’ performance. Statistics is one of the compulsory courses in most graduate programs. Students entering to these graduate programs especially in social sciences such as education, usually do not have any math and statistical background which creates a negative perception towards statistics related courses. These negative feelings and perceptions are thought to be affect their level of success. The aim of this study is, therefore, to determine the anxiety related views of graduate students towards statistics course. Qualitative content analysis with purposeful sampling is used in the study. To this end, the research data were obtained with the help of 26 graduate students studying in Department of Educational Sciences at Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University in the academic years of 2017-2018. A semi-structured interview form was used for data collection which aims to determine the anxiety related views of graduate students. Analysis of the results revealed five themes of statistics anxiety; (1) importance of the course, (2) math skills, (3) computer skills, (4) exam stress, and (5) foreign language skills. It can be concluded that defining and understanding the source of anxiety related behaviors will help to conduct more effective and efficient statistics courses.

Keywords: Statistics Anxiety, Graduate Student

Effect of augmented reality environments on cognitive load: pedagogical effect, instructional design, motivation and interaction interfaces

Emin İbili

pp. 42 - 57   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2019.212.4


The aim of this study was to explain the relationship between cognitive load and the effects of augmented reality (AR) learning environments. To achieve this aim, firstly, the studies of systematic literature reviews on the potential and limitations of AR learning environments were examined. Afterwards, the effect of AR was categorized in terms of (1) pedagogical effect, (2) instructional design, (3) motivation and (4) interaction interfaces. Finally, the relationship between cognitive load and the emerging categories related to the potential and limitations of AR was explained and recommendations were presented. From a pedagogical point of view, AR helps to reduce extraneous cognitive load and to increase germane cognitive load. On the other hand, the effect of AR systems, which are difficult to use and complex in terms of instructional design, on cognitive load was revealed. Some teaching methods and design principles that can be effective as solutions were presented. In addition, the effects of motivational stimuli on the prevention or extension of cognitive capacity among students were described. Finally, the potential and limitations of AR interaction interfaces on cognitive load were explained. The results of this research provide important clues for AR developers and instructional designers in terms of reducing cognitive load and the elimination of working memory limitations.

Keywords: Augmented reality, cognitive load, instructional design, interaction interfaces

Just Before Sitting on the Chair: Reasons, Expectations and Goals of School Principals in Turkey

Emel Tüzel İşeri

pp. 58 - 69   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2019.212.5


Schools exist to prepare students for life and to ensure students’ success. School principals are the most important people in terms of achieving schools’ goals. Principals are expected to have goals and work in line with the main aims and principles of National Education. The aim of this study is to determine newly appointed school principals’ reasons for becoming principals and to explore the expectations and goals of their schools. The research data were collected using semi-structured interview forms that were applied during the pre-service training of 40 school principals who were assigned as school principals for the first time in a province in the Black Sea region of Turkey at the beginning of the academic year. A qualitative research method and a content analysis technique were used for data analysis. The results show that most participants became school principals because they wanted to realize their educational ideals and goals. Participants' most important goal for their schools was to improve student qualification. Most of the participants’ expectations about their schools’ recognition in their school districts were about their schools’ success.

Keywords: Reasons to become a principal; school principals; school principals’ goals.

Students’ Experiences of Design-Based Research in Science Applications Course: A Design and Development Research           

Munise Seckin Kapucu

pp. 70 - 91   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2019.212.6


The purpose of this study is to examine students' experience of design-based research in science applications courses. The study was carried out during the fall semester of the 2018-2019 academic year in the science application course. The participants of the study were 44 eighth grade students attending in two classes of a secondary school located in Odunpazarı district of Eskisehir. In the study, a design-based research method was used. The students were asked to describe a problem from daily life during the application phase of the study. Afterwards, they were expected to design products to solve this problem. Data collection tools of this study were the Reflection Form for Design Steps, which was developed by the researcher, and the Self-Assessment Form included in the Technology Design Course Curriculum. The application was completed in an eight-week period. Content analysis was used to analyze the obtained data. It is seen that students have mostly departed from their own life in the identification of the problem, and the ideas that they have generated were about problem solving, new ideas, and making life easier. Students followed the stages of the design process such as research, design, problem identification, and drawing sketches. Regarding the evaluation of their experience during the design process, most of the students stated that they learned how to design, but they found it difficult to combine materials. Students stated that next time they would pay more attention to choosing design features, identifying the problem, and finding interesting products. Research can be carried out to examine the skills that are thought to be effective in the design process such as decision making, critical thinking, and problem solving. Within the scope of the 2023 Education Vision, it is planned to establish “Design-Skill Workshops”. With such an application, students' design skills can be improved.

Keywords: Science applications, design-based science education, design and development research, content analysis

Analysis on the Effect of the Thinking Styles of Prospective Social Studies and Classroom Teachers on Their Attitudes towards Learning in Terms of Different Variables

Ayşegül Çelik

pp. 92 - 102   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2019.212.7


The purpose of this study is to determine whether there is a relationship between the thinking styles of prospective teachers and their attitudes towards learning. Relational screening model was used in this research analyzing the relationship between the thinking styles of prospective social studies and classroom teachers and their attitude towards learning. The research sample is composed of 191 prospective social studies and classroom teachers studying in a state university located in Central Anatolia Region for academic year. Rational-Experiential Thinking Styles Questionnaire and The Scale of Attitudes towards Learning chosen as purpose-oriented were used in the study. Unrelated samples t test, one-way analysis of variance and pearson correlation analysis were performed in the data analysis. A negatively significant relation was ascertained between the cognitive requirement sub-dimension of the thinking styles questionnaire of prospective teachers and the sub-dimensions of the nature of learning, expectations about learning and openness to learning belonging to the scale of attitudes towards learning. There was no significant relation observed between the intuitive belief sub-dimension of the thinking styles questionnaire and the sub-dimensions of the nature of learning, expectations about learning, openness to learning and concern about learning belonging to the scale of attitudes towards learning.

Keywords: Attitudes towards learning, Prospective teachers, Thinking styles.

A Study of the Quality of Feedback Via the Google Classroom-mediated-Anonymous Online Peer Feedback Activity in a Thai EFL Writing Classroom

Ken Chuaphalakit, Bhornsawan Inpin & Prarthana Coffin

pp. 103 - 118   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2019.212.8


The current study investigated the quality of feedback produced via anonymous online peer feedback activity in a Thai EFL writing classroom. It also explored how the students perceived the anonymous online peer feedback activity. Peer feedback tasks, questionnaires, and an interview were used to collect the information. The results from the peer feedback tasks showed that the quality of peer feedback significantly improved. The results from the questionnaires showed that the students agreed that the online peer feedback activity helped them to improve their writing although there were some problems that should be improved. The follow-up interview revealed that the anonymity of the writers or the feedback givers would not affect how most students would react to the writings or feedbacks. It could be noted from the study that sufficient training must be provided before implementing the anonymous online peer feedback activity. The findings provide new evidence for scholars and instructors who are interested in implementing an anonymous online peer feedback in a Thai classroom.

Keywords: peer feedback, EFL writing

Students' Views on the Ethnobotany-Based Nature Education Program and Their Attitudes towards the Plant

Gulbin Ozkan & Unsal Umdu Topsakal

pp. 119 - 130   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2019.212.9


The aim of this research is to determine Students' Views on the ethnobotany-Based Nature Education Program and the impact this program makes on their attitudes towards the plant. The research was conducted on 7th-grade students in a state school in İstanbul. 15 ethnobotany based activities were performed throughout Nature Education. The data collection tools were: an activity evaluation form composed of open-ended questions and conducted at the end of each activity, a Plant Attitude Questionnaire conducted both before and after the implementation and semi-structured student interviews (n=5) performed at the end of the implementation. The answers students gave on the evaluation form and in interviews were analyzed qualitatively in order to determine their views on the activities. The themes formed as a result of data analysis were demonstrated within the tables. The data collected through the Plant Attitude Questionnaire were analyzed quantitatively. At the end of the research, it was found out that most of the students have positive views on ethnobotanic based activities. Moreover, it was revealed that students’ scores of the attitudes towards the plant demonstrated a meaningful change throughout the study. The data collected with the help of the research were discussed and some suggestions were presented.

Keywords: Nature education, middle school students, plants, attitude

An Investigation of Metacognition, Self-Regulation and Social Intelligence Scales’ Level of Predicting Pre-Service Teachers’ Lifelong Learning Trends

Özden Demir & Ahmet Doğanay

pp. 131 - 148   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2019.212.10


In this study is the identification of the relationships between metacognition, self-regulation, social intelligence, lifelong learning trends which should be possessed by teachers  in this regard, the general purpose of this study is to explore how much pre-service teachers’ lifelong learning trends are predicted by metacognition, self-regulation, social intelligence variables. The study was designed according to procedural model in relational screening method. The study was conducted with 443 2nd and 4th year pre-service teachers who were enrolled in Kafkas and Çukurova University Education Faculty, Pre-school Teaching Department and Classroom Teaching Department. Multiple regression analysis was performed for the analysis of the data collected using the Metacognition Scale, Self-regulated Learning Scale based on Zimmerman’s Model, Social Intelligence Scale, Lifelong Learning Trends Scale. Analysis results showed that total scores of the Lifelong Learning Trends Scale were significantly predicted by the Self-reflection subscale of Self-Regulated Learning Scale and by the Social Knowledge, Social Skill, Social Awareness subscales of the Tromso Social Intelligence Scale; motivation subscale was significantly predicted by the Forethought, Self-Reflection subscales of the Self-Regulation Scale, Social Knowledge, Social Skill subscales of the Tromso Social Intelligence Scale.

Keywords: Lifelong learning, Metacognition, Self-regulated, Social intelligence

Perceptions of Classroom Teachers Regarding Values Education With Children’s Games

Eyüp Bozkurt

pp. 149 - 161   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2019.212.11


Values are concepts that influence and direct individuals’ behaviors. Because values directly influence society’s structure, values education also takes an important place. Both children’s games and values education have a structure that can diversify values education and make it entertaining during learning. In this study, it was aimed to reveal the perceptions of classroom teachers regarding values education with children’s games. Within the scope of this aim, 272 classroom teachers were investigated for their perceptions. The study adopts a survey model and is of a descriptive quality.

            In the investigation of the study results, it was stated that teachers could conduct values education with children’s games and children’s games could be used in the educational environment as well as the fact that computer games make individuals antisocial. Additionally, the teachers who participated in the study stated that games ensured acting according to facts by filtering events and cases from a logical process, provided creative and innovative thinking and that teachers should know what games mean for children and how important is games’ influence in their development. The participating teachers also reported that children’s games include many elements of values that we brought from past to present and they reflected the cultural values of society.

Keywords: Game, Game and Values, Children’s Games, Children’s Games and Values

The Perceptions of Students Studyıng in the Faculty of Education Towards Reading in Terms of Theır Reading Motivations

Keziban Tekşan

pp. 162 - 184   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2019.212.12


The research was conducted with the aim of determining the levels of reading motivation of students who are studying in the department of teaching in terms of various variables and the factors that cause having low and high reading motivation. The research is based on the determination of the internal and external motivation sources that motivate or disincline students in reading who are studying in the department of teaching and the development of solutions accordingly. The research was conducted with mixed method. Within the mixed method, the explanatory sequential design was used. The first study group of the research consists of 238 first grade students who are studying in the different departments of the Faculty of Education in a state university in the academic year of 2018-2019. The second study group of the research consists of 18 students who wanted to participate in the second phase of the research and has low and high reading motivation. The data collection tools of the study include the Adult Reading Motivation Scale (ARMS) which was developed by Schutte and Malouff (2007) and interview form which consists of open-ended questions. In the analysis of the quantitative data, within the IBM SPSS 24.0 statistical program, descriptive researches, independent samples t-test since the data demonstrate normal distribution and one-way ANOVA test were used. In the analysis of qualitative data, MAXQDA Analytics Pro 12 qualitative analysis program was used for coding the data, determining the themes, organizing the themes and defining and interpreting the findings.  The obtained results are as follows: Reading motivation of female students are higher than male students. Students who have a bookcase in their home have a higher motivation than those who don't have. The department students study does not create a difference in reading motivation. Students who have high reading motivation define themselves as conscious readers and individuals who find pleasure in reading. Personal pleasure and the desire to improve are the leading factors that incline individuals to read. It is observed that taking someone as a model and being influenced by a peer are important for reading motivation. The leading reasons that decrease reading motivation are school, activities with friends and getting bored from reading. Students who have high reading motivation are considered to be individuals who acquired reading habit and are good readers since they read with the purposes of self-development, acquiring knowledge, homework and pleasure as well as curiosity. While the factors which excite students the most in reading are curiosity, interest and gripping narration, the elements that disturb the students are long descriptions and unobtrusive subjects.

Keywords: Interest in reading, curiosity, pleasure, getting bored from reading, compulsory reading

Turkish Adaptation of Achievement Motivation Measure

Mehmet Akif Karaman & Robert Smith

pp. 185 - 197   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2019.212.13


For decades, researchers have attempted to define and measure what motivates individuals to achieve. Numerous attempts have sought to measure achievement motivation by using self-report tests. The concepts of motivation and achievement motivation have a rich history of being discussed among different cultures. The purpose of this study was to adapt and report psychometric properties of Turkish-language version of the Achievement Motivation Measure. We conducted confirmatory factor analyses and correlational analysis for factor structure and measurement invariance of Achievement Motivation Measure. Participants were 336 undergraduate students and CFA findings were acceptable for the sample, x2(62) = 155.94, p< .001, χ2/df= 2.51; GFI= .93, CFI= .91, SRMR= .056, and RMSEA= .067 (90% CI= .054- .081), supporting the 13-item two factors model. Moreover, the Achievement Motivation Measure had partial measurement invariance across gender. Results were consistent with the original Achievement Motivation Measure.

Keywords: achievement motivation, validation, instrument adaptation, measurement invariance

Effect of Inquiry-Based Mathematics Activities on Preschoolers’ Math Skills

Abdulhamit Karademir & Berrin Akman

pp. 198 - 215   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2019.212.14


Practice:  An Inquiry-Based Mathematics Activities Module (IBMAM) was developed in accordance with the developmental characteristics, interests, needs, and expectations of preschoolers. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of the IBMAM on preschoolers’ numbers and operations skills. A quasi-experimental method, which was a pretest-posttest design with control group, was used. The students of a kindergarten were randomly assigned to three groups: experimental, control, and placebo. Measurements were made on the three groups before and after the IBMAM. The study took place in the academic year of 2016-2017, and the sample consisted of 57 students (19 participants in each group) of a kindergarten in Sincan, Ankara, affiliated to the Ministry of National Education. Interviews were conducted with 18 kindergartens in the same district for the needs analysis. The kindergarten was the study field of choice due to its sufficient number of students and low socioeconomic status and to the students’ willingness to participate in the study. Math activities were performed in three classes with children 60–72 months of age. For 6 weeks, the experimental group performed the 30-activity IBMAM, the control group performed no activities, and the placebo group performed Turkish reading activities unrelated to mathematics (TRAUM). Data were collected using the Test of Early Mathematics Ability (TEMA-3). In the current study, 3x3 (three groups: experiment, control, placebo groups with 3 measurements:  pretest, posttest, follow up test) experimental mixed design (factorial-split-plot) ANOVA was performed to determine the effect of IBMAM on preschoolers’ math skills.

Research Findings: Results show that the IBMAM had a positive and lasting effect on preschoolers’ number and operations skills. IBMAM provided the experimental group participants with the opportunity to be engaged in small-group activities in which they were able to have math experiences and inquire about them. This process allowed them to enhance math concepts, learn new ones, and learned in meaningful ways in which they used their math skills. They structured the concepts and skills that they had learned by inquiring, researching, and experiencing, which promoted their curiosity and interest in learning.

Keywords: Preschool mathematics education, inquiry-based mathematics education, math skills, preschool period

Development of Creative Thinking Skills of Students Through Journal Writing

Mustafa Şenel & Birsen Bağçeci

pp. 216 - 237   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2019.212.15


This research was conducted in the fourth grade of a private primary school in the province of Gaziantep in the 2018-2019 academic year to provide students with creative thinking skills. This study was carried out as a qualitative case study. 23 students participated in the program. With a two-month study, students were given 23 journal writing topics to develop their creative thinking skills. The students wrote their journals in the school for 5-10 minutes at the beginning of the lessons. At the end of the program students and teachers were asked to write their opinions in the interview form. The data were analyzed by NVIVO 12 for Mac. According to the findings, creative thinking and writing activities have a positive effect on students' development of creative thinking skills. Majority of the students think the program was entertaining while it is seen that female students are more willing than male students.

Keywords: Creativity, creative thinking, creative writing, journal writing

What do the school directors want to change in their school buildings? An Evaluation of Physical Competences of Primary, Secondary and High School Buildings

Ahmet Bozak, Celalettin Korkmaz & Yavuz Bolat

pp. 238 - 256   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2019.212.16


In the study, a mixed research method was used combining quantitative and qualitative data. The study group consisted of 302 school directors and deputy directors working in different schools within Hatay Province of Turkey. A data collection tool, developed according to the official standards of state schools, was used to collect quantitative and qualitative data together. In the quantitative dimention, we concluded that school administrators think that the music and fine arts classrooms, worship sections, sport fields, science laboratories, computer and technology laboratories were highly insufficient. The qualitative results also supported these findings. The participants stated that they wanted to expand the sport areas by adding indoor sports hall, football, basketball, volleyball and swimming pools. The participants also expressed that the physical deficiencies hinder the lessons being efficient, especially the lack of school gym, workshop and laboratory; moreover they stated that this situation turns the courses into more theoretical base than the practice, which are delimited between four walls of the classrooms. However, we have also observed some inconsistent findings between quantitative and qualitative dimensions of the study, as the results related to classrooms, heating and insulation were observed to be inconsistent when the qualitative and quantitative dimensions were compared.

Keywords: School architecture, School directors, Deputy directors, Physical competences of schools

Investigation of Science Project Performances of Gifted and Talented Students

Ezgi Sağat & Fazilet Karakuş

pp. 257 - 272   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2019.212.17


The purpose of the study is to analyze gifted and talented students’ project performances and views about them.  In the study, explanatory sequential design, which is one of the mixed method research designs, was applied. In the quantitative phase of the study, project performances of the students were identified, while, in the qualitative phase, their views on their performances were determined. The study group consisted of the students who were enrolled in the Support Program at a Science and Arts Center during the 2017-2018 education year. According to quantitative findings, during the project preparation process, the students exhibit “fairly good” performance in producing ideas from science-related life, producing ideas for their needs and creating hypothesis about the problem. In qualitative findings, the students are seen to have no difficulty in producing ideas, as a result of which they can immediately produce ideas on their own. As regards to the project process and project content, they are observed to show “fairly good” performance in self-deciding on the sources and materials to be used for testing the hypothesis and sharing the research findings with the teacher and class while showing “satisfactory” performance in testing the hypothesis. The students stated that they did research, tested hypothesis and made inferences for hypothesis testing. They performed “fairly good” in using fluent and clear language in presentation, making the presentation within the given time and making eye contact with the audience. They expressed their opinion that they made an effective presentation as well as they were not satisfied with the presentation.

Keywords: Gifted and talented students, project approach, science.

Investigation of Fourth Grade Primary School Students’ Creative Writing and Story Elements in Narrative Text Writing Skills

Hacer Ulu

pp. 273 - 287   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2019.212.18


In this research, creative writing of 4th grade students in terms of children’s gender, attendance of a keeping a diary, mother’s educational background, father’s educational background and the number of books read were examined. The sample of this study consisted of 4th grade students. It was drawn from 6 primary schools in the city of Afyonkarahisar. 182 students participated in the study which took place in the spring term of the academic year 2017-2018. To collect the study data and answer the research questions, ‘Writing Success’ and ‘Scale for Assessing Story Elements’ scales were used. To analyze data, Mann Whitney U and Kruskal Wallis-tests were used. While texts written by students were evaluated according to subdimensions of originality, fluency of thoughts, flexibility of thoughts, lexical richness, sentence structure, organization, accuracy of style and grammar, it was found that their levels were close to average, their averages were found to be lower in terms of main character, locale, time, starter event, aim, initiative, result and reaction when examined in terms of narrative text writing of story elements. When the students’ scores obtained from ‘Writing Success Scale’ and ‘Scale for Assessing Story Elements’ were evaluated, a significant difference was found in favor of the girls in terms of gender, and in favor of dairy writers in terms of keeping a dairy. According to the number of books read, there was a significant difference found in the favor of those reading at least three books compared to those who read a month in both assessment tools. In both assessment tools, there were no significant differences in terms of parents’ educational background

Keywords: creative writing, story elements in narrative text, primary school students, parents’ education, keeping a diary

Elimination of Writing Difficulty in Primary School: An Action Research

Erol Duran & Arda Karataş

pp. 288 - 299   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2019.212.19


The aim of this study is to develop applications for the elimination of writing difficulties of primary school second year students. For this purpose, the following questions will be answered: “What is the contribution of letter writing practices to the elimination of writing difficulties?”, “How does the practice of word writing contribute to the elimination of writing difficulties?”, “How does the practice of sentence writing contribute to the elimination of writing difficulties?”, “What is the contribution of text writing practices to the elimination of writing difficulties?”, “What is the persistence of the applications to eliminate writing difficulties?” In this research, qualitative model and action research design were used. The participants of this research were consisted of 6 students who were found to have writing problems among the second grade students. In the study, “Repeated Dictation and Motivation Practices” were used to eliminate the writing difficulties of the participants. Multidimensional Legibility Scale was used for data collection tool before and after the applications. When the findings of the study are taken into consideration, there is a positive increase in the elimination of the writing difficulties of the participants. It can be said that the Repeated Dictation and Motivation Practices applied in the study were successful. The practice of dictation which is used in practice is carried out repeatedly in terms of letters, words, sentences and text, and the contribution of the study group to the elimination of writing difficulties is significant. We can say that the motivation studies conducted during the research support the elimination of the writing difficulties of the students. One-to-one interviews with the students, motivating them continuously and receiving family support are also important factors for success.

Keywords: Writing difficulty, repeated dictation, motivation

Early Childhood Education Teachers' Experiences on Moral Dilemmas and Suggestions for Morality and Ethics in Education Course

Yeliz Temli-Durmuş

pp. 301 - 314   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2019.212.20


Every human confronts daily moral problems, and education process enhances problem solving skills. Especially novice teachers hesitate between making decisions about creating extra time for moral education or focusing on students’ academic success and cover the units of a curriculum. The aim of this study is to investigate early childhood education teachers’ experiences and observations related to ethical dilemmas and teachers’ efforts for promoting moral education of children. This qualitative study was conducted in Uşak, a small city in the west of Turkey, and 28 early childhood education teachers voluntarily participated in the study. The findings showed that teachers and families affect students’ moral perceptions, and ethical issues create a major difficulty in moral education. The limitations for moral education were listed as family effect, lack of effective role models in students’ life, media, and ignorance of national values. According to the participants, families raise selfish people deliberately because they believe someone else can shoulder responsibilities for their children in the future and their children can lead a comfortable life. Another theme is Endangered Values which participant teachers are anxious about losing such as justice, honesty, friendships, tolerance, and kindness. 

Keywords: Moral education, ethical dilemmas, moral responsibilities

A Mixed Method Research Study on the Effectiveness of Board Game Based Cognitive Training Programme

Bengü Türkoğlu

pp. 315 - 344   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2019.212.21


This study aimed to examine the influence of the ‘Board Game Based Cognitive Training Programme’ (BGBCTP) on the cognitive development of the second and third graders among primary school children. BGBCTP is based on educational board games for second and third graders and aims to help them develop cognitive skills. Mixed method was used and it was carried out within the framework of embedded design. A quasi-experimental pretest-posttest design was the quantitative data gathering method and a case study was the qualitative one. The participant group consisted of 120 children (60 in the experimental group, 60 in the control group). The interviews were conducted with twenty grade teachers who carried out the training programme in the experimental group.  The General Information Form, The Thurstone Primary Mental Abilities Test 7-11 (PMA 7-11) and “Semi-structured Interview Form” were used to collect data. PMA 7-11 was used to statistically test the influence of BGBCTP on the development of second and third graders’ cognitive skills. BGBCTP was used by the researcher with the children in the experimental group in a ‘regular and controlled’ manner, for 12 weeks, 2 days in a week, 1 hour each day (a total of 24 hours), in addition to their daily activities in their regular environment. For quantitative data analysis, the dependent-samples t-test was carried out for in-group comparisons, whereas the independent-samples t-test was used for intergroup comparisons. For qualitative data analysis, a descriptive analysis approach was used. The quantitative research findings indicated that the BGBCTP has had a significantly positive effect on the cognitive developments of the children in the experimental group. Besides the qualitative research findings revealed that the BGBCTP has a positive effect on children’s linguistic, shape-space, reasoning, discrimination and numerical abilities. In conclusion, BGBCTP is an effective programme on the cognitive development of children.

Keywords: Cognitive development, cognitive games, educational board games, cognitive training programme, primary school

Evaluating the Views of Turkish Teacher Candidates in Improving the Quality of Assessment and Evaluation Activities Used in Teaching Turkish to Foreigners

Mehmet Fidan

pp. 345 - 357   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2019.212.22


The assessment methods used in language teaching have an important role in achieving the targeted gains. The assessment methods used should be effective in determining both the general situation of the class and individual qualifications. In this case, constructivist, innovative, student-centered and so on. It is predicted that the use of assessment and evaluation methods will be successful. In this research, the opinions of Turkish teacher candidates about improving the quality of assessment and evaluation methods used in teaching Turkish to foreigners were examined. The study group of the study consisted of the students of Faculty of Education Turkish Education Department. A total of 25 Turkish teacher candidates participated in the study. In the study, standardized open-ended interview form was used to obtain the data. In the evaluation of the data, content analysis was preferred. During the research process, the data obtained from the interview forms were evaluated as question headings. In the evaluation, the question-topic order in the form was followed. In the analysis phase of each question, subject titles were determined based on the opinions of teacher candidates. As a result of the research, it was found that the teachers candidates generally thought that the use of constructivist, student-centered assessment methods would be effective in teaching Turkish to foreigners.

Keywords: Teaching Turkish to Foreigners, Assessment and Evaluation, Language Teaching.

Examination of Social Activity Understanding from the Viewpoint of School Administrators

Abdullah Balıkçı & Sezen Tofur

pp. 358 - 370   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2019.212.23


The purpose of this study is to examine the social activities in Turkish Education System from the viewpoint of the school administrators. Qualitative method and case study design were conducted in the study. The sample of the study is composed of 10 school administrators, who were selected through convenience sampling and snowball sampling. Data were collected through the semi-structured interview form, observations, and document analysis. Descriptive analysis technique was used to analyze the data. According to the findings of the research, the participants evaluated the social activity as the activities that affect the environment and the students and are desired to affect them and stated that all the stakeholders take on the responsibility for this purpose. The main factor in the quantitative and qualitative differentiation of social activities in schools is the perspective of the school staff who direct and manage these activities. Social activities regulations are generally simple in terms of language and have a structure that facilitates work. Based on the results obtained, it can be suggested to make a regulation that brings a separate lesson time to the club work in the legislation and to carry out the studies that examine the subject from the perspective of the other stakeholders who contribute to education.

Keywords: Turkish Education System, Social Activity Regulation, Social Activity, School Administrator

Investigating the Relationship between Sense of Classroom Community and Interpersonal Sensitivity

Gazanfer Anlı

pp. 371 - 379   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2019.212.24


The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between sense of classroom community and interpersonal sensitivity in high school students. The research population was composed of 409 students from an Anatolian high school located in Ümraniye county of Istanbul city. The sample consisted of 208 females and 201 male students and the mean age was 15.37. The data were obtained by using the Classroom Community Index and Interpersonal Sensitivity Scale. The descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficient and path analysis were used in the analysis of the data. There were significant and negative correlations among high school students' sense of classroom community and interpersonal worry and dependency, unassertive interpersonal behavior and low self-esteem levels which are the subscales of the interpersonal sensitivity. Results of the path analysis indicated that interpersonal sensitivity had a significant, negative predictive role on sense of classroom community. This analysis also stated that the fit indices for the proposed structural model were good (χ2/df = 1.61, SRMR = 0.01, GFI = 0.99, RMSEA = 0.039, CFI = 0.99, TLI = 0.98).

Keywords: Sense of classroom community, interpersonal sensitivity, high school students.

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