International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 2834-7919   |  e-ISSN: 1554-5210

Volume 17 Issue 5 (October 2021)

Issue Information

Issue Information

pp. i - vi   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.375



Original Articles

Correct Classification Level of Young Adults Who Abuse and Do Not Abuse Their Partner in The Romantic Relationship of Forgiveness

Erhan Tunç & Yasemin Kaygas

pp. 1 - 13   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.375.1


In this study, the correct classification level of whether forgiving oneself, others and the situation is abusing their partners was determined by logistic regression analysis. There are 221 young adults ranging from 19-30 in this study, which was designed in the scanning model. Heartland Forgiveness Scale and Information Form were used in the study. In the initial model of the analysis, all participants were classified in the group that exploited their partner, with a classification percentage of 62.9%. The biggest contribution to the initial model comes from the variable of forgiving others, respectively, the variables of self-forgiveness and forgiveness. Cox & Snell RSquare value for the final model was calculated as .10. This finding shows that when the predictor variables are included in the model, 10% of the predicted variable is explained. Accordingly, the model has a good fit. Of the 82 individuals who did not abuse the result model, 34 were classified correctly and 48 were incorrect, with a percentage of correct classification of 41.5%. Of 139 individuals abused, 120 were correct and 19 were incorrectly classified, with an accurate classification percentage of 86.3%. One-unit increase in the self-forgiveness variable is 7.90% in the odds of abuse [(1-.921).100]; One-unit increase in forgiveness to others causes an 8.10% [(1-.919).100] increase in exploit odds. Findings show that the variables of self-forgiveness and forgiveness for others make significant contributions to classifying individuals who abuse and do not. The variables of forgiving yourself and others increase the predictive power of the model created.

Keywords: Self-Forgiveness, Forgivining Others, Forgivining The Situation, Romantic Relationship

Evaluation of the Intensive English Language Teaching Program for the 5th Grade according to Teachers’ Views

Seval Eminoğlu Küçüktepe & Esra Kerimoğlu

pp. 14 - 32   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.375.2


Language policies of countries have focused especially on the teaching and learning of English, the universal language of communication because of the increase in international exchange of information. In this context, one of the changes which were made in the field of foreign language teaching in recent years in Turkey is that the intensive foreign language education, put into practice in the 2017-2018 academic years, is implemented in the 5th grades of the determined pilot schools. The aim of the study is to evaluate the intensive English language teaching program for the 5th grade (IELTP) according to the teachers’ views. The research is conducted in the phenomenological pattern, one of the qualitative research methods. In the 2018-2019 academic years, the data were collected by interviewing with 26 volunteer English teachers from seven different districts of İstanbul. Descriptive and content analysis methods were used to analyse the data. As a result, most of the teachers generally have expressed positive opinions about the intensive English language course for the 5th grade and its curriculum. The instructional activities, methods, and techniques; tools and materials; measurement tools, methods and activities used by the teachers in their lessons are in line with the ones suggested in the curriculum. However, some teachers have indicated that they face with some problems such as being the subjects in the curriculum intense, above the students’ level, and focusing on the grammar; abundance of the number of objectives; the lack of materials.

Keywords: Intensive English Course; English Language Teaching Program; Program Evaluation; Teachers’ Views; The 5th Grade

A Study of Developing an Organizational Reputation Management Scale for Schools

Sinan Tümtürk & Levent Deniz

pp. 33 - 47   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.375.3


This study aims to develop a scale to measure the organizational reputation of especially private schools and foreign private schools in today's increasingly competitive environment. The study group of the research consists of 320 individuals who are 9th, 10th, 11th and 12th grade students receiving education in private and foreign private schools and teachers from different branches. In the development phase of the scale, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to ensure validity and reliability. As a result of validity and reliability studies, the Organizational Reputation Management Scale for Schools was obtained. The analysis result has revealed a scale structure that consists of 7 dimensions and 38 items. Accordingly, the dimensions to determine the organizational reputation of private schools are "Social Responsibility, Commitment to School, Relations with Alumni, School Environment, Leadership, School Management, and Financial Performance". It is expected that the scale to be used by researchers and private schools will significant contributions to the literature on organizational reputation management.

Keywords: Reputation Management, Organizational Reputation, Scale Development

Are Pre-Service Science Teachers Qualified Enough to Teach Human Reproductive System?

Gülşah Sezen Vekli & Kader Birinci Konur

pp. 48 - 59   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.375.4


This study aims to reveal pre-service science teachers’ (PSTs) levels of knowledge about the human reproductive system and their professional competence perceptions. The study was conducted using the case method. A form consisting of 6 open-ended questions was developed and applied to PSTs. The sample was composed of 62 PSTs , who were 3rd and 4th-year students in the Science Teaching Department of a university. It was found that the majority of the participants had a superficial understanding of the human reproductive system and they had various alternative concepts about the subject. The students attributed their incomplete understanding of the subject to the fact that they did not learn the subject effectively because they did not make a regular revision of their lessons, because the subject was taught superficially, and they felt embarrassed while the subject was being taught to them. It can be said that social life and the way individuals look at the subject play an essential part in obtaining such results. Based on the results, it can be said that offering teachers training on the subject by experts can yield positive results in teaching the subject.

Keywords: Human Reproductive System, Pre-Service Science Teachers, Professional Competence, Knowledge

Investigation of Pre-service Science Teachers’ Attitudes towards Laboratory Skills and Chemistry Laboratory Anxieties According to Selected Variables

Ayşe Sert Çıbık & Elvan İnce Aka

pp. 60 - 76   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.375.5


The aim of this study was to determine the attitudes towards laboratory skills and chemistry laboratory anxieties of pre-service science teachers who were currently registered to general chemistry laboratory course and who had taken this course previously. To evaluate candidates’ attitudes and anxieties in line with this purpose, they were examined in terms of gender, year of study, and the type of high school. The sample of the study consisted of 202 candidates studying in the 1st, 3rd, and 4th years of the Science Education Department of a state university in Ankara. A survey research model was used, and the Attitude Scale towards Laboratory Skills and the Chemistry Laboratory Anxiety Scale were applied. It was determined that candidates’ attitudes were generally scored as “agree” and their anxieties were generally scored as “disagree” in terms of average scores. It was also determined that there was a statistically significant difference in the attitudes and anxieties in terms of gender in favor of males. It was determined that there was no statistically significant difference between attitudes and anxieties in terms of year of study and type of high school. A moderate, negatively significant correlation was found between the average attitude and anxiety scores.

Keywords: Attitude Towards Laboratory Skills, Chemistry Laboratory Anxiety, Gender, Year of Study, Type of High School Graduated From

The Effect of Story Wheel Method on Creative Writing Skills, Story Elements and Word Numbers

Hakan Çetin & Şeyma Cihan

pp. 77 - 86   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.375.6


The purpose of this research is to examine the effect of story wheel method on creative writing skills, story elements information and word number. The research was designed as an experimental model. It consisted of seven weeks, including pre and post tests. The research group consisted of 13 third grade students attending at a school in Siirt during the 2019-2020 academic year. The data collected using a story wheel material which was developed by researchers and Creative Writing Rubric (Ozturk, 2007). In the study, at the stage of obtaining the pre-test data, the students were asked to write a story according to their wishes and the number of words they used in this story, the significance level of the texts and which story elements they included were noted. During the post-test process, students were asked to write a story according to their wishes and the same procedures were carried out at this stage. Paired sample t-test was conducted in SPSS to investigate the relationship between story wheel method and creative writing skills. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data on story elements and word numbers. The findings show that story wheel method has a positive effect on students’ creative writing skills, story elements information and word numbers.

Keywords: Story Wheel, Creative Writing Skills, Story Elements

Perceptions and Beliefs of the Teachers of Kindergarten and the First Primary Stage for Employing Digital Technologies in the Education Process in Jordan

Nahil Aljaberi

pp. 87 - 101   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.375.7


This study aims to explore the reality of employing digital technologies in the education of kindergarten children and the primary stage. It also aims to determine the views and perceptions of children towards these technologies and how to deal with them. The study also aims to determine the perceptions of kindergarten teachers and the primary stage towards employing digital technologies in children's education. This study included two approaches: the qualitative to reveal the reality and perceptions of employing digital technologies through conducting interviews and recording observations, and the second one quantitative by preparing a scale to measure teachers' perceptions towards employing digital technologies in children's education (PBDT), which consists of (62) paragraphs measuring (6) Various aspects. The sample consists of (64) children from kindergarten and primary stage, from both the government and private sectors. As for the sample of teachers, it reached (99) teachers from kindergarten and primary stage teachers from both the government and private sectors. The study concluds that the majority of children use digital technologies, and this use is done under the supervision of parents; (YouTube) is the most used application,  electronic games are the most topics that employ digital technologies, then religious studies and music. The study also shows that children prefer traditional games, story-telling from a mother or teacher, and studying through books instead of using digital technologies. The study also shows that teachers' perceptions of employing digital technologies are moderate. Besides, the number of years of experience, the teaching stage, and the level of knowledge of digital technologies are all factors that do not affect teachers' perceptions towards employing digital technologies.

Keywords: Perceptions, Teacher Beliefs, Kindergarten, Primary Stage, Digital Technologies

Teachers’ Attitudes toward Turkey Education Informatics Network during the Distance Education Period in the Covid-19 Pandemic

Serkan Düzgün

pp. 102 - 118   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.375.8


In this research, teachers' attitudes toward Turkey Education Informatics Network (EIN) during the distance education period in the Covid-19 Pandemic are examined. The participants of the study, which was carried out in the descriptive survey model, consisting of 789 teachers, most of whom are primary school teachers, who provide distance education in the Covid-19 pandemic. "Educational Informatics Network Attitude Scale" was used as a data collection tool in the study. As a result of the research, it is seen that most of the teachers use EIN and the EIN Live Lesson application, and they access EIN mostly with their personal computers and smartphones. However, teachers stated that they used messaging applications effectively in the distance education process. Besides, when the attitudes of teachers towards EIN were examined according to the levels they worked at, it was seen that secondary school teachers showed a more positive attitude towards EIN than primary and high school teachers, and they found EIN more necessary. When the attitudes of teachers towards EIN were examined according to their branches, it was seen that foreign language teachers showed a more positive attitude towards EIN compared to primary school teachers and teachers in other branches, and found EIN more necessary. It has been observed that young and junior teachers have increased positive attitudes towards EIN and they think EIN is necessary. The results of the research show that teachers use the EIN. However, there was not enough opinion among teachers about the applicability of EIN.

Keywords: Education Informatics Network, EIN, Covid-19, Pandemic, Distance Education

Predictive Power of 8th Grade Students’ Translating Among Multiple Representations Skills on their Algebraic Reasoning

Hatice Çetin, Sevcan Mercan Erdogan & Nurullah Yazici

pp. 119 - 133   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.375.9


The purpose of the present research is defining the direction and level of the relationship between 8th grade students’ translating among multiple representations skills and their algebraic reasoning and revealing the predictive power on algebraic reasoning. The research was conducted in accordance with relational survey model, which is a quantitative research method, and the study group consists of the total of 188 students, who studied at 8th grade in state schools.The data of the research were collected with the Translating Among Multiple Representations Test (TAMRT) and Algebraic Reasoning Evaluation Tool (ARET). Data were analysed using Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression analysis. Findings revealed that there is a significant relationship between students’ translating among multiple representations skills and their algebraic reasoning (r=.59; p<.01). Predictive power of students’ translating among multiple representations skill on their algebraic reasoning was found as 40%. According to the analysis on the each translating skill’s prediction of the subscales of the algebraic reasoning, only translating to graph and table representation skills predict subscales of algebraic reasoning.

Keywords: Multiple Representations, Algebraic Reasoning, 8th Grade Students

Kindergarten Management Problems and Solutions in Turkey: The Experiences of Principals

Mustafa Şengül & Metin Özkan

pp. 134 - 151   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.375.10


In this study, it is aimed to reveal the problems faced by kindergarten principals with the order of importance and to propose solutions to these problems according to their own opinions. The research was designed with mixed (exploratory order) method. In the qualitative dimension, 10 school principals were interviewed. 62 school principals were reached to obtain scaling data based on ranking judgments. As a result, the problems faced by kindergarten principals are related to finance, staff, parents, legislation, communication and students in order of priorities. The most important problems encountered under these problem headings are these: Insufficient income sources under the title of financing, not being able to employ enough auxiliary personnel under the heading of staff, parents’ perspective to school under the heading of the parents, excessive workload under the title of legislation, foreign students and parents in the subtitle of communication and adaptation process problems in the student.

Keywords: Kindergarten Principals, Management Problems, Kindergarten Finance, Turkey

A Primary School Teacher’s Journey on Using Drama Method in the Classroom: Collaborative Action Research Model

Nihan Akkocaoğlu Çayır & Ayşe Yolcu

pp. 152 - 169   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.375.11


This study aims to determine a primary school teacher’s observations and experiences regarding in-service training on drama method within the framework of collaborative action research model. The first author was invited to offer a 120-hour Drama Course upon request of the teachers in a primary school. In the 14th week, the action research process started with a teacher who wanted to implement the drama method in her classroom. Collaborative action research cycle was consisted of following phases: structuring the lesson plan, implementing, and monitoring the lesson plan in the classroom, teacher’s observation of the process, and reflection of the findings obtained through student feedback and reflective diaries. The teacher prepared 4 lesson plans, implemented, and evaluated them in this cycle, which lasted a total of 8 weeks. According to results, Derya teacher actively participated in the process, questioned her practices systematically, and became open to development and change with the students and researcher’s feedback. Based on the findings obtained, it is suggested that collaborative action research model in in-service training should be used. Thus, thanks to this model based on practice, it may be possible to reduce the theoretical weight of traditional in-service training and seminars.

Keywords: Drama, Collaborative Action Research, In-Service Training, Elementary School Teacher

Woman, Man, Society and Sex: How Pre-Service Teachers Perceive Basic Gender Concepts?

Aslı Gündoğan & Ahmet Taşdere

pp. 170 - 191   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.375.12


The aim of the study is to reveal Turkish pre-service teachers' gender perceptions. For this, cognitive structures of pre-service teachers were analysed with minds maps created with the word association test (WAT) and their mental models were analysed by drawing. In this context, a holistic single case study was adopted depending on the purpose of the research and the data collection process. According to the findings obtained from the WAT, it was determined that the cognitive structures of pre-service teachers were built on the sex, society and woman, and the man was in a weakly related in the cognitive structure. On drawing analysis, it was seen that most of the pre-service teachers depicted man and woman with visuals reflecting traditional stereotypes. On the other hand, visuals reflecting an egalitarian and contemporary perspective. In the light of both analysis results, Turkish teacher education curricula were discussed and specific suggestions were presented.

Keywords: Gender Perceptions, Pre-Service Teachers, Teacher Training, Word Association Test, Drawing

Examining Experiences of Parents About Distance Education During the Epidemic Process

Fehmi Demir & Faysal Özdaş

pp. 192 - 207   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.375.13


This research aims to examine parents' experience in distance education during the epidemic process. The research is designed as a case study from qualitative research patterns. A semi-structured interview technique as a data collection tool has been used for the study. The data obtained have been analyzed by descriptive and content analysis methods. Typical case sampling method has been used in the study. The study group consist of 48 parents of three different primary schools. According to the results of the research, parents carried out educational activities such as preparing, supporting students, monitoring and conducting activities during the epidemic process. Parents have carried out the educational activities in the epidemic process by providing and participating in the environment for students and contributing to them. Parents evaluate educational activities in the epidemic process in three different ways, which are satisfactory, inadequate and limited. Parents have encountered problems with infrastructure, participation, planning and EIN platform in distance education activities during the epidemic process. It is seen that the proposals for distance education activities in the epidemic process are related to the infrastructure of the EIN platform, preparation for the process, planning the process, the implementation of the content and activities used in education.

Keywords: Pandemic Process, Distance Education, Primary School, Parent Experiences

Children’s Views Toward Their Peers With Disabilities During Early Childhood

Hacer Tekerci & Hakan Kogar

pp. 208 - 225   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.375.14


In this study, it was aimed to examine the opinions of preschool children towards their peers with disabilities and the characteristics that affect these views. This research is a qualitative study. In the research in which qualitative data analysis techniques are used, the basic data collection source is the semi-structured interview form. The study group consisted of 68 children between the months of 36 and 72 who attend kindergarten. In the analysis of the research findings, qualitative data were evaluated by content analysis. As a result of the research; In the post-test application regarding the appearance features of dolls with disabilities, the children in the age group of 3, 4 and 5; It was seen that they made definitions in the category of " describing the disability condition ". In the post-test application regarding the playmate preference of the children, the majority; It has been observed that they accept dolls with disabilities as playmates on the grounds of "not having experience" and "presence of equipment" in the age group of 3, and "activity content" and "having experience" in the age group 4 and 5. In addition "What games would you like to play?" question’s answers were evaluated, it was seen that all the children gave answers in the "games adapted to the disability condition" category in the post-test application.

Keywords: Disability, Disabled Perception, Professional Development, Preschoolers

An Analysis of Preservice Teachers’ Opinions About Micro Teaching Course

Necmeddin Berk Hamidi & İsmail Kinay

pp. 226 - 240   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.375.15


The aim of this study is to examine the opinions of the preservice teachers about the micro teaching course. Study group consists of the preservice teachers who study at the Faculty of Education of a state university and have taken the micro-teaching course and study in the Foreign Languages Education Department. Qualitative research method was used in this study. Semi-structured interview technique, one of the qualitative research data collection techniques, was applied in the study. Content analysis was used in the analysis of the research data. Criterion sampling, one of the purposeful sampling types, was used for the study group included in the sample of this study. As a criterion, preservice teachers who took the optional micro teaching course were selected for the study. As a result of the study, the preservice teachers stated that the micro-teaching course helped gaining experience, increased professional skills and facilitated classroom management regarding the contribution of the education they received in the micro teaching course to the professional life. In addition, the preservice teachers who participated in the study expressed their views that they would like to take the micro teaching course again in the future.

Keywords: Preservice Teachers, Micro Teaching Technique, Micro Teaching Course

Views of the School Principals about the Inclusive Education and Practices

Tansel Yazıcıoğlu

pp. 241 - 261   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.375.16


School principals restructure the school to cope with social changes and needs, fulfill the functions of the school to meet the needs of the society and improve the social quality of the school by providing organizational effectiveness. In this study, it is aimed to reveal the views of the school administrators working at pre-school education institutions and at the primary and secondary schools about the inclusive education. This study is designed as a case study, one of the qualitative research approaches. The participants of the study are the school administrators working at pre-school education institutions and primary and secondary schools in Çankaya and Yenimahalle districts of Ankara. The data were collected using the “Semi-structured interview form” which was developed by the author. The findings of the study indicate that the opinions of the school principals about the inclusive education are generally positive. However, the suggestions of school principals should be taken into account about increasing teachers' knowledge and skills regarding the inclusive education and making objective and impartial educational evaluations and diagnoses.

Keywords: Effective Inclusive Education, Responsibility, Expert Staff, Supportive Education, Teachers' Knowledge

Investigation of Story Writing Skills In Elementary School Students (4th-8th Grades)

Nurhan Aktaş, Mustafa Yıldız, Ayşe Dilek Yekeler Gökmen & Merve Ataş

pp. 262 - 278   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.375.17


The aim of this study was to examine elementary school students’ story writing skills according to grade level within the framework of certain variables. The study was designed with a cross-sectional research model, one of the developmental research methods. The study group of the research consisted of 319 students attending 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th grades. A Story Writing Form developed by the researchers was used as the data collection tool in the research. In the data collection process, the students were given the story writing form and asked to write a story within a certain period by choosing one of the topics included in the form. To evaluate the stories written by the students, the 6+1 Analytic Writing and Assessment Scale was used. The research results revealed that the great majority of students used a title in their stories and that they created their stories with a single paragraph. On the other hand, it was seen that the grade level and gender variables had an effect on the quality of the stories. Generally, the quality of the stories improved as grade level increased, and girls wrote better quality stories than boys. However, this effect was not significant at every grade level.

Keywords: Writing Skills, Story Writing, Elementary School Students

Experiences of Primary School with Students with Reading and Writing Difficulties

Hayati Akyol, Murat Temur & Mustafa Erol

pp. 279 - 298   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.375.18


This study aims to examine in-depth the practices and the problems of primary school teachers in identifying and eliminating reading and writing difficulties. The current study employed phenomenology method, one of the qualitative research designs and the data of the study were collected through observation and interview techniques. Criterion sampling, one of the purposeful sampling methods was utilized in determining study group. Six primary school teachers were selected in accordance with the determined criteria to collect the interview data. To collect observation data, 3 primary schools were selected and a total of 16 hours of observation was made. According to the findings, most of the teachers did not receive education about identifying students with reading and writing difficulties, conducting studies with these students, and preparing materials, activities, and etc. suitable for them. Moreover, primary school teachers expressed that although there were some disadvantages of inclusive education, students with reading and writing difficulties should continue their education in inclusive classes. However, the necessity of providing supplementary support to these students in addition to inclusive education was frequently emphasized. When the practices of primary school teachers with students having reading and writing difficulty were examined, it was observed that they generally used letter/syllable trinkets, gamification, letter cards, individual syllable work, memorization assignments, dictation work, story reading, drama and colored syllables. On the other hand, it was determined that methods, techniques or strategies that stated to be effective in the literature were either used very little or not at all in classrooms.

Keywords: Reading Difficulty, Writing Difficulty, Specific Learning Difficulty, Phenomenology

Pre-Service Teachers' Digital Literacy Levels, Views on Distance Education and Pre-University School Memories

Murat Polat

pp. 299 - 314   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.375.19


Many studies are still ongoing on the possible effects of the Covid-19 Pandemic process on educational environments. With the decision to switch to distance education during the pandemic process, an important opportunity has emerged for rapid digital transformation in higher education. In this process, the relationships between the digital literacy levels of university students, their views on distance education and their pre-university school memories are curious. Therefore, the main purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between education faculty students' digital literacy levels and their views on distance education and their pre-university school memories. The research was carried out in the faculty of education at a state university in the 2020-21 academic year. The sample group consists of n = 234 (89 males; 145 females, mean age 21.7) pre-service teachers. Research data were collected online via Classroom. During the data collection process, one personal information form and three scale forms were used together. The return rate of the data collection tool is ~ 51%. Descriptive and relational analysis were used to analyze the collected data (p <.05). The findings, there are some significant and positive relationships between pre-service teachers' digital literacy levels, their views on distance education and their pre-university school memories. It has been revealed that students' digital literacy levels, their pre-university school memories and their views on distance education have significant effects in varying degrees. Some suggestions were made within the framework of the relevant literature for the results reached.

Keywords: School Memories, Digital Literacy, Distance Education and Online Learning, Pre-Service Teachers, 21st Century Abilities, Covid-19 Pandemic Process

Achievement and Perceived Satisfaction, Collaboration and Social Presence of Pre-Service Teachers in a Blended Learning Environment

Melike Ozudogru

pp. 315 - 331   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.375.20


This case study aimed to investigate whether the perceived satisfaction, collaboration, and social presence of pre-service teachers predicted their achievement in a blended learning environment and differed significantly according to their gender and departments. This study was conducted during the fall semester of 2019-2020 for six weeks at an educational sciences course in a public university in Turkey. 149 pre-service teachers were chosen according to the purposive sampling method. In this study, the course design was based on the ‘Blending with Purpose’ multimodal model, and data were collected through course grades and the application of the ‘Satisfaction, Collaboration and Social Presence Scale’. After conducting the descriptive and inferential statistical analysis, it was found that satisfaction, collaboration, social presence, and academic achievement of pre-service teachers correlated significantly in a positive direction, but only the satisfaction in the course predicted their achievement. Also, this study found some significant differences in terms of gender and department according to the academic achievement, satisfaction, collaboration, and social presence of pre-service teachers. The possible explanations for these results were examined and discussed in detail.

Keywords: Academic Achievement; Blended Learning; Collaboration; Satisfaction; Social Presence

Secondary School Teachers’ Effective School Perception: The Role of School Culture and Teacher Empowerment

Fatma Uslu Gülşen & Özge Çelik

pp. 332 - 344   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.375.21


This study investigates the extent to which school culture and teacher empowerment dimensions predict the effective school perceptions of secondary school teachers. The sample of the study includes 363 teachers [120 male (33.1%), 243 (66.9 %) female] from 24 secondary schools in four central districts (Mezitli, Yenişehir, Toroslar, Akdeniz) in Mersin. The data of the study was collected via the Personal Information Form, School Culture Inventory, the School Effectiveness Index, and the School Participant Empowerment Scale. The data was analysed through stepwise regression analysis statistical method. The alpha value of 0.01 was established as a level of significance. The results revealed that professional development which is a dimension of school culture is the most important predictive variable, and it was followed by collegial support, collegial leadership, unity of purpose, self-efficacy, decision making and teacher collaboration. Together, these seven significant predictors explained 59.1% of the variance in the teacher perception of school effectiveness.  Moreover, learning partnership dimension of school culture and status, impact, autonomy and professional growth dimensions of school participant empowerment were not statistically significant in explaining the school effectiveness. According to the results of this study, school culture has stronger relations with school effectiveness than the teacher empowerment has. This may mean that a school should have a culture that values professional development of its teachers, collegiality, collaborative leadership and teamwork in order to be effective.

Keywords: School Effectiveness, School Culture, School Participant Empowerment, Teacher Collaboration

The Relationship Between Social Appearance Anxiety, Automatic Thoughts and Depression-Anxiety-Stress in Emerging Adulthood

Esranur Çelik & Özlem Tolan

pp. 345 - 363   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.375.22


The aim of study is to examine the relationship between social appearance anxiety, automatic thoughts and depression, anxiety, and stress in university students. The research was carried out on a total of 381 participants, 214 of whom were women and 167 were men. The ages of the participants were between 18 and 35 and the mean age was 22. Data were collected via Social Appearance Anxiety Scale, Automatic Thoughts Scale and Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale and Personal Information Form. Pearson Correlation was used to examine whether there is a relationship between social appearance anxiety, automatic thoughts, and depression, anxiety, and stress. Independent sample t-test was conducted to examine whether the automatic thoughts levels differed in terms of having an emotional relationship. Analysis of variance was used to reveal whether social appearance anxiety differentiated at the level of weight and height satisfaction. Hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to examine whether automatic thoughts and social appearance anxiety predicted depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms. It was concluded that there are positive and significant relationships between social appearance anxiety, automatic thoughts, depression, anxiety, and stress. The automatic thought averages of who had an emotional relationship were found to be significantly lower than the averages of who did not have. It was determined that there is a difference in social appearance anxiety levels according to height satisfaction. It is thought that studies to reduce automatic thoughts may be effective in reducing psychological symptoms.

Keywords: Social Appearance Anxiety, Automatic Thoughts, Depression, Anxiety, Stress

English Language Teaching and Language Teacher Education in Turkey- An Evolutionary Overview

Seher Balbay & Cemile Doğan

pp. 364 - 376   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.375.23


This study provides a much-needed socio-political perspective on language teaching in Turkey and identifies key influences and orthodoxies past and present and their impact on current practices of language learning. The researchers provide a refreshing critique of successive cycles of policies and how they have variously sought to secure starting with imperial, nationalist, and contemporary populist ambitions of language teaching in the classroom and beyond. Almost 150 years of such efforts have frequently shoehorned teaching practices with inevitable consequences for language acquisition from primary education to university. Along with the contemporary educational changes before and after the foundation of the Turkish Republic, the researchers aim to shed light on the chronological records of language teacher education by drawing  parallelism between general teacher education and language teacher education in Turkey. The paper concludes with suggestions for improving our understanding of present-day challenges in a field that remains fundamental to the future of the country.

Keywords: Language Teacher Education; The Ottoman Empire; Turkish Republic Era; Language Policy in Turkey; Curriculum Reform

Metaphoric Perceptions of Teachers and Parents Regarding the Concept of Specific Learning Difficulty (SLD)

Kürşat Öğülmüş & Mehmet Okur

pp. 377 - 392   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.375.24


The purpose of this study is to reveal the metaphorical perceptions of parents with children with SLD and teachers who work with the children who have SLD. The design of this study is phenomenology, which is one of the qualitative research designs. The data collected in the study were analyzed by content analysis method.  A total of 218 participants, including 117 teachers and 101 parents, took part in the study. In the research findings, the number of metaphors produced by the teachers is 59, and the number of metaphors produced by the parents is 49. While the metaphor most used by teachers is “the person who struggles”, the metaphor most produced by the parents is “maze”. While the conceptual category in which teachers produced the most metaphors is "a complex situation", the conceptual category in which parents produced the most metaphors is "a situation in which progress is slow". When the conceptual categories obtained from the study were examined, teachers and parents produced six common categories. These are 1) a complex situation, 2) a situation that requires effort, 3) a situation that makes you feel different from the others, 4) a situation that creates a feeling of not knowing what to do, 5) a challenging situation, and 6) a situation where progress is slow. Except for these common categories, parents have also produced the category of a situation that feels desperate. When the metaphors produced are considered from both parent and teacher perspectives, it is seen that the perception about SLD is generally negative.

Keywords: Metaphorical Perceptions, Specific Learning Difficulty, Phenomenological Approach, Metaphor

All Issues

Volume 20
Volume 19
Volume 18
Volume 17
Volume 16
Volume 15
Volume 14
Volume 13
Volume 12
Volume 11
Volume 10
Volume 9
Volume 8
Volume 7
Volume 6
Volume 5
Volume 4
Volume 3
Volume 2
Volume 1