International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 2834-7919   |  e-ISSN: 1554-5210

Original article | International Journal of Progressive Education 2020, Vol. 16(5) 17-29

Indicators of Reading Comprehension: Example of Narrative Text and Open Ended Question

Yasemin Kuşdemir

pp. 17 - 29   |  DOI:   |  Manu. Number: MANU-2005-18-0007.R1

Published online: October 09, 2020  |   Number of Views: 1531  |  Number of Download: 987


Reading comprehension is a mental skill that requires establishing connections between the content of the text and the individual's prior knowledge. The purpose of the current study is to examine the reading comprehension levels of primary school fourth grade students based on their answers to open-ended questions about a narrative text in relation to different variables. The current study employing the descriptive survey model was conducted with the participation of 115 primary school fourth grade students from a city in the Central Anatolian Region of Turkey. An inventory consisted of 10 open-ended questions based on a narrative text was used to collect data. The level of reading comprehension of the students participating in the study was found to be in the stage of transition from the difficulty level to the instructional level and this level can be expressed as insufficient. Although the students' reading comprehension levels do not vary significantly according to the gender variable, girls' reading comprehension levels are higher than boys. Through open-ended questions, it is easy to observe how students structure their answers, how they manage the process of constructing the meaning of the text, and what they focus on in the text. In this way, strategy teaching and activity design can progress more concretely in order to improve students' meaning construction skills. In addition, it provides the teacher with a good opportunity to get acquainted with students whose understanding skills are at the instructional level, realize their approach to text and question, and provide individual support to the student. The results of the current study provide consistent and meaningful data for new research and educational practices in schools.

Keywords: Narrative Text, Open-Ended Questions, Reading Comprehension

How to Cite this Article?

APA 6th edition
Kusdemir, Y. (2020). Indicators of Reading Comprehension: Example of Narrative Text and Open Ended Question . International Journal of Progressive Education, 16(5), 17-29. doi: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.277.2

Kusdemir, Y. (2020). Indicators of Reading Comprehension: Example of Narrative Text and Open Ended Question . International Journal of Progressive Education, 16(5), pp. 17-29.

Chicago 16th edition
Kusdemir, Yasemin (2020). "Indicators of Reading Comprehension: Example of Narrative Text and Open Ended Question ". International Journal of Progressive Education 16 (5):17-29. doi:10.29329/ijpe.2020.277.2.

  1. Akçay, A.(2016). The effect of taking preschool education on the development of linguistic skills of the students. Electronic Turkish Studies, 11(3), 15-28.  [Google Scholar]
  2. Akyol, H.(2010). Türkçe öğretim yöntemleri.(3th Ed.) Ankara: Pegem Akademi Yayınları [Google Scholar]
  3. Akyol, H. (1997). Okuma metinlerindeki soruların sınıflandırılması. Eğitim ve Bilim, 21, 10-17. [Google Scholar]
  4. Applegate, M. D., Quinn, K. B., & Applegate, A. J. (2002). Levels of thinking required by comprehension questions in informal reading inventories. The Reading Teacher, 56(2), 174-180. [Google Scholar]
  5. Baktır, H.(2018). Meaning in the text: Reader-response theory of criticism Temasa Journal of Philosophy, 8, s. 97-105 [Google Scholar]
  6. Başaran, M.(2019).Metinler ve metinlerle ilgili anlam kurma soruları Edt. H. Akyol, M. Yıldız. Türkçe Öğretimi içinde s.287-312 (1st  Ed.) Ankara: Pegem Akademi Yayınları [Google Scholar]
  7. Baştuğ, M. (2014). Comparison of reading comprehension with respect to text type, grade level and test type. International Online Journal of Educational Sciences, 6(2). [Google Scholar]
  8. Baştuğ, M., & Keskin, H. K. (2013). Diagnosis and guidance in reading studies: Application of curriculum-based measurement. Journal of Research in Education and Teaching, 2(1), 284-290. [Google Scholar]
  9. Bayraktar, İ. (2017). The relationship between reading attitudes and reading comprehension skills of 7th grade students at middle school. International Journal Of Languages’ Education And Teaching, 5(4), 582-594.  [Google Scholar]
  10. Best, R. M., Floyd, R. G., & Mcnamara, D. S. (2008). Differential competencies contributing to children’s comprehension of narrative and expository texts. Reading Psychology, 29, 137–164. [Google Scholar]
  11. Brandão, A. C. P., & Oakhill, J. (2005). “How do you know this answer?”–Children’s use of text data and general knowledge in story comprehension. Reading and Writing, 18 (7-9), 687. [Google Scholar]
  12. Cain, K., & Oakhill, J. (2006). Assessment matters: Issues in the measurement of reading comprehension. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 76(4), 697-708. [Google Scholar]
  13. Ceran, E., Yıldız, M. O., & Özdemir, İ. (2015). Investigation elementary 2.grades students reading ability of comprehension according to gender and age variable. Sakarya University Journal of Education, 5(3), 151-166. [Google Scholar]
  14. Collins, A.A.(2015).Performance variations across response formats on reading comprehension assessments. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation. Vanderbilt University, USA. [Google Scholar]
  15. Çelik, T., Demirgüneş, S., Fidan, D.(2015). Analysing the relation between reader-friendly texts reading comprehension competence Başkent Universty Journal Of Education. 2(1), 115-122. [Google Scholar]
  16. Çetin, E.(2017). Effects of feelings in texts on reading comprehension skills of primary fourth graders. Unpublished Master’s Thesis. Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University Graduate School of Educational Sciences, Muğla, Turkey.   [Google Scholar]
  17. Çiftçi, Ö., & Temizyürek, F. (2008). Measurement understanding of reading skills in 5th classes of primary schools. Mustafa Kemal University Journal Of Social Sciences Institute, 5(9), 109-129.  [Google Scholar]
  18. Day, R. R., & Park, J. (2005). Developing reading comprehension questions. Reading in a Foreign Language, 17(1), 60-73. [Google Scholar]
  19. Deveci, C.(2019). Investigation of the relationship between the attitudes towards reading and reading comprehension skills of fourth grade students in primary schools and teachers' opinions on this process. Unpublished Master Thesis. Karadeniz Technical University Graduate School of Educational Sciences, Trabzon, Turkey. [Google Scholar]
  20. Dymock, S.(2007).Comprehension strategy instruction: Teaching narrative text structure awareness. The Reading Teacher, 61(2), 161-167.Retrived from [Google Scholar]
  21. Eivers, E., Gilleece, L., & Delaney, E. (2017). Reading achievement in PIRLS 2016: Initial report for Ireland.  [Google Scholar]
  22. Ergen, Y., & Batmaz, O.(2019).The relationship between level of using reading comprehension strategies and reading comprehension achievement of primary school fourth grade students. Mehmet Akif Ersoy University Journal of Education Faculty, (49), 130-147. [Google Scholar]
  23. Fordham, N. W. (2006). Crafting questions that address comprehension strategies in content reading. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 49, 390-396. [Google Scholar]
  24. Güleçol, S.(2017). Research on reading comprehension level of the 4th grade primary school students in various variabilities (Muğla Case) Unpublished Master’s Thesis. Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University Graduate School of Education Sciences, Muğla, Turkey  [Google Scholar]
  25. Karaarslan, Y.(2015). Reading and reading comprehension skill levels of primary students and the opinions that they are reading and reading comprehension difficulties faced by classroom teachers. Unpublished Master Thesis. Karadeniz Technical University Graduate School of Educational Sciences, Trabzon, Turkey. [Google Scholar]
  26. Karasu, H.P., Girgin, Ü.,& Uzuner, Y.(2013).Formel olmayan okuma envanteri. Ankara: Nobel Akademi Yayıncılık. [Google Scholar]
  27. Kayıran, B. K., & Ağaçkıran, Z. K.(2018). An Investigation of the Primary School First  [Google Scholar]
  28. Grade Students’ Reading Comprehension Success and Reading Speed in Terms of Various Variables. Gaziantep University Journal of Educational Sciences, 2(2), 30-44. [Google Scholar]
  29. Keenan, J. M., & Meenan, C. E. (2014).Test differences in diagnosing reading comprehension deficits. Journal Of Learning Disabilities, 47(2), 125-135. [Google Scholar]
  30. Lusianti, L.(2019).The effect of multiple choice and open ended questions test towards stusent’s reading comprehension. Unpublished Master Thesis. Faculty Of Tarbiyah And Tadris State Institute For  Islamic Studies,  Bengkulu, Indonesia. [Google Scholar]
  31. McLaughlin, M., & DeVoogd, G. (2004). Critical literacy as comprehension: Expanding reader response. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 48(1), 52-62. [Google Scholar]
  32. Meyer, B. J., & Ray, M. N. (2017).Structure strategy interventions: Increasing reading comprehension of expository text. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 4(1), 127-152. [Google Scholar]
  33. Meyer, B. J. F. (2003). Text coherence and readability. Topics in Language Disorders, 23 (3),204-224.  [Google Scholar]
  34. Okur, B. (2017).The anaysis of 4th grade students' reading motivation and reader self perceptions in terms of various variables. Unpublished Master’s Thesis. Marmara University Graduate School of Education Sciences, İstanbul, Turkey. [Google Scholar]
  35. Ozuru, Y., Briner, S., Kurby, C. A., & McNamara, D. S. (2013). Comparing comprehension measured by multiple-choice and open-ended questions. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 67(3), 215–227.  [Google Scholar]
  36. Özdemir, M., Özdemir, O., & Parmaksız, R. Ş. (2016). A study on primary school students' scientific process skills and reading comprehension levels. Electronic Turkish Studies, 11(3), 1829-1848. [Google Scholar]
  37. Özkesemen, A. (2008). In terms of the new curriculum an assesstment of the academic success of the first grade students who had preschool education and who had not. Unpublished Master’s Thesis. Kafkas University Graduate School of Social Sciences, Kars, Turkey.  [Google Scholar]
  38. Palavuzlar, T.(2009). Analysis of reading comprehension skills for genres of short story and essay texts. Unpublished Master’s Thesis. Trakya University Graduate School of Social Sciences, Edirne,  Turkey. [Google Scholar]
  39. Patton, M.Q. (2001).Qualitative research & Evaluation methods.(3th Ed.) London: Sage Publications [Google Scholar]
  40. Richards, J.C. and Schmidt. R. (2002). Longman dictionary of language teaching and applied linguistics. London: Pearson Education. [Google Scholar]
  41. Rosenblatt, L. M.(1982).The literary transaction:Evocation and response. Theory into Practice, 21(4), 268-277. [Google Scholar]
  42. Rosenblatt, L. M. (1988). Writing and reading: The transactional theory. Center for the Study of Reading Technical Report; No. 416. [Google Scholar]
  43. Sabak Kaldan, E.(2007). Economic and demografic factors that affect the 3rd grade primary school students`reading comprehension skill in Turkish class. Unpublished Master Thesis. Gaziantep University Graduate School of Social Sciences, Gaziantep, Turkey. [Google Scholar]
  44. Scott, D. & Morrison, M.(2006). Key ideas in educational research. London: Continum International Publishing Group [Google Scholar]
  45. Sidekli, S., & Buluç, B. (2006). İlköğretim beşinci sınıf öğrencilerinin okuduğunu anlama becerilerinin karşılaştırılması. Bildiri Metni, 5.Ulusal Sınıf Öğretmenliği Kongresi, Gazi University,  Ankara. [Google Scholar]
  46. Şahin, İ. (2012). The effects of story maps on the skills of summarizing and finding the main idea in narrative texts of primary education 5th grade students. Unpublished Master’s Thesis. Akdeniz University Graduate School of Social Sciences, Antalya,  Turkey. [Google Scholar]
  47. Tabachnick, B. G. ve Fidell, L. S. (2013).Using multivariate statistics (6th Ed.).New Jersey: Pearson. [Google Scholar]
  48. Tan, Ş., & Erdoğan, A.(2004).Öğretimi planlama ve değerlendirme. Ankara:Pegem Akademik Yayıncılık. [Google Scholar]
  49. Temizyürek, F.(2008). The impact of different types of texts on turkish language reading comprehension at primary school grade eight students Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 30, 141-152. [Google Scholar]
  50. [Google Scholar]
  51. Tobia, V., Ciancaleoni, M., & Bonifacci, P. (2017). Theoretical models of comprehension skills tested through a comprehension assessment battery for primary school children. Language Testing, 34(2), 223-239. [Google Scholar]
  52. Tuğluk, İ. H., Kök, M., Koçyiğit, S., Kaya, H. İ. &  Gençdoğan, B. (2008). Evaluation of pre-school teacher's views about literacy practices Ahi Evran University Kırşehir Education Faculty Journal (KEFAD), 17, 72-81.  [Google Scholar]
  53. Ulusoy, M. (2016).Picturebooks and reading response theory. Elementary Education Online, 15(2), 487-497. [Google Scholar]
  54. Ulutaş Avcu, A., & Aksoy, A. B.(2016). Investigation of reading comprehension skills of six-year-old children during transition into primary school in terms of various factors. Journal of Mother Tongue Education (JOMTE), 4(2), 215-228.  [Google Scholar]
  55. Wixson, K. K. (1983). Questions about a text: What you ask about is what children learn. The Reading Teacher, 37, 287-293. [Google Scholar]
  56. Yıldırım, K., Yıldız, M., Ateş, S., & Rasinski, T.(2010). Fifth-grade Turkish elementary school students’ listening and reading comprehension levels with regard to text types,  Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 10(3), 1855-1891.   [Google Scholar]
  57.  [Google Scholar]
  58. (Eğitim Analiz ve Değerlendirme Raporları Serisi No:10, 2019) [Google Scholar]