International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 2834-7919   |  e-ISSN: 1554-5210

Original article | International Journal of Progressive Education 2022, Vol. 18(4) 166-174

Development of the General Teaching Principles Scale

Metin Aşçı

pp. 166 - 174   |  DOI:   |  Manu. Number: MANU-2201-05-0003.R1

Published online: August 01, 2022  |   Number of Views: 188  |  Number of Download: 287


The aim of this study is to develop a scale to determine how often secondary school teachers adhere to general teaching principles. For this purpose, 211 teachers who work in secondary education institutions in Yunus Emre District of Manisa Province were included in the research group with the stratified sampling method. The 54-item experimental form of the scale was subjected to expert opinion, and as a result of the analysis, a 50 -item candidate scale was created. In order to determine the construct validity of the General Teaching Principles Scale, Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was performed using the geominQ rotation method. Cronbach's Alpha coefficient was calculated for the reliability index and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was performed to test the accuracy of the structure revealed by EFA. SPSS 26.0 software was used for reliability analysis, Jasp 0.13.1 for Exploratory Factor Analysis and R Studio 1.2.5033 software for Confirmatory Factor Analysis. The results of the validity and reliability studies conducted on teachers working in secondary education show that this developed scale gives valid and reliable results.

Keywords: General Teaching Principles, Scale Development. Academic Achievement

How to Cite this Article?

APA 6th edition
Asci, M. (2022). Development of the General Teaching Principles Scale . International Journal of Progressive Education, 18(4), 166-174. doi: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.459.12

Asci, M. (2022). Development of the General Teaching Principles Scale . International Journal of Progressive Education, 18(4), pp. 166-174.

Chicago 16th edition
Asci, Metin (2022). "Development of the General Teaching Principles Scale ". International Journal of Progressive Education 18 (4):166-174. doi:10.29329/ijpe.2022.459.12.

  1. Alpar, R. (2010). Applied Statistics and Validity-Reliability with Examples from Sports, Health and Educational Sciences. Ankara: Detay Publishing [Google Scholar]
  2. Arı, A (2018). Öğretim İlke ve Yöntemleri, Eğitim Yayınevi, [Google Scholar]
  3. Astleitner, H (2005). Principles of Effective Instruction - General Standards for Teachers and Instructional Designers, Journal of Instructional Psychology . Mar2005, Vol. 32 Issue 1, [Google Scholar]
  4. Brown, H, D (2016), Teaching by Principles obtained from on 25.11. 2020. [Google Scholar]
  5. Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2006). Handbook of Data Analysis for Social Sciences. Statistics, Research Design SPSS Applications and Interpretation (6th edition) Ankara: Pegem A publishing. [Google Scholar]
  6. Büyüköztürk, Ş., Kılıç Çakmak, E., Akgün, Ö.E., Karadeniz, Ş., ve Demirel, F., (2013). Scientific Research Methods (14th Edition) Ankara: Pegem Akademi Publishing House [Google Scholar]
  7. Charles, Kursat C, Byung-R L, Joni C ve Thomas M. D (2001) Seven Principles of Effective Teaching: A Practical Lens for Evaluating Online Courses Report No. 13-00. Indiana University Bloomington. Retrieved September 18, 2020 from the World Wide Web: [Google Scholar]
  8. Çokluk, Ö., Şekercioğlu, G., Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2010). Multivariate Statistics for Social Sciences: Applications of SPSS and LISREL. Ankara: Pegem AcademyDemirel. Ö (2012). Öğretim ilke ve yöntemleri öğretme sanatı, Pegem akademi 11th edition [Google Scholar]
  9. Duman, T (2019) Teaching Principles and Methods, Pegem academy 1st edition. [Google Scholar]
  10. Ergün. M ve Özdaş. A (1997) Teaching Principles and Methods, Istanbul [Google Scholar]
  11. Gökalp, M (2016) Teaching Principles and Methods, Pegem academy. 4th edition  [Google Scholar]
  12. Güven,S ve Özerbaş,M,A (2016) Teaching Principles and Methods, Pegem academy, ISBN 978-605-318-271-9  [Google Scholar]
  13. Hayton, J. C., Allen, D. G., & Scarpello, V. (2004). Factor retention decisions in exploratory factor analysis: A tutorial on parallel analysis. Organizational Research Methods, 7(2), 191-205.  [Google Scholar]
  14. Hurley A. E., Scandura, T. A., Schriesheim, C. A., Brannick, M. T., Seers, A., Vanderberg, R. J., & Williams L. J. (1997). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis: Guidelines, issues, and alternatives. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 18, 667-683. [Google Scholar]
  15. Karasar. N (2012). Scientific research method, Ankara: Nobel Publications [Google Scholar]
  16. Kayadibi.F (2001) Importance of Islam to Education and Teaching. Journal of Istanbul University Faculty of Theology Volume 1, Issue 4 [Google Scholar]
  17. Köksal. Ö (2016) Teaching Principles and Methods Methods and Techniques with Contemporary Practices, Education Publishing House, Sep 16, 2016 [Google Scholar]
  18. Laugrhan.J ve Russel. T (1997) Teaching about Teaching :Purpose, Passion and Pedagogy in Teacher Educarion, p: 58-64 Falmer Press Washington DC [Google Scholar]
  19. Perkins, D (2010 ) Making Learning Whole: How Seven Principles of Teaching Can Transform Education John Wiley & Sons, [Google Scholar]
  20. R, M, Gagne W,W. Wager ve C. Golas (2007)  Principles of instructional design, 5th edition [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  21. Schermelleh, K., Moosbrugger, H., Muller, H. (2003). Evaluating the fit of structural equation models: Tests ofsignificance and descriptive goodness-of-fit measures. Methods of Psychological Research Online, 8(2), 23-74 [Google Scholar]
  22. Smittle, P (2003). Principles for Effective Teaching, Journal of Developmental Education, Volume 26, Issue 3, Spring, 2003 [Google Scholar]
  23. Şimşek, H , Yıldırım, A (2011). Qualitative research methods in social sciences, Ankara: Seçkin Yayıncılık [Google Scholar]
  24. Taşpınar, M (2017) Teaching Principles and Methods from Theory to Practice, Data publications [Google Scholar]
  25. Tabachnick, B.G. and Fidell, L.S. (2001) Using Multivariate Statistics. 4th Edition, Allyn and Bacon, Boston [Google Scholar]
  26. Türel,K,Y ve Yıldırım, A (2018) The Effect of Materials Created with the Basic Principles of Teaching on Students' Academic Success and Motivation Trakya Eğitim Dergisi Çilt:8 Issue:3  [Google Scholar]
  27. Yıldızlar, M (2018). Teaching Principles and Methods. Pegem academy, 5th Edition [Google Scholar]
  28. Yılmaz, V., Çelik, H. E., Yağızer, C. (2009). Investigation of the Effects of Environmental Sensitivity and Environmental Behavior on Ecological Product Purchasing Behavior with Structural Equation Model. Anadolu University Journal of Social Sciences, 9(2), 1-14. [Google Scholar]