International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 1554-5210

Original article | International Journal of Progressive Education 2021, Vol. 17(1) 314-324

Development of mathematics motivation scale: A preliminary exploratory study with a focus on secondary school students

Yusuf F. Zakariya & Barattucci Massimiliano

pp. 314 - 324   |  DOI: https://doi.org/10.29329/ijpe.2021.329.20   |  Manu. Number: MANU-2005-14-0006.R1

Published online: February 01, 2021  |   Number of Views: 40  |  Number of Download: 155


Abstract

The motivation for learning mathematics is an essential factor in predicting the performance of secondary school students. Students who are intrinsically or extrinsically motivated to learn mathematics generally demonstrate higher performance than others who are not motivated. However, a properly designed instrument for the measurement of this construct has been sparsely reported in the literature. The present study is carried out to develop an instrument of high psychometric properties for measuring the construct. The study involved 439 students randomly selected across secondary schools using a survey research design. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted to determine the factor structure and distribution of items in each of the mathematics motivation subscales. The factors are extracted using principal component analysis, and the extracted factors are rotated using varimax. The analysis results in a final 24-item mathematics motivation scale, which contained five subscales with around half of the total variance explained of 48.99% explained variance. A high-reliability coefficient was found for the whole instrument with some empirical evidence of construct validity. The concise instrument is recommended for assessing the motivation of secondary school students, and further studies are recommended for its confirmation of factor structures in independent samples.

Keywords: Development of Instrument, Exploratory Factor Analysis, Mathematics, Motivation, Secondary Schools


How to Cite this Article?

APA 6th edition
Zakariya, Y.F. & Massimiliano, B. (2021). Development of mathematics motivation scale: A preliminary exploratory study with a focus on secondary school students . International Journal of Progressive Education, 17(1), 314-324. doi: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.329.20

Harvard
Zakariya, Y. and Massimiliano, B. (2021). Development of mathematics motivation scale: A preliminary exploratory study with a focus on secondary school students . International Journal of Progressive Education, 17(1), pp. 314-324.

Chicago 16th edition
Zakariya, Yusuf F. and Barattucci Massimiliano (2021). "Development of mathematics motivation scale: A preliminary exploratory study with a focus on secondary school students ". International Journal of Progressive Education 17 (1):314-324. doi:10.29329/ijpe.2021.329.20.

References
  1. Abdurrahman, M. S., & Garba, I. M. (2014). The impact of motivation on students’ academic achievement in Kebbi State junior secondary school mathematics. International Journal of Advance Research, 2(12), 1-15.  [Google Scholar]
  2. Adao, R. M., Bueno, M. B., Persia, J. M., & Landicho, L. C. (2015). Academic motivation among college students with math anxiety: Basis for an enhancement program. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, Arts and Sciences, 2(3), 58-62.  [Google Scholar]
  3. Ayub, N. (2010). Effect of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation on academic performance. Pakistan Business Review, 1(1), 363–373.  [Google Scholar]
  4. Barattucci, M. (2019). Predicting learning outcomes in distance learning universities: Perspectives from an integrated model. In B. D. e. al. (Ed.), Higher Education Learning Methodologies and Technologies Online. HELMeTO 2019. Communications in Computer and Information Science (Vol. 1091, pp. 30–40): Springer, Cham. [Google Scholar]
  5. Barattucci, M., & Bocciolesi, E. (2018). Phenomenography in the student learning perspective: A review of studies in academic contexts. Encyclopaideia, 22(50). doi:10.6092/issn.1825-8670/7900 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  6. Barattucci, M., Pagliaro, S., Cafagna, D., & Bosetto, D. (2017). An examination of the applicability of Biggs’ 3P learning process model to Italian university. Journal of e-Learning and Knowledge Society, 13(1). doi:10.20368/1971-8829/1277 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  7. Cokley, K. O., & Helm, K. (2001). Testing the construct validity of scores on the multidimensional inventory of black identity. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 34(2), 80-95. doi:10.1080/07481756.2001.12069025 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  8. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985a). The general causality orientations scale: Self-determination in personality. Journal of Research in Personality, 19(2), 109-134. doi:10.1016/0092-6566(85)90023-6 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  9. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985b). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior: Springer US. [Google Scholar]
  10. Denzine, G., & Brown, R. (2015). Motivation to learn and achievement. In R. Papa (Ed.), Media Rich Instruction: Springer, Cham. [Google Scholar]
  11. Elliot, A. J., & Church, M. A. (1997). A hierarchical model of approach and avoidance achievement motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 72(1), 218-232.  [Google Scholar]
  12. Ersoy, E., & Oksuz, C. (2015). Primary school mathematics motivation scale. European Scientific Journal, 11(16), 37–50.  [Google Scholar]
  13. Field, A. (2018). Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS statistics (5th ed.). London: SAGE Publication Ltd. [Google Scholar]
  14. Jakešová, J., & Hrbáčková, K. (2014). The Czech adaptation of motivated strategies for learning questionnaire (MSLQ) Asian Social Science, 10(12), 72–78. doi:10.5539/ass.v10n12p72  [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  15. Jansen, H. (2010). The logic of qualitative survey research and its position in the field of social research methods. Qualitative Social Research, 11(2), 1-21. doi:10.17169/fqs-11.2.1450 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  16. Karadeniz, S., Büyüköztürk, Ş., Akgün, Ö. E., Çakmak, E. K., & Demirel, F. (2008). The Turkish adaptation study of motivated strategies for learning questionnaire (MSLQ) for 12 – 18 year old children: Results of confirmatory factor analysis 1. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 7(4), 1303–6521.  [Google Scholar]
  17. Keller, J. M. (1987). Development and use of the ARCS model of instructional design. Journal of Instructional Development, 10, 2–10. doi:10.1007/BF02905780 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  18. Kusurkar, R. A., Ten, C. J., Vos, C. M., Westers, P., & Croiset, G. (2013). How motivation affects academic performance: a structural equation modelling analysis. Advances in Health Sciences Education, 18, 57–69. doi:10.1007/s10459-012-9354-3  [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  19. Lee, J. C., Yin, H., & Zhang, Z. (2010). Adaptation and analysis of motivated strategies for learning questionnaire in the Chinese setting. International Journal of Testing, 10(2), 149–165. doi:10.1080/15305050903534670 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  20. Lemos, M. S., & Veríssimo, L. (2014). The relationships between intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and achievement, along elementary school. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 112, 930-938. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.01.1251 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  21. Liu, E. Z. F., & Lin, C. H. (2010). The survey study of mathematics motivated strategies for learning questionnaire (MMSLQ) for grade 10 – 12 Taiwanese. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 9(2), 221–233.  [Google Scholar]
  22. Mercader, J., Presentación, M., Siegenthaler, R., & Molinero, V. (2017). Motivation and mathematics performance: a longitudinal study in early educational stages. Revista de Psicodidáctica (English ed.), 22(2), 1–14. doi:10.1387/RevPsicodidact.16466  [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  23. Murayama, K., Pekrun, R., Lichtenfeld, S., & Vom Hofe, R. (2013). Predicting long-term growth in students' mathematics achievement: the unique contributions of motivation and cognitive strategies. Child Development, 84(4), 1475-1490. doi:10.1111/cdev.12036 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  24. Nausheen, M. (2016). An adaptation of the motivated strategies for learning questionnaire (MSLQ) for postgraduate students in Pakistan: Results of an exploratory factor analysis. Bulletin of Education and Research, 38(1), 1-16.  [Google Scholar]
  25. Pintrich, P. R., & Maehr, M. L. (2002). Advances in motivation and achievement: New directions in measures and methods. Oxford, England: Elsevier Science. [Google Scholar]
  26. Pintrich, P. R., Smith, D. A. F., Duncan, T., & Mckeachie, W. J. (1991). A manual for the use of the motivated strategies for learning questionnaire (MSLQ). Ann Arbor, Michigan: National Center for Research to Improve Postsecondary Teaching and Learning. [Google Scholar]
  27. Sartawi, A., Alsawaie, O. N., Dodeen, H., Tibi, S., & Alghazo, I. M. (2012). Predicting mathematics achievement by motivation and self-efficacy across gender and achievement levels. Interdisciplinary Journal of Teaching and Learning, 2(2), 59–77.  [Google Scholar]
  28. Schunk, D. H., & Mullen, C. A. (2013). Toward a conceptual model of mentoring research: Integration with self-regulated learning. Educational Psychology Review, 25(3), 361–389. doi:10.1007/s10648-013-9233-3 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  29. Singh, K., Granville, M., & Dika, S. (2002). Mathematics and science achievement: Effects of mathematics and science achievement. The Journal of Educational Research, 95(6), 323–332. doi:10.1080/00220670209596607 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  30. Tella, A. (2007). The impact of motivation on student’s academic achievement and learning outcomes in mathematics among secondary school students in Nigeria. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology, 3(2), 149–156. doi:10.12973/ejmste/75390 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  31. Vallerand, R. J., & Bissonnette, R. (1992). Intrinsic, extrinsic, and amotivational styles as predictors of behavior: A prospective study. Journal of Personality, 60(3), 599–620. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6494.1992.tb00922.x [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  32. Vallerand, R. J., Blais, M. R., Brière, N. M., & Pelletier, L. G. (1989). Construction et validation de l'échelle de motivation en éducation (EME) [Construction and validation of the Motivation toward Education Scale]. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue canadienne des sciences du comportement, 21(3), 323-349. doi:10.1037/h0079855 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  33. Vallerand, R. J., Pelletier, L. G., Blais, M. R., Briere, N. M., Senecal, C., & Vallieries, E. F. (1992). The academic motivation scale: a measure of intrinsic, extrinsic, and amotivation in education. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 52(1), 1003–1017. doi:10.1177/0013164492052004025 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  34. Yavuz, G., Ozyildirim, F., & Dogan, N. (2012). Mathematics motivation scale: a validity and reliability. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 46, 1633-1638. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.05.352  [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  35. Zakariya, Y. F. (2017). Development of attitudes towards mathematics scale (ATMS) using Nigerian data – Factor analysis as a determinant of attitude subcategories. International Journal of Progressive Education, 13(2), 74-84.  [Google Scholar]
  36. Zakariya, Y. F. (2019). Study approaches in higher education mathematics: Investigating the statistical behaviour of an instrument translated into Norwegian. Education Sciences, 9(3), 191. doi:10.3390/educsci9030191 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  37. Zakariya, Y. F., Bjørkestøl, K., Nilsen, H. K., Goodchild, S., & Lorås, M. (2020). University students’ learning approaches: an adaptation of the revised two-factor study process questionnaire to Norwegian. Studies in Education Evaluation, 100816. doi:10.1016/j.stueduc.2019.100816 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  38. Zakariya, Y. F., Goodchild, S., Bjørkestøl, K., & Nilsen, H. K. (2019). Calculus self-efficacy inventory: Its development and relationship with approaches to learning. Education Sciences, 9(3), 170. doi:10.3390/educsci9030170 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  39. Zakariya, Y. F., Ibrahim, M. O., & Adisa, L. O. (2016). Impacts of problem-based learning on performance and retention in mathematics among junior secondary school students in Sabon-Gari area of Kaduna state. International Journal for Innovative Research in Multidisciplinary Field, 2(9), 42-47. [Google Scholar]