International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 1554-5210

Original article | International Journal of Progressive Education 2021, Vol. 17(2) 69-82

A Study on the Turkish Adaptation, Validity, and Reliability of Two Versions of Triangular Love Scale

Müzeyyen Soyer & Cem Ali Gizir

pp. 69 - 82   |  DOI:   |  Manu. Number: MANU-2004-28-0001.R1

Published online: April 07, 2021  |   Number of Views: 62  |  Number of Download: 398


This study aims to adapt Sternberg Triangular Love Scale (STLS) and its revised form of Sternberg Triangular Love Scale-Modified (STLS-M) to Turkish, analyze the validity and reliability of the scales, and assess the psychometric equivalence (measurement invariance) of two scales across groups. The study included two sample groups compromising of 408 (284 females, 124 male) university students who were involved in a romantic relationship and 632 (372 females, 260 male) university students who were not involved in a romantic relationship; the students were enrolled in various faculties of a public university in Turkey. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the construct validity of the two scales. The result of the analyses showed that both the STLS and STLS-M constituted three factors that are called “intimacy”, “passion”, and “commitment”. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficients of the factors for the STLS were .91 for intimacy, .88 for passion, and .93 for commitment. The reliability coefficients for the STLS-M were also .88, .83, and .89 respectively. Consequently, the findings of the study exhibited that both the STLS and STLS-M had a similar construct, indicating very good psychometric properties, and met the criteria for measurement invariance.

Keywords: Commitment, Intimacy, Passion, Romantic Relationships, Triangular Love

How to Cite this Article?

APA 6th edition
Soyer, M. & Gizir, C.A. (2021). A Study on the Turkish Adaptation, Validity, and Reliability of Two Versions of Triangular Love Scale . International Journal of Progressive Education, 17(2), 69-82. doi: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.332.5

Soyer, M. and Gizir, C. (2021). A Study on the Turkish Adaptation, Validity, and Reliability of Two Versions of Triangular Love Scale . International Journal of Progressive Education, 17(2), pp. 69-82.

Chicago 16th edition
Soyer, Muzeyyen and Cem Ali Gizir (2021). "A Study on the Turkish Adaptation, Validity, and Reliability of Two Versions of Triangular Love Scale ". International Journal of Progressive Education 17 (2):69-82. doi:10.29329/ijpe.2021.332.5.

  1. Acevedo, B. P., & Aron, A. (2009). Does a long-term relationship kill romantic love? Review of General Psychology, 13(1), 59-65. [Google Scholar]
  2. Acker, M., & Davis, M. H. (1992). Intimacy, passion and commitment in adult romantic relationships: A test of the triangular theory of love. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 9(1), 21-50. [Google Scholar]
  3. Ahmetoğlu, G., Swami, V., & Chamorro-Premuzic, T. (2010). The relationship between dimensions of love, personality and relationship length. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 39, 1181-1190. [Google Scholar]
  4. Ali, F., & Chamorro-Premuzic, T. (2010). The dark side of love and life satisfaction: Associations with intimate relationships, psychopathy and Machiavellianism. Personality and Individual Differences, 48, 228-233. [Google Scholar]
  5. Andrade, A. L., Wachelkeb, J. F. R., & Howat-Rodrigues, A. B. C. (2015). Relationship satisfaction in young adults: Gender and love dimensions. An International Journal on Personal Relationships, 9(1), 19-3. [Google Scholar]
  6. Bajoghli, H., Keshavarzi, Z., Mohammadi, M. R., Schmidt, N. B., Norton, P. J., Holsboer-Trachsler, E., & Brand, S. (2014). “I love you more than I can stand!” Romantic love, symptoms of depression and anxiety, and sleep complaints are related among young adults. International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice, 18, 169-174. [Google Scholar]
  7. Batinic, B., Milosavljevic, M., & Barisic, J. (2016). The influence of attachment styles on romantic love. European Psychiatry, 33, 642-642. [Google Scholar]
  8. Bejanyan, B., Marshall, T. C., & Ferenczi, N. (2015). Associations of collectivism with relationship commitment, passion, and mate preferences: Opposing roles of parental influence and family allocentrism. Plos One, 10(2), 1-24. [Google Scholar]
  9. Berscheid, E. (1999). The greening of relationship science. American Psychologist, 54(4), 260-266. [Google Scholar]
  10. Berscheid, E., Snyder, M., & Omoto, A. M. (1989). The relationship closeness inventory: Assessing the closeness of interpersonal relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57(5), 792-807. [Google Scholar]
  11. Brown, T. A. (2006). Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research. New York: Guilford [Google Scholar]
  12. Buss, D. M. (1988). The evolution of human intrasexual competition: Tactics of mate attraction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(4), 616-628. [Google Scholar]
  13. Cassepp-Borges, V., & Teodoro, M. L. M. (2007). Propriedades psicométricas da versão brasileira da escala triangular do amor de Sternberg. Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica, 20(3), 513-522.  [Google Scholar]
  14. Chickering, A. W., & Reiser, L. (1993). Education and identity. San Francisco: JosseyBass Publishers. [Google Scholar]
  15. Crevier, M. G., Poulin, F., & Boislard, P. (2012). Continuite´ entre les relations parentales et amicales a` l’adolescence et les relations amoureuses a` l’aˆge adulte e´mergent. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 44(3), 222-230. [Google Scholar]
  16. Diener, E., & Lucas, R.  (2000). Explaining differences in societal levels of happiness: Relative standards, need fulfillment, culture, and evaluation theory. Journal of Happiness Studies, 1, 41-78. [Google Scholar]
  17. Dietch, J. (1978). Love, sex roles and psychological health. Journal of Personality Assessment, 42(6), 626-634. [Google Scholar]
  18. Drahanovic, S., & Hasanagic, A. (2014). Exploring the difference between Turkish and Bosnian students in Triangular Love Scale. Epiphany Journal of Transdisciplinary Studies, 7(2), 128-141. [Google Scholar]
  19. Engel, G., Olson, K. R., & Patrick, C. (2002). The personality of love: Fundamental motives and traits related to components of love. Personality and Individual Differences, 32(5), 839-853. [Google Scholar]
  20. Erikson, E. H. (1968). Identity: Youth and crisis.  New York: W. W. Norton Company. [Google Scholar]
  21. Furman, W. (2002). The emerging field of adolescent romantic relationships. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11, 177-180. [Google Scholar]
  22. Galinha, I. C., Oishi, S., Pereira, C. R., Wirtz, D., & Francisco, E. (2014). Adult attachment, love styles, relationship experiences and subjective well-being: Cross-cultural and gender comparison between americans, portuguese and mozambicans. Social Indicators Research, 119, 823-852. [Google Scholar]
  23. Galinha, I. C., Oishi, S., Pereira, C. R., Wirtz, D., & Esteves, F. (2014). Adult attachment, love styles, relationship experiences and subjective well-being: Cross-cultural and gender comparison between Americans, Portuguese and Mozambicans. Social Indicators Research, 119, 823-852. [Google Scholar]
  24. Gao, G. (2001). Intimacy, passion, and commitment in Chinese and US American romantic relationships. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 25, 329-342. [Google Scholar]
  25. Ha, T., Overbeek, G., Greef, M., Scholte, R. H. J., & Engels, R. C. M. E. (2010). The importance of relationships with parents and best friends for adolescents’ romantic relationship quality: Differences between indigenous and ethnic Dutch adolescents. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 34(2), 121-127. [Google Scholar]
  26. Hatfield, E. (1988). Passionate and companionate love. In R. J. Sternberg, & M. L. Barnes (Eds.). The Psychology of love (pp. 191-217). New Haven: Yale Press. [Google Scholar]
  27. Hatfield, E., & Rapson R. (1996). Love and sex, cross-cultural perspectives. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. [Google Scholar]
  28. Hendrick, C., & Hendrick, S. (1986). A theory and method of love. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 392-402. [Google Scholar]
  29. Hendrick, S. S., Hendrick, C., & Adler, N. L. (1988). Romantic relationships: Love, satisfaction and staying together. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 980-988. [Google Scholar]
  30. Kim, J., & Hatfield E. (2004). Love types and subjective well-being: A cross- cultural study. Social Behavior and Personality, 32(2), 173-182. [Google Scholar]
  31. Kline, R. B. (2016). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (4th ed.). New York: Guilford Press. [Google Scholar]
  32. Lange, R., Houran, J., & Li, S. (2015). Dyadic relationship values in Chinese online daters: Love American style? Sexuality and Culture, 19, 190-215. [Google Scholar]
  33. Lee, J. A. (1973). The colors of love: An exploration of the ways of loving. Don Mills, Ontario, Canada: New Press. [Google Scholar]
  34. Leeker, O., & Carlozzi, A. (2014). Effects of sex, sexual orientation, infidelity expectations, and love on distress related to emotional and sexual infidelity. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 40(1), 68-91. [Google Scholar]
  35. Lemieux, R., & Hale, J. L. (1999). Intimacy, passion and commitment in young romantic relationships: Successfully measuring the Triangular Theory of Love. Psychological Reports, 85, 497-503. [Google Scholar]
  36. Levy, M. B., & Davis, K. E. (1988). Love styles and attachment styles compared: Their relations to each other and to various relationship characteristics. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 5, 439-471. [Google Scholar]
  37. Madey, S. F., & Rodgers, L. (2009). The effect of attachment and Sternberg’s Triangular Theory of love on relationship satisfaction. Individual Differences Research, 7(2), 76-84.  [Google Scholar]
  38. Mamali, C. (2014). A vectorial construct of love and hate and Sternberg's triangular model: Towards an integrated model of love and hate. International Journal of Psychology, 39(5), 16-32. [Google Scholar]
  39. Mansoobifar, M., Mujembar, A. K., & Keybollahi, T. (2012). The correlation between identity status and loving elements (intimacy, commitment, passion). Social and Behavioral Sciences, 46, 1167-1170. [Google Scholar]
  40. Masaryk, R. (2012). Conceptualızıng love: Is it all we need? Human Affairs, 22, 263-269. [Google Scholar]
  41. Munck, V. C., Korotayev, A., & Khaltourina, D. (2009). A comparative study of the structure of love in the U.S. and Russia: Finding a common core of characteristics and national and gender differences. Ethnology, 48, 337-357. [Google Scholar]
  42. Mosher, C., & Danoff-Burg, S. (2007). College students' life priorities: The influence of gender and gender- linked personality traits. Gender Issues, 24, 21-33. [Google Scholar]
  43. Myers, J. E., & Shurts, W. M. (2002). Measuring positive emotionality: A review of instruments assessing love. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 34, 238-254. [Google Scholar]
  44. Nábělková, E., & Balážová, N. (2015). Autentıcıta v partnerskom vzťahu mladých dospelých – korelačná štúdıa. Československá Psychologie, 1, 81-95. [Google Scholar]
  45. Overbeek, G., Ha, T., Scholte, R., Kemp, R., & Engels, R. C. M. E. (2007). Brief report: Intimacy, passion and commitment in romantic relationships: Validation of a ‘triangular love scale’ for adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 30, 523-528. [Google Scholar]
  46. Pielage, S. B., Luteijn, F., & Arrindell, W. A. (2005). Adult attachment, intimacy and psychological distress in a clinical and community sample. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 12, 455-464.  [Google Scholar]
  47. Reis, H. T., & Aron, A. (2008). Love what is it, why does it matter, and how does it operate? Perspectives on Psychological Science, 3(1), 80-86. [Google Scholar]
  48. Rizzon, A. L. C., Mosmann, C. P., & Wagner, A. (2013). A qualidade conjugal e os elementos do amor: Um estudo correlacional. Contextos Clínicos, 6(1), 41-49. [Google Scholar]
  49. Rubin, Z. (1970). Measurement of romantic love. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 16(2), 265-273. [Google Scholar]
  50. Sanderson, B., & Kurdek, L. A. (1993). Race and gender as moderator variables in predicting relationship satisfaction and relationship commitment in a sample of dating heterosexual couples. Family Relations, 42, 263-267. [Google Scholar]
  51. Schumacker, R. E., & Lomax, R. G. (2010). A beginner’s guide to structural equation modeling (3rd Ed.). New York: Routledge. [Google Scholar]
  52. Soloski, K. L., Pavkov, T. W., Kathryn, S. A., & Wetchler, J. L. (2013). The social construction of love through intergenerational processes. Contemporary Family Therapy, 35, 773-792. [Google Scholar]
  53. Sprecher, S. (2001). Equity and social exchange in dating couples: Associations with satisfaction, commitment and stability. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 63, 599–613. [Google Scholar]
  54. Sprecher, S., Aron, A., Hatfield, E., Cortese, A., Potapova, E., & Levitskaya, A. (1994). Love: American style, Russian style and Japanese style. Personal Relationships, 1, 349-369. [Google Scholar]
  55. Sternberg, R. J. (1986). A triangular theory of love. Psychological Review, 93(2), 119-135. [Google Scholar]
  56. Sternberg, R. J. (1997). Construct validation of a triangular love scale. European Journal of Social Psychology, 27, 313-335. [Google Scholar]
  57. Sumter, S. R., Valkenburg, P. M., & Peter, J. (2013). Perceptions of love across the lifespan: Differences in passion, intimacy and commitment. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 37(5), 417-427. [Google Scholar]
  58. Sümer, N. (2000). Yapısal eşitlik modelleri: Temel kavramlar ve örnek uygulamalar. Türk Psikoloji Yazıları, 3(6), 49-74. [Google Scholar]
  59. Swami, V., & Allum, L. (2012). Perceptions of the physical attractiveness of the self, current romantic- partners, and former partners. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 53, 89-95. [Google Scholar]
  60. Tabachnick, B., & Fidell, L. (2013). Using Multivariate Statistics. Boston, MA: Pearson Education Inc. [Google Scholar]
  61. Tang, S., & Zuo, J. (2000). Dating attitudes and behaviors of American and Chinese college students. The Social Science Journal, 3(1), 67-78. [Google Scholar]
  62. Torqabeh, M. H., Abadi, A. F., & Haqshenas, H. (2006). Relations between love styles and marital satisfaction. Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, 16(54), 99-109. [Google Scholar]
  63. White, J. K., Hendrick, S. S., & Hendrick, C. (2004). Big five personality variables and relationship constructs. Personality and Individual Differences, 37(7), 1519-1530. [Google Scholar]
  64. Whitley, B. E. (1993). Reliability and aspects of the construct validity of Sternberg's Triangular Love Scale. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 10(3), 475-480. [Google Scholar]
  65. Yela, C. (2006). The evaluation of love simplified version of the scales for Yela’s tetrangular model based on Sternberg’s model. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 22(1), 21-27. [Google Scholar]