International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 1554-5210

Original article | International Journal of Progressive Education 2022, Vol. 18(2) 341-367

Attitudes and Opinions of Vocational and Technical Anatolian High School Teachers on Distance Education: A Mixed Method Research

Tanju Demir, Çiğdem Ayanoğlu & Ömer Faruk Vural

pp. 341 - 367   |  DOI: https://doi.org/10.29329/ijpe.2022.431.22   |  Manu. Number: MANU-2110-30-0001.R3

Published online: April 03, 2022  |   Number of Views: 32  |  Number of Download: 57


Abstract

This study aimed to determine the attitude levels of Vocational and Technical Anatolian High School teachers towards distance education and these levels in terms of various variables (gender, education status, or profession). This study, it was aimed to determine whether there was a difference between the status of being a culture teacher and professional seniority. The research is carried out with the explanatory sequential design approach, one of the mixed-method research designs that consist of teachers working in Vocational and Technical Anatolian High Schools in Sakarya in the 2020-2021 academic year. Quantitative data of the study were collected from 244 teachers. They were determined by a purposive sampling method, and qualitative data were collected from 43 teachers and is determined by the convenient sampling method. A sufficient number of samples were selected from the existing sample due to the rapid and easy accessibility of the teachers from whom quantitative data were collected. Quantitative data were obtained with the "Personal Information Form" created by the researchers to determine the demographic characteristics of the teachers, and the Distance Education Attitude Scale, developed by Ağır (2007) to determine distance education attitudes. In acquiring qualitative data, a semi-structured interview form consisting of open-ended questions prepared by the researchers was used. In the first part of the interview form, there are questions about the demographic information of the teachers participating in the research. In the second part, there are seven questions prepared by the researchers to determine the opinions of the teachers about distance education based on the results obtained from the quantitative data and the literature review on distance education. The researchers collected the data through Google Forms, created from the questions in the scale and interview forms. In the analysis of the quantitative data obtained, descriptive statistics, Shapiro-Wilk normality test, t-test, and one-way ANOVA test were used. Qualitative data were analyzed with descriptive analysis methods within the framework of the themes determined by evaluating the advantages and limitations of distance education sub-dimensions. It has been tried to reach the possible reasons underlying the quantitative results with the qualitative data obtained. As a result of the research, it has been determined that teachers disagree with the view that distance education has advantages. They believe that distance education has limitations, and their attitude levels towards distance education are below the medium level. In the study, the reasons for the teachers' attitude levels towards distance education below the medium level were evaluated by evaluating the advantages and limitations of distance education and the sub-dimensions of "student academic success," "efficiency of education," "positive and negative aspects compared to face-to-face education," "difficulties encountered," and "opportunity ."In this study, it has been tried to be revealed with the opinions of teachers within the framework of the themes of "whether it provides equality," "teacher and student motivation," and "recommendations for effective distance education."

Keywords: Distance Education, Vocational and Technical Education, Attitude


How to Cite this Article?

APA 6th edition
Demir, T., Ayanoglu, C. & Vural, O.F. (2022). Attitudes and Opinions of Vocational and Technical Anatolian High School Teachers on Distance Education: A Mixed Method Research . International Journal of Progressive Education, 18(2), 341-367. doi: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.431.22

Harvard
Demir, T., Ayanoglu, C. and Vural, O. (2022). Attitudes and Opinions of Vocational and Technical Anatolian High School Teachers on Distance Education: A Mixed Method Research . International Journal of Progressive Education, 18(2), pp. 341-367.

Chicago 16th edition
Demir, Tanju, Cigdem Ayanoglu and Omer Faruk Vural (2022). "Attitudes and Opinions of Vocational and Technical Anatolian High School Teachers on Distance Education: A Mixed Method Research ". International Journal of Progressive Education 18 (2):341-367. doi:10.29329/ijpe.2022.431.22.

References
  1. Ağır, F. (2007). Özel okullarda ve devlet okullarında çalışan ilköğretim öğretmenlerinin uzaktan eğitime karşı tutumlarının belirlenmesi [Determining the teachers' attitudes towards distance education in public primary school and private primary school] (Master’s Thesis). Accessed from COHE Thesis Center database (Thesis No: 177901). [Google Scholar]
  2. Ağır, F., Gür, H. & Okçu, A. (2008, Mayıs). Determining the attitudes of primary school teachers working in private and public schools towards distance education.].  The 8th International Educational Technology Conference. Girne, KKTC. http://www.iet-c.net/publication_folder/ietc/ietc2008.pdf [Google Scholar]
  3. Akpınar, Y. (2004). teachers’ approaches to some educational technology related factors affecting learning. The Turkish Journal Online of Educational Tecnology, 3(15). http://www.tojet.net/articles/v3i3/3315.pdf [Google Scholar]
  4. Aktaş, M. (2013). Fen ve teknoloji dersinde web tabanlı uzaktan eğitimin öğrencilerin akademik başarı ve tutumları üzerindeki etkisi [The effect of web-based distance education on academic success and attitudes of students in science and technology lesson](Master’s Thesis). Accessed from COHE Thesis Center database (Thesis No. 345326). [Google Scholar]
  5. Aldemir, B. (2020). Uzaktan eğitimde keman eğitiminin uygulanabilirliğine yönelik öğretim elemanı ve öğrenci görüşleri (Gazi Üniversitesi örneği)[ Lecturers and students opinions about the applicability of violin training in distance education (Example of Gazi Universty) ] (Master’s Thesis). Accessed from COHE Thesis Center database (Thesis No. 638108). [Google Scholar]
  6. Alea, L. A., Fabrea, M. F., Roldan, R. D. A., & Farooqi, A. Z. (2020). Teachers’ Covid-19 awareness, distance learning education experiences and perceptions towards institutional readiness and challenges. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, 19(6), 127-144. https://doi.org/10.26803/ijlter.19.6.8  [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  7. Altıparmak, M., Dürdane Kurt, İ. & Kapıdere, M. (2011, February). Open source learning management systems in e-learning and distance education. Academic Informatics’11 - XIII. Academic Informatics Conference. Malatya. www.ab.org.tr/ab11/bildiri/129.doc [Google Scholar]
  8. Aras, E. (2019). Spor eğitimi kurumlarında görev yapan akademik personel ve spor eğitimi gören öğrencilerin uzaktan eğitime yönelik görüşlerinin incelenmesi [Analysing ideas at distance education of the students who study education of sport and work for academic staff at the sport education institutions](Master’s Thesis). Accessed from COHE Thesis Center database (Thesis No. 536628). [Google Scholar]
  9. Ateş, A. & Altun, E. (2008). The problems and future concerns of computer and instructional technologies preservice teachers, Gazi University Journal of Gazi Education Faculty, 28(3), 125-145. http://www.gefad.gazi.edu.tr/en/download/article-file/77108  [Google Scholar]
  10. Baek, Y., Zhang, H. & Yun, S. (2017). Teachers’ attitudes toward mobile learning in Korea . The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 16(1), 154-163. http://www.tojet.net/articles/v16i1/16114.pdf [Google Scholar]
  11. Bakioğlu, A. & Can, E. (2014). Uzaktan eğitimde kalite ve akreditasyon. Vize. [Google Scholar]
  12. Bates, A.W. T. (2005). Technology, E-learning and Distance Education. Routledge. [Google Scholar]
  13. Baumgartner, H., & Homburg, C. (1996). Applications of structural equation modeling in marketing and consumer research: A review. International journal of Research in Marketing, 13(2), 139-161. https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-8116(95)00038-0 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  14. Bayram, H. (2021). Challenges secondary school teachers face during the distance education process, International Journal of Eurasian Education and Culture, 6(12), 613-658. http://dx.doi.org/10.35826/ijoecc.306 [Google Scholar]
  15. Begimbetova, K. (2015). Uzaktan eğitimde öğretim elemanı ve öğrencilerin memnuniyet düzeyi [Satisfactory level of teachers and students in distance learning] (Master’s Thesis). Accessed from COHE Thesis Center database (Thesis No. 392807).  [Google Scholar]
  16. Bertiz, Y. (2018). Farklı bilişsel esneklik düzeyine sahip öğrencilerin uzaktan eğitime karşı motivasyon düzeylerinin incelenmesi [Assessment of motivation factors against distance education of students with different levels of cognitive flexibility ] (Master’s Thesis). Accessed from COHE Thesis Center database (Thesis No. 532709). [Google Scholar]
  17. Bolliger, D. U. & Wasilik, O. (2009). Factors influencing faculty satisfaction with online teaching and learning in higher education. Distance Education, 30(1), 103-116. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01587910902845949. [Google Scholar]
  18. Bursa Provincial Directorate of National Education. (2015). Meslek ve Teknik Anadolu Liseleri tanıtım, temel eğitim sonrası kariyer danışmanlığı projesi bülteni. https://bursa.meb.gov.tr/meb_iys_dosyalar/2015_11/11031653_modl_1_teog_kilavuzu_ktap.pdf [Google Scholar]
  19. Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2016). Veri analizi el kitabı. Pegem Akademi. [Google Scholar]
  20. Büyüköztürk, Ş., Akgün, Ö. E., Karadeniz, Ş., Demirel, F. & Kılıç, E. (2020). Bilimsel araştırma yöntemleri. Pegem Akademi. [Google Scholar]
  21. Cabı, E. (2018). Teaching Computer Literacy via Distance Education: Experiences of the Instructors. Başkent University Journal of Education, 5(1), 61-68. http://buje.baskent.edu.tr/index.php/buje/article/view/93 [Google Scholar]
  22. Çağıltay, K. (2001). Distance education: Is the road to success in technology or pedagogy? https://www.researchgate.net/publication/303405141_Uzaktan_Egitim_Basariya_Giden_Yol_Teknolojide_mi_Yoksa_Pedagojide_mi [Google Scholar]
  23. Çerezci, E.T. (2010). Yapısal eşitlik modelleri ve kullanılan uyum iyiliği indekslerinin karşılaştırılması [Structural equation model and comparisons of model fit indexes] (PhD Thesis). Accessed from COHE Thesis Center database (Thesis No. 268916). [Google Scholar]
  24. Çetiner, M. H., Gencel, Ç. & Erten Y. M. (1999, November). Internet-based distance education and multimedia applications. V. Internet Conference in Turkey. Ankara. http://inet-tr.org.tr/inetconf5 [Google Scholar]
  25. Check, J. & Schutt, R. K. (2012). Research methods in education. Sage. [Google Scholar]
  26. Çoban, Ö. (2018). Fatih Projesi eğitimlerinin eğitime yansımaları MEB General Directorate of Innovation and Educational Technologies. https://yegitek.meb.gov.tr/meb_iys_dosyalar/2018_11/06102845_YmYr_Yoban.pdf [Google Scholar]
  27. Creswell, J. W. & Plano Clark, V. L. (2015). Karma yöntem araştırmaları: Tasarımı ve yürütülmesi (Y. Dede & S. B. Demir, Çev. Ed.). Ankara: Anı Yayıncılık. [Google Scholar]
  28. Demirkan, Ö., Bayra, E. & Baysan, E. (2016). The effects of attandances of the students who enrolled in distance education courses on their final scores (Afyon Kocatepe University Sample). Turkish Journal of Social Research, 20(1), 47-75. [Google Scholar]
  29. Doğan, Y. (2020). Turkish university students’ views on distance online foreign language learning. The Journal of Turkish Education Sciences, 18(1), 483-504. [Google Scholar]
  30. Dündar, S., Candemir, Ö., Demiray, E., Genç Kumtepe, E., Öztürk, S., Sağlık Terlemez, M. & Ulutak, İ. (2017). Attitudes of Anadolu University employees towards open and distance education. Açıköğretim Uygulamaları ve Araştırmaları Dergisi, 3(4), 187-227. https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/auad/issue/34247/378495 [Google Scholar]
  31. Ekşioğlu, S. & Taşpınar, M. (2014). Evaluation of modular education program implementation in vocational and technical high schools, International Journal of Human Sciences, 11(2), 1203–1223. http://doi.org/10.14687/ijhs.v11i2.3095 [Google Scholar]
  32. Enfiyeci, T. (2019). The relationship between graduate students' feeling, motivation and academic achievement in international environments (Ahmet Yesevi University case) (Master’s Thesis). Accessed from COHE Thesis Center database (Thesis No. 546255). [Google Scholar]
  33. Er Türküresin, H. (2020). Examınatıon of dıstance education practices conducted during the covid-19 pandemic regarding the views of preservice teachers. Milli Eğitim Dergisi, Salgın Sürecinde Türkiye'de ve Dünyada Eğitim, 597-618. https://doi.org/10.37669/milliegitim.787509 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  34. Ergin C. (2010). İköğretim öğretmenlerinin uzaktan eğitime bakış açıları (Van il örneği) [Perspectives of primary teachers on distance education] (Master’s Thesis). Accessed from COHE Thesis Center database (Thesis No. 257304).  [Google Scholar]
  35. Eygü, H. & Karaman, S. (2015). A study on the satisfaction perceptions of the distance education students. Kırıkkale University Journal of Social Sciences 3(1), 36-59. https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/kusbd/issue/19375/205547 [Google Scholar]
  36. Gök B. (2011). Uzaktan eğitimde görev alan öğretim elemanlarının uzaktan eğitim algısı [Perceptions of faculty percieve the current status of distance education] (Master’s Thesis). Accessed from COHE Thesis Center database (Thesis No. 285483).  [Google Scholar]
  37. Gülnar, B. (2008). Design, development and evaluation stages of computer and internet supported distance education programs (SUZEP Example). The Journal of Institute of Social Sciences, (19), 259-271. http://dergisosyalbil.selcuk.edu.tr/susbed/article/view/416/398. [Google Scholar]
  38. Gürkan, F. (2017). Açık ve uzaktan eğitimde öğrenim gören öğrencilerin mobil öğrenmeye yönelik tutumlarının incelenmesi [Examining of the attitudes of students who are in open and distance education towards mobile learning] (Master’s Thesis). Accessed from COHE Thesis Center database (Thesis No. 490642). [Google Scholar]
  39. Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R., L., & Black, W. C. (1998). Multivariate data analysis (Fifth edition). Prentice-Hall. [Google Scholar]
  40. Hakkari, F. (2018). Vocational high school students' views towards distance education courses. Journal of Social and Humanities Sciences Research-SHSR Journal, 5(23), 1140-1151. [Google Scholar]
  41. Horzum, M. (2003). Öğretim elemanlarının internet destekli eğitime yönelik düşünceleri (Sakarya Üniversitesi örneği) [Ideas of lectures about internet based education (Sakarya University Examples)] (Master’s Thesis). Accessed from COHE Thesis Center database (Thesis No. 136842). [Google Scholar]
  42. Horzum, M., Albayrak, E. & Ayvaz, A. (2012). Elementary classroom teachers’ beliefs on in-service training via distance education. Ege Journal of Education, 13(1), 55-72. https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/egeefd/issue/4904/67214  [Google Scholar]
  43. Hrastinski, S. (2009). A theory of online learning as online participation. Computers & Education, 52, 78-82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2008.06.009 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  44. Hu, L. T. & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1-55. https://doi.org/10.1080/10705519909540118 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  45. İşman, A. (2011). Uzaktan eğitim. Pegem Akademi. [Google Scholar]
  46. Kan, A. Ü. & Fidan, E. K. (2016). Student perceptions of distance education on Turkish language courses. Turkish Journal of Educational Studies, 3(2), 23-44. https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/download/article-file/403106 [Google Scholar]
  47. Karakuş, N., Ucuzsatar, N., Karacaoğlu, M. Ö., Esendemir, N. & Bayraktar, D. (2020). Turkish teacher candidates’ views on distance education. RumeliDE Journal of Language and Literature Studies, (19), 220-241. https://doi.org/10.29000/rumelide.752297 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  48. Kaya F. (2020). Student's opinions on the delivery of Ataturk's Principles and History of Turkish Revolution in higher education (example of Kastamonu University) (Master’s Thesis). Accessed from COHE Thesis Center database (Thesis No. 646698). [Google Scholar]
  49. Kim, H-Y. (2013). Statistical notes for clinical researchers: Assessing normal distribution (2) using skewness and kurtosis. Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, 38, 52–54. https://doi.org/10.5395/rde.2013.38.1.52 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  50. Kırmacı, Ö. & Acar, S. (2018). The problems of campus students in simultaneous online distance education. Journal of Theory and Practice in Education, 14(3), 276-291. https://doi.org/10.17244/eku.378138 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  51. Kline, R. B. (2011). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (3rd ed.). Guilford. [Google Scholar]
  52. Kocayiğit, A. & Uşun, S. (2020). Attitudes of teachers working in schools affiliated to ministry of national education towards distance education (example of Burdur province). International Journal of Eurasian Research, 8(23), 285-299. https://doi.org/10.33692/avrasyad.662503  [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  53. Kuşkonmaz, H. (2011). İlköğretim okullarındaki öğretmenlerin mobil öğrenmeye yönelik algı düzeylerinin belirlenmesi [Determining teacher’s perception of mobile learning at secondary schools] (Master’s Thesis). Accessed from COHE Thesis Center database (Thesis No. 292792). [Google Scholar]
  54. Leney, T. & Green, A. (2002). Achieving the Lisbon goal: The contribution of & T. European Journal of Education, 40(3), 261-278. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1465-3435.2005.00225.x [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  55. Li, F., Zhou, M. & Fan, B. (2014). Can distance education increase educational equality? Evidence from the expansion of Chinese higher education. Studies in Higher Education, 39(10), 1811-1822. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2013.806462 [Google Scholar]
  56. Luo, N., Zhang, M. & Qi, D. (2017). Effects of different interactions on students' sense of community in e-learning environment. Computers & Education, 115, 153-160. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2017.08.006 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  57. Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). An expanded sourcebook qualitative data analysis. Sage. [Google Scholar]
  58. Ministry of Education (2013). Millî Eğitim Bakanlığı Ortaöğretim Kurumları Yönetmeliği. https://www.mevzuat.gov.tr/mevzuat?MevzuatNo=18812&MevzuatTur=7&MevzuatTertip=5 [Google Scholar]
  59. Ministry of Education. (2005). Mesleki ve teknik eğitimin tarihçesi. MEB Devlet Kitapları Müdürlüğü. [Google Scholar]
  60. Moçoşoğlu, B. & Kaya, A. (2020). Investigation of teachers' attitudes towards distance education applied due to coronavirus disease (Covid-19). Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University Journal of Education, 2(1), 15-43. https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/ksued/issue/59531/800151 [Google Scholar]
  61. Moore, M. (1973) Toward a theory of independent learning and teaching, journal of higher education, 44, 661-679. https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/1980599.pdf?refreqid=excelsior%3A6915bc2dbde8cba457c007c1b3016dee [Google Scholar]
  62. Moore, M. G. & Kearsley, G. (2011). Distance education: A systems view. Publishing Company. [Google Scholar]
  63. Morante, A., Djenidi, V., Clark, H. & West, S. (2017). Gender Differences in Online Participation: Examining a History and a Mathematics Open Foundation Online Course. Australian Journal of Adult Learning, 57(2), 266-293. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1148628.pdf [Google Scholar]
  64. Niekerk, J. V. & Webb, P. (2016). The effectiveness of brain-compatible blended learning material in the teaching of programming logic. Computer & Education, 103, 16-27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2016.09.008 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  65. Özdamar, K. (2013). Paket programları ile istatiksel veri analizi. Nisan.  [Google Scholar]
  66. Özer B. (2011). Evaluation of distance education programs in terms of students and teaching staff views (Master’s Thesis). Accessed from COHE Thesis Center database (Thesis No. 304286). [Google Scholar]
  67. Patton, M. Q. (2005). Qualitative Research. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [Google Scholar]
  68. Petretto, D. R., Masala, I. & Masala, C. (2020). Special educational needs, distance learning, inclusion and COVID-19. Education Sciences, 10(6), 154. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10060154 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  69. Pınar, M. A. & Akgül, D. G. (2020). The Opinions of Secondary School Students About Giving Science Courses with Distance Education During the Covid-19, Pandemic. Journal of Current Researches on Social Sciences, 10(2), 461-486. http://www.jocress.com/DergiTamDetay.aspx?ID=377 [Google Scholar]
  70. Sayan, H. (2020). Assessment of faculty members' views on distance education during the Covid-19 pandemic process. AJIT-e: academic journal of information technology, 11(42), 100-122. https://doi.org/10.5824/ajite.2020.03.004.x [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  71. Sığın, S. (2020). Atatürk ilkeleri ve inkılap tarihi dersinin uzaktan eğitim yoluyla verilmesi konusunda öğrenciler ve öğretim elemanları ne düşünüyor? Tek durumlu bir örnek olay çalışması [What do teachers and learners think about distance education of the course of principles of Atatürk and history of Turkish revolution: A single case study] (Master’s Thesis). Accessed from COHE Thesis Center database (Thesis No. 612422). [Google Scholar]
  72. Şimşek, A., İskenderoğlu, T. & İskenderoğlu, M. (2010). Investigating preservice computer teachers’ attitudes towards distance education. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 9, 324–328. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.12.158 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  73. Smidt, E., Bunk J., McGrory B., Li, R. & Gatenby, T. (2014). Student Attitudes about Distance Education: Focusing on Context and Effective Practices. The IAFOR Journal of Education, 2(1), 40-64. https://digitalcommons.wcupa.edu/langcult_facpub/9/ [Google Scholar]
  74. Süer, İ., Kaya, Z., Bülbül, H. İ., Karaçanta, H., Koç, Z. & Çetin, Ş. (2005). Distance education potential of Gazi University. The Turkish Online Journal Of Educational Technology. 4(1), 107-113. http://www.tojet.net/articles/v4i1/4114.pdf [Google Scholar]
  75. Tashakkori, A., & Creswell, J.W. (2007). The new era of mixed methods. Journal of Mixed Methods. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 1(1), 3-7. https://doi.org/ 10.1177/2345678906293042.  [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  76. Tekin, O. (2007). Uzaktan eğitim yöntemi ile verilen hizmet-içi eğitim programinin öğretmenlerin öz-yeterlik algilari ve tutumlarina etkisi – Muğla ili örneğinde [The effect of in service education programme by given distance learning on teachers self efficiency and attitudes skills Muğla province example] (Master’s Thesis). Accessed from COHE Thesis Center database (Thesis No. 214292). [Google Scholar]
  77. Thode, H. C. (2002). Testing for normality. Marcel Dekker. [Google Scholar]
  78. Tunalı, S. B., Gözü, Ö. & Özen, G. (2016). Using a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods “mixed research method”. Online Journal of the Faculty of Communication Sciences. 24(2), 106-112. https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/download/article-file/1505567 [Google Scholar]
  79. Tuncer, M. & Bahadır, F. (2017). Evaluation of the distance education programs according to student views that learned in these programs. Journal of Educational Reflections, 1(2), 29-38. https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/download/article-file/403469 [Google Scholar]
  80. Ülkü, S. (2018). İlkokullarda görev yapan öğretmenlerin uzaktan eğitime yönelik tutumları [Attitudes of teachers working in primary schools towards distance education] (Master’s Thesis). Accessed from COHE Thesis Center database (Thesis No. 502435).  [Google Scholar]
  81. Uslusoy, B. (2017). Uzaktan eğitime yönelik öğrenci tutumları üzerine karşılaştırmalı bir çalışma: ABD/ Türkiye örneği [A comparative study of higher education students' attitude towards distance learning: Turkey and United States cases] (Master’s Thesis). Accessed from COHE Thesis Center database (Thesis No. 453008). [Google Scholar]
  82. World Health Organization, (2020). WHO Director-General’s opening remarks at the media briefing on COVID-19. https://www.who.int/dg/speeches/detail/who-director-general-s-opening-remarks-at-the-media-briefing-on-covid-19---11-March-2020 [Google Scholar]
  83. Yalçınkaya, S. (2006). Web tabanlı uzaktan eğitim sistemi ve Çukurova Üniversitesi öğretim elemanlarının yatkınlıkları [WEB based distance learning system and distance learning familiarities among members of the Çukurova University] (Master’s Thesis). Accessed from COHE Thesis Center database (Thesis No. 206679). [Google Scholar]
  84. Yavuz, R. (2016). Eğitim fakültesi 1. sınıf öğrencilerinin uzaktan eğitime ilişkin tutumları ile İngilizce dersine ilişkin tutumları arasındaki ilişki [The relationship between education faculty freshmen students' attitudes towards distance education and towards English course] (Master’s Thesis). Accessed from COHE Thesis Center database (Thesis No. 446048). [Google Scholar]
  85. Yekta, M. (2004). Çoklu Ortam Araçları Kullanılmış Web Tabanlı Uzaktan Mesleki Teknik Eğitimin Geleneksel Mesleki Teknik Eğitime Göre Öğrenci Başarısına Etkisi [Effect of multimedia tool supported web based distance vocational technical education on students success compared to traditional vocational technical education] (Master’s Thesis). Accessed from COHE Thesis Center database (Thesis No. 190379). [Google Scholar]
  86. Yenilmez, K., Turğut, M. & Balbağ, M. (2017). Investigation of prospective teachers’ perceptions on distance education with respect to certain variables. EUJEF Journal of Erzincan University Faculty of Education, 19(2), 91-107. https://doi.org/10.17556/erziefd.305902  [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  87. Yıldırım, A. & Şimşek, H. (2018). Sosyal bilimlerde nitel araştırma yöntemleri. Seçkin. [Google Scholar]
  88. Yıldız, S. (2016). The attitudes of the students having pedagogical formation training towards distance education. AIBU Journal of Social Sciences, 16(1), 301-329. https://doi.org/10.11616/basbed.vi.455852 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  89. Yılmaz, Ö. & Özkan, B. (2014). Examination of computer education and instructional technology student’s opinions on distance education. Journal of the Hasan Ali Yücel Faculty of Education, 11(1), 85-94. https://hayefjournal.org/tr/uzaktan-egitim-bote-ogrencilerin-uzaktan-egitim-ile-ilgili-goruslerinin-incelenmesi-16481 [Google Scholar]
  90. Yurdakul, B. (2005). Uzaktan öğretim (Ö. Demirel, Ed.) Eğitimde yeni yönelimler. Pegem Akademi. [Google Scholar]