International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 2834-7919   |  e-ISSN: 1554-5210

Original article | International Journal of Progressive Education 2022, Vol. 18(6) 1-14

Analysis of Values in Rwanda Lower Primary Grade Children’s Storybooks

Sylvestre Ntabajyana, Gabriel Nizeyimana & Wenceslas Nzabalirwa

pp. 1 - 14   |  DOI:   |  Manu. Number: MANU-2209-15-0002

Published online: December 11, 2022  |   Number of Views: 125  |  Number of Download: 318


This study examined the values embedded in Rwanda lower primary grade children’s storybooks accredited by Rwanda Basic Education Board (REB).  The data sources are the stories in grade one, grade two and grade three. Sixty storybooks were analyzed qualitatively using content analysis. The data were analyzed in frequency (f) and percentage (%). The findings show that there are 40 values contained in the 60 analyzed storybooks. The results also show that many books contain human characters compared to non human characters.  The percentages of the mostly presented values in the stories are as follows: ‘forgiveness’ (9.4%), ‘environment protection’ (7.8%), ‘friendship’ and ‘dignity of manual work’ (4% each), ‘cleanliness’ and ‘self-study’ (5.5% each), ‘house work duty’ (4.7%) and ‘happiness’, ‘peace’ and ‘helpfulness’ (3.9 % each). The least presented values in the stories, with the percentage of 0.8% each, are: ‘curiosity’, ‘flexibility’ ‘appreciation of cultural values’, ‘reverence of old age’; ‘justice’, ‘self-respect, ‘animal love’, ‘love of mother tongue’, ‘play’, courtesy’, ‘love’, ‘simple living’, ‘respect’, ‘prayer’, ‘courage’, and ‘democratic decision making’. However, there are some core values to be taught in Rwanda schools which were found absent in the studied stories: ‘patriotism’, ‘tolerance’ and ‘solidarity’. It was suggested that these core values absent as well as the least presented values be more presented in future storybooks since they are needed for helping Rwandan children to shape their identity as Rwandans.

Keywords: Lower Primary Grade, Values, Value Education, Children’s Storybooks, Stories, Rwanda

How to Cite this Article?

APA 6th edition
Ntabajyana, S., Nizeyimana, G. & Nzabalirwa, W. (2022). Analysis of Values in Rwanda Lower Primary Grade Children’s Storybooks . International Journal of Progressive Education, 18(6), 1-14. doi: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.477.1

Ntabajyana, S., Nizeyimana, G. and Nzabalirwa, W. (2022). Analysis of Values in Rwanda Lower Primary Grade Children’s Storybooks . International Journal of Progressive Education, 18(6), pp. 1-14.

Chicago 16th edition
Ntabajyana, Sylvestre, Gabriel Nizeyimana and Wenceslas Nzabalirwa (2022). "Analysis of Values in Rwanda Lower Primary Grade Children’s Storybooks ". International Journal of Progressive Education 18 (6):1-14. doi:10.29329/ijpe.2022.477.1.


    Ary, D., Jacobs, L. C., & Sorensen, C. (2010). Introduction to research in education (8th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
    Aygün, A., & Abacı, O. (2014). Examination of Illustrated Story Books Published Between the Years of 2004-201 for 4-8 Age Group Children in Terms of Illustration. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 152, 94-99.
    Baker, A. J. (2006).The power of stories/stories about power: why therapists and clients should read stories about the parental alienation syndrom. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 34,191-203.
    Brannon, D. (2008). Character education-a joint responsibility. The Education Digest, 73 (8)56.
    Cates, A. L. (2008). The “Kaleidoscope of Life”: Story as Vital for Values Education. Christian Perspectives in Education, 2 (1) 1. 
    Cengiz, Ş., & Duran, E. (2017). Analysis of Values on Preschool Period Children Story and Tale Books. Education and Science, 42 (191), 205-233
    Collins, F. (1999).The use of traditional storytelling in education to the learning of literacy skills. Early Child Development and Care, 152 (1), 77–108. 
    Court, D., & Rosental, E. (2007). Values embodied in children’s literature used in early childhood education in Israeli State schools. Early Childhood Education Journal, 34(6), 407-414.
    Dhanwani S. (2017). Animals in children’s literature: A critical reading of Kipling’s RIKKI-TIKKI-TAVI. Research Journal of English Language and Literature, 5 (2), 834-837
    Dirican, R., & Dağlıoğlu, H. E. (2014). Analyzing some basic values in illustrated story books for 3-6 years old children. Cumhuriyet International Journal of Education, 3 (2), 44-69.
    Hara K., & Koda N. (2021). Conversion in Depictions of Anthropomorphic Animals in Picture Books. International Journal of Literature and Arts, 9 (6), 374-383. 
    Hsiao, C. Y., & Chang, Y. M. (2015). A study of the use of picture books by preschool educators in outlying islands of Taiwan. International Education Studies, 9 (1), 1.
    Hsieh, H.F., & Shannon, S. H. (2005). The three approaches to qualitative content analysis. Qualitative Health Research 15(9), 1277-1288. Doi:10.1177/1049732305276687.
    Hulya, K. (2015). Students’ opinions about the effect of value-themed short stories used in education. Educational Research and Reviews, 10(13), 1781-1788.
    Karasenga, J.D., & Nzanana, J. (2022). Quality Education and the Use of English Language as a Medium of Instruction in Rwandan Schools: An Interpretivist Study. International Journal of Educational Review, 4 (1), 1-12.
    Kasapoğlu, H. (2015). Students’ opinions about the effect of value-themed short stories used in education. Educational Research and Review, 10 (13), 1781-1788.
    Kazancı M.G., & ,Atay M. (2018). An analysis of values in children's picture books in Turkish for 5-6 year-old children. SHC Web of Conference,
    Killick S., & Boffey M. (2012). Building Relationships through Storytelling: The Fostering Network
    Kopp, B., Mandl, H., & Wallner, K. (2017). Impulses and Dilemma Stories for Values Education in STEM Context in Elementary Schools. JMER 7(2), 91-105
    Kumar P. (2017). Need and importance of value education for a happy life. International Journal of Academic Research and Development, 2 (4), 588-592
    Kurtdede Fidan, N., & Ulu, H. (2021). An Analysis of the Studies on" The Values in Children's Literature Products" in Turkey. IJCER, 8(3), 103-118.
    McLean Hilker, L. (2011). The role of education in driving conflict and building peace: The case of Rwanda. Prospects, 41(2), 267-282.
    Nibeza, S. (2015). Sustainable environment, a key of sustainable development a case study of Rwanda. International Journal of Research in Economics and Social Sciences, 5(6), 20-36.
    Nzahabwanayo, S. (2016). Citizenship and values education in post-genocide Rwanda: An analysis of the Itorero training scheme for high school leavers (Doctoral dissertation, University of the Witwatersrand, Faculty of Humanities, School of Education).
    Nzahabwanayo S. (2018). What works in citizenship and values education: attitudes of trainers towards the Itorero training program in post-genocide Rwanda. Rwandan Journal of Education, 4 (2), 71-84.
    Önder, M., & Kanak, M. (2017). Teaching values with stories and tales in the preschool period. Journal of Education and Practice, 8 (30), 143-149.
    Otten, E. H. (2002). Developing character through literature. Bloomington Clearing house on reading, English and Communication and The Family Association. 
    Rurangirwa, S. (2012). The absence of Kinyarwanda in the current language policy of Rwanda. The Journal of Pan African Studies, 5(8), 169-177.
    Ruseel.Dl. (2004). Literature for Children. (5th Edition), Boston: Peason Education.
    Şahin, A. (2019). Personal and social values in primary grade children’s books. Participatory Educational Research, 6 (1), 1-9.
    Sari, N. (2013). The importance of teaching moral values to the students. Journal of English and Education, 1(1), 154-162. 
    Sharama, M. (2017). Animals as Humans: Psychological Reasons of Using Animal Characters in Children’s Books. Research Journal of English Language and Literature, 5 (4), 215-220.
    Szabo, Z., & Brakas, N. (2020). Children's ability to recognize implicit and explicit reasoning of story book characters. Journal of Psychological and Educational Research, 28(1), 24-44.
    Uluğ, E., & Bayraktar, A. (2014). Determination of the required features of children's picture books. Journal of Education and Future, (6), 25-42.
    Turan, F., & Ulutas, I. (2016). Using Storybooks as a Character Education Tools. Journal of education and practice, 7 (15), 169-176.
    White M.D., & Marsh, E.E. (2006). Content Analysis: A Flexible Methodology. Library trends, 55(1), 22-45
    Widyaningrum, K., Martono, M., & Zainnuri, H. (2021). Moral Values Analysis in “When English Rings a Bell for Grade VII”. English Education, 9(3), 145-156.
    Yanti E.S., Daula, S., & Lubis M. (2019). Character Values in Short-stories Collection book by Qurrota Aini and its Release as a Literature Reading Material in Elementary School. International Journal of Education, Learning and Development 7(5), 35-49. 
    Zohrabi, M., Dobakhti, L., & pour, E.M. (2019). Interpersonal meanings in children’s storybooks. Iranian Journal of Language Teaching Research, 7(2), 39-64.