International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 2834-7919   |  e-ISSN: 1554-5210

Original article | International Journal of Progressive Education 2023, Vol. 19(6) 1-19

The Analysis of the Relationship between Humor Styles of Counselor Candidates and Their Skills of Coping Through Humor and Problem-Solving

Muhammet Ü. Öztabak

pp. 1 - 19   |  DOI:   |  Manu. Number: MANU-2309-11-0003

Published online: December 12, 2023  |   Number of Views: 28  |  Number of Download: 75


The aim of this research is to analyze the relationship between the humor styles of counselor candidates and their skills of coping through humor and problem-solving. Relational screening model, which is one of the quantitative research methods, was used in the research. The sample of the research consists of 232 students studying in the Guidance and Counseling program at foundation universities in Istanbul. The sample of the study was obtained by convenience sampling, one of the methods of non-random sampling methods. The data of the research was collected with the Personal Information Form, Humor Styles Questionnaire, Coping Humor Scale and Problem-Solving Inventory. The obtained data were analyzed through SPSS 21.0 program using t-test, ANOVA and Pearson product-moment correlation analysis techniques. It is seen that counselor candidates show coping behavior through humor in case of any problem. Counselor candidates mostly use affiliative humor style, followed by self-enhancing, self-defeating and aggressive humor styles, respectively. According to the data of the research, there is a low level, negative and insignificant relationship between humor styles and problem-solving; a moderate, positive and significant relationship between humor styles and coping through humor; and a low, negative and significant relationship between coping through humor and problem-solving.

Keywords: Coping Through Humor, Humor, Humor Styles, Problem-Solving, Psychological Counselor

How to Cite this Article?

APA 6th edition
Oztabak, M.U. (2023). The Analysis of the Relationship between Humor Styles of Counselor Candidates and Their Skills of Coping Through Humor and Problem-Solving . International Journal of Progressive Education, 19(6), 1-19. doi: 10.29329/ijpe.2023.615.1

Oztabak, M. (2023). The Analysis of the Relationship between Humor Styles of Counselor Candidates and Their Skills of Coping Through Humor and Problem-Solving . International Journal of Progressive Education, 19(6), pp. 1-19.

Chicago 16th edition
Oztabak, Muhammet U. (2023). "The Analysis of the Relationship between Humor Styles of Counselor Candidates and Their Skills of Coping Through Humor and Problem-Solving ". International Journal of Progressive Education 19 (6):1-19. doi:10.29329/ijpe.2023.615.1.

  1. Abel, M. H. (2002). Humor, stress, and coping strategies. Humor: International Journal of Humor, 15(4), 365-381. [Google Scholar]
  2. ACA [The American Counseling Association] (2022). What is conseling?. [17.07.2022]. [Google Scholar]
  3. Açıkgöz, M. (2016). Examining the relationshıp among the psychologıcal resiliance, humour styles and happiness level of medicine school students [Unpublished master's thesis]. Çağ University. [Google Scholar]
  4. Aslan, H. (2006). Investigating the humor styles of teachers who work in secondary education schools according to their level of learned resourcefulness [Unpublished master's thesis]. Çukurova University. [Google Scholar]
  5. Avcı, N. (2012). The relationship between humor styles and psychological symptoms and death anxiety of college students [Unpublished master's thesis]. Sakarya University. [Google Scholar]
  6. Bennett, M. P., & Lengacher, C. (2006). Humor and laughter may influence health: II. Complementary therapies and humor in a clinical population. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 3(2), 187-190. doi: 10.1093/ecam/nel014 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  7. Bilge, F., & Saltuk, S. (2007). Humor styles, subjective well-being, trait anger and anxiety among university students in Turkey. World Applied Sciences Journal, 2(5), 464-469. [Google Scholar]
  8. Bingham, A. (2004). Developing problem-solving skills in children (6th Ed.). A. Ferhan Oğuzkan (Trans.). MEB Publication. [Google Scholar]
  9. Bizi, S., Keinan, G., & Beit-Hallami, B. (1988). Humor and coping with stress: A test under real-life conditions. Personality and Individual Differences, 9(6), 951-956. [Google Scholar]
  10. Burnard, P. (1999). Practical counselling and helping. Florence, KY, USA: Routledge. [Google Scholar]
  11. Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2020). Data analysis handbook for social sciences: Statistics, research design SPSS applications and interpretation (27th Ed.). Pegem Academy Pub. [Google Scholar]
  12. Büyüköztürk, Ş., Kılıç-Çakmak, E., Akgün, Ö. E., Karadeniz, Ş., & Demirel, F. (2010). Scientific research methods. Ankara: Pegem Akademi. [Google Scholar]
  13. Cann, A., Stilwell, K., & Taku, K. (2010). Humor Styles, Positive Personality and Health. Europe’s Journal of Psychology, 6(3), 213-235. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  14. Chauvet, S., & Hofmeyer, A. (2007). Humor as a facilitative style in problem-based learning environments for nursing students. Nurse Education Today, 27(4), 286-292. doi:10.1016/j.nedt.2006.05.008 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  15. Corey, G. (2008). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy (Trans. Tuncay Ergene). Mentis Pub. [Google Scholar]
  16. Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (4th ed.). N. J.: Pearson. [Google Scholar]
  17. Didin, E. (2016). Study of adolescents' humor styles and interpersonal problem solving skills who are being educated in arts with those who are not [Unpublished master's thesis]. Ankara University. [Google Scholar]
  18. Durmuş, Y. (2000). The relationship between sense of humor and coping strategies [Unpublished master's thesis]. Ortadoğu Technical University. [Google Scholar]
  19. Durmuş, Y., & Tezer, E. (2001). The relationship between sense of humor and coping strategies. Journal of Turkish Psychology, l6(47), 25-32. [Google Scholar]
  20. D’Zurilla, T. J., & Goldfried, M. R. (1971). Problem solving and behaviour modification. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 78(1), 107-126. doi: 10.1037/h0031360 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  21. D’Zurilla, T. J., Nezu, A. M. & Maydeu-Olivares, A. (2004). What is social problem solving?: Meanings, models, and measures. In E. C. Chang, T. J. D’Zurilla & L. J. Sanna (Eds.). Social Problem Solving: Theory, Research, and Training (pp. 11-27). Washington: American Psychological Association. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  22. Erözkan, A. (2009). Interpersonal relationship styles and humour styles of university students. Dokuz Eylül University Journal of Buca Faculty of Educational, (26), 56-66. [Google Scholar]
  23. Fraenkel, J. R., & Wallen, N. E. (2009). How to design and evaluate research in education (7th ed.). PA: McGraw-Hill. [Google Scholar]
  24. Fry, P. S. (1995). Perfectionism, humor, and optimism as moderators of health outcomes and determinants of coping styles of women executives. Genetic, Social and General Psychology Monographs, 121, 213-245. [Google Scholar]
  25. Führ, M. (2002). Coping Humor İn Early Adolescence, Humor: International Journal of Humor Research, 57(3), 283-304. [Google Scholar]
  26. Galloway, G., & Cropley, A. (1999). Benefits of humor for mental health: Empirical findings and directions for further research. Humor: International Journal of Humor Research, 12(3), 301-314. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  27. Graham, E. E. (1995). The involvement of sense of humor in the development of social relationships. Communication Reports, 8(2), 158-169. [Google Scholar]
  28. Güçlü, N. (2003). Problem solving skills of high school principals. Journal of National Education, 160, 272-300.  [Google Scholar]
  29. Heppner, P. P., & Petersen, C. H. (1982). The development and implications of personal problem solving- inventory. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 29(1), 66-75. DOI:10.1037/0022-0167.29.1.66 [Google Scholar]
  30. Heppner, P. P. & Baker, C. E. (1997). Applications of the problem solving inventory. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 29(4), 229-241. DOI:10.1080/07481756.1997.12068907 [Google Scholar]
  31. Hurren, B. L. (2006). The effects of principals’ humor on teachers’ job satisfaction. Educational Studies, 32(4), 373-385. [Google Scholar]
  32. Kılıç Basmacı, S. (1998). Examination of university students' perception of problem solving skills in terms of some variables [Unpublished master's thesis], İnönü University. [Google Scholar]
  33. Koçak, D. (2018). Necessary qualities of counselor scaling with pair-wise comparison method. Mehmet Akif Ersoy University Institute of Educational Sciences, 6(8), 1-16. [Google Scholar]
  34. Kuiper, N. A., Martin, R. A., & Olinger, L. J. (1993). Coping humour, stress, and cognitive appraisals. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science / Revue canadienne des sciences du comportement, 25(1), 81–96. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  35. Lawson, G., & Myers, J. E. (2011). Wellness, professional quality of life, and career-sustaining behaviors: What keeps us well? Journal of Counseling & Development, 89(2), 163-171. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  36. Lefcourt, H. M. (2001). Humor: The psychology of living buoyantly. Springer New  [Google Scholar]
  37. York. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  38. Lowis, M. J. (1997). A humor workshop program to aid coping with life stress. Mankind Quarterly, 38, 25-38. [Google Scholar]
  39. Maslach, C., & Jackson, S. E. (1981). The measurement of experienced burnout. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 2(2), 99-113. [Google Scholar]
  40. Martin, R. A. (1996). The Situational Humor Response Questionnaire (SHRQ) and the Coping Humor Scale (CHS): A decade of research findings. International Journal of Humor Research, 9(3), 251-272. Doi: 10.1515/humr.1996.9.3-4.251  [Google Scholar]
  41. Martin, R. A. (2001). Humor, laughter and physical health: Methodological issues and research findings. Psychological Bulletin, 127(4), 504-519. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  42. Martin, R. A., & Lefcourt, H. M. (1983). Sense of humor as a moderator of the relation between stressors and moods. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45,1313-1324. [Google Scholar]
  43. Martin, R. A., Kuiper, N. A., Olinger, L. J., & Dance, K. A. (1993). Humor, coping with stress, self-concept, and psychological well-being. Humor: International Journal of Humor Research, 6(1), 89-104. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  44. Martin, R. A., Puhlik-Doris, P., Larsen, G., Gray, J., & Weir, K. (2003). Individual differences in uses of humor and their relation to psychological well-being: Development of the Humor Styles Questionnaire. Journal of Research in Personality, 37(1), 48-75.  [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  45. Masten, A. S. (1986). Humor and competence in school-aged children. Child Development, 57(2), 461-473. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  46. Mendiburo-Seguel, A., Paez, D., & Martinez-Sanchez, F. (2015). Humor styles and personality: a meta-analysis of the relation between humor styles and the big five personality traits. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 56(3), 335-340. [Google Scholar]
  47. Morreall, J. (1997). Taking laugter seriously (Trans. K. Aysevener & Ş. Soyer). İris Pub. [Google Scholar]
  48. Nezlek, J. B., & Derks, P. (2001). Use of humor as a coping mechanism, psychological adjustment and social interaction, Humor: International Journal of Humor, 14(4), 395-413. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  49. Nezu, A. M., Nezu, C. M., & Blissett, S. E. (1988). Sense of humor as a moderator of the relation between stressful events and psychological distress: A prospective analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(3), 520-525. [Google Scholar]
  50. Overholser, J. C. (1992). Sense of humor when coping with life stress. Personality and Individual Differences, 13, 799-804. [Google Scholar]
  51. Öz, F., & Hiçdurmaz, D. (2010). An important way for coping: Usage of Humor. Journal of Nursology, 13(1), 83-88. [Google Scholar]
  52. Özdemir, S., Sezgin, F., Kaya, Z., & Recepoğlu, E. (2011). The relationship between primary school teachers’ coping styles with stress and humor styles. Educational Administration: Theory and Practice, 17(3), 405-428. [Google Scholar]
  53. Sarı, T., & Aslan, H. (2005). The relationship between humor style and coping strategies. VIII. National Psychological Counseling and Guidance Congress Scientific Studies (pp. 105-106). Marmara University. [Google Scholar]
  54. Sayar, B. (2012). Relationship between hopelessness and submi̇ssi̇ve behaviours and humor styles of university students [Unpublished master's thesis]. Sakarya University. [Google Scholar]
  55. Schutte, N., Toppinen, S., Kalimo. R., & Schaufeli, W. (2000). The factorial validity of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS) across occupational groups and nations. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 73(1), 53-66. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  56. Selye, H. (1983) The stress concept: Past, present and future. In Cooper, C. L., Ed., Stress Research Issues for the Eighties (pp. 1-20). John Wiley & Sons, New York. [Google Scholar]
  57. Soyaldın, S. Z. (2007). The relationships between anger expression styles and humor styles among secondary school students [Unpublished master's thesis]. Mersin University. [Google Scholar]
  58. Sümer, M. (2008). Pre-school teaching students’ styles of coping with stress and the comparison of their manners of humor in accordance with various variables [Unpublished master's thesis]. Selçuk University. [Google Scholar]
  59. Swezey, S. C. (2013). What keeps us well? Professional quality of life and career sustaining behaviors of music therapy professionals [Master’s Thesis]. University of Kentucky.  [Google Scholar]
  60. Şahin, D. (2014). The investigation of teacher's self compassion from the point of resilience and life satisfaction [Unpublished master's thesis]. Karadeniz Technical University. [Google Scholar]
  61. Şahin, N., Şahin, N. H., & Heppner, P. P. (1993). Psychometric properties of the problem solving inventory in a group of Turkish university students. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 17(4), 379-396. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  62. Taylan, S. (1990). Adaptation, reliability and validity studies of Heppner's problem solving inventory [Unpublished master's thesis]. Ankara University. [Google Scholar]
  63. Thorson, A., Powell, F., Sarmany-Schuller, I., & Hampes, P. (1997). Psychological health and sence of humor. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 53(6), 605-619. [Google Scholar]
  64. Traş, Z., Arslan, C., & Mentiş Taş, A. (2011). Analysis of humor styles, problem solving and self- esteem of prospective teachers. International Journal of Human Sciences, 8(2), 716-732. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  65. Tümkaya, S. (2006). Humor styles of university lecturers and variables that predict humor. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 6(23), 200-208. [Google Scholar]
  66. Uyar Kurt, A. (2016). The effect of parental loss on emotional intelligence and problem solving skills [Unpublished master's thesis]. Beykent University. [Google Scholar]
  67. Warnath, C. F. (1979). Counselor burnout: Existential crisis or a problem for the profession? The Personnel and Guidance Journal. 57, 325-328. doi:10.1002/J.2164-4918.1979.TB05403.X [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  68. Yerlikaya, E. E. (2003). The adaptation of Humor Styles Questionnaire into Turkish language [Unpublished master's thesis]. Çukurova University. [Google Scholar]
  69. Yerlikaya, N. (2007). The relationship between humor styles and coping styles of high school students [Unpublished master's thesis]. Çukurova University. [Google Scholar]
  70. Yerlikaya, E. E. (2009). The relationship between humor styles and perceived stress, anxiety and depression of college students [Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation]. Çukurova University. [Google Scholar]