International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 1554-5210

Original article | International Journal of Progressive Education 2020, Vol. 16(4) 66-80

Occupational Burnout Level of Preschool Teachers Working in the East and West of Turkey

Meral Taner Derman, Ayşe Bahar Ural & Sevingül Güney

pp. 66 - 80   |  DOI:   |  Manu. Number: MANU-1910-17-0004.R1

Published online: August 13, 2020  |   Number of Views: 183  |  Number of Download: 289


The aim of this research is to examine the occupational burnout levels of preschool teachers’ work in terms of working in the eastern and western parts of Turkey, voluntariness, gender, working location and age. In accordance with the general aim of the study, “Maslach Burnout Inventory” and “Personal Information Form” (prepared by the researcher) were filled by 72 preschool teachers working in the eastern provinces of Turkey and 82 preschool teachers working in the western ones: a total of 154 preschool teachers, 133 females and 21 males. ANOVA and t-test were used in the evaluation of the data. It was determined that the part of Turkey where teachers work, east or west, did not cause any difference in their occupational burnout. However, preschool teachers who inadvertently chose their profession experienced greater emotional exhaustion and decreased sense of personal achievement compared with preschool teachers who chose their profession voluntarily. Also, preschool teachers who worked in the west at the age of 31-40 years and at over 40 years experienced higher emotional exhaustion levels than those who worked in the east at the age of 31-40 years and at over 40 years. Further studies should be conducted with more teachers from all the cities in the seven regions of the country. 

Keywords: Emotional Burnout, Depersonalization, Decrease in Personal Achievement, Working Region, Turkey

How to Cite this Article?

APA 6th edition
Derman, M.T., Ural, A.B. & Guney, S. (2020). Occupational Burnout Level of Preschool Teachers Working in the East and West of Turkey . International Journal of Progressive Education, 16(4), 66-80. doi: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.268.5

Derman, M., Ural, A. and Guney, S. (2020). Occupational Burnout Level of Preschool Teachers Working in the East and West of Turkey . International Journal of Progressive Education, 16(4), pp. 66-80.

Chicago 16th edition
Derman, Meral Taner, Ayse Bahar Ural and Sevingul Guney (2020). "Occupational Burnout Level of Preschool Teachers Working in the East and West of Turkey ". International Journal of Progressive Education 16 (4):66-80. doi:10.29329/ijpe.2020.268.5.

  1. Akin, U., Aydin. I., Erdogan, C. and Demirkasimoglu, N. (2014). Emotional labor and burnout among Turkish primary school teachers. The Australian Educational Researcher, 41 (2), 155-169. [Google Scholar]
  2. Akman, B., Taskın, N.. Ozden, Z. and Cortu, F. (2010). A study on preschool teachers’ burnout. Elementary Education Online,  9 (2), 807-815. [Google Scholar]
  3. Antoniou, A.S., Ploumpi, A. and Ntalla, M. (2013). Occupational stress and professional burnout in teachers of primary and secondary education: The role of coping strategies. Psychology, 4 (3A), 349-355. [Google Scholar]
  4. Antoniou, A. S., Polychroni, F. and Walters, B. (2000). Sources of stress and professional burnout of teachers of special educational needs in Greece. In Proceedings of the International Conference of Special Education, ISEC. Manchester. 24–28 July. UK. [Google Scholar]
  5. Arslan, H., Gurkan, S.B., Alparslan, Z. N. and Unal, M. (1996). The Levels of Burnout Among The Physicians Pursuing Postgraduate Training. Turkish Psychiatry Journal, 7 (1), 39-45. [Google Scholar]
  6. Baysal, A. (1995). A study of determining factors which affect high schools teachers burnout, (Unpublished Doctoral Thesis). Dokuz Eylul University Social Sciences Institute, İzmir. [Google Scholar]
  7. Berry, A. B., Petrin, R. A., Gravelle, M. L., & Farmer, T. W. (2011). Issues in special education teacher recruitment, retention, and professional development: Considerations in supporting rural teachers. Rural Special Education Quarterly, 30, 3–11. [Google Scholar]
  8. Brouwers, A. and Tomic, W. (2014). A longitudinal study of relationships between three burnout dimensions among secondary school teachers. Sensoria: A Journal of Mind. Brain & Culture, 10 (2), 23-33. [Google Scholar]
  9. Cam, O. (1992). Investigation of the validity and reliability of the burnout inventory. In VII. National Psychological Congress Scientific Studies. Hacettepe University VII. National Psychology Congress Organizing Committee and Publication of Turkish Psychological Association, (pp. 155-159), Ankara. [Google Scholar]
  10. Cano-García, F. J., Padilla-Muñoz, E. M., and Carrasco-Ortiz, M. Á. (2005). Personality and contextual variables in teacher burnout. Personality and Individual Differences, 38(4), 929-940. [Google Scholar]
  11. Celik, M. and Yilmaz, K. (2015). The relationship between teachers' occupational professionalism and burnout. Journal of Sakarya University Education Faculty, 30, 102-131. [Google Scholar]
  12. Cemaloglu, N. and Erdemoglu Sahin, D. (2007). A study of the teacher’s burnout level according to various variables. Kastamonu Education Journal, 15 (2), 465-484. [Google Scholar]
  13. Cheuk, W.H. and Sai, W.K. (1995). Stres, social support and teacher burnout in Macau. Current Psychology, 14 (1), 42-46. [Google Scholar]
  14. Cimen, S. (2007). Primary school teachers' burnout levels and perceived self-efficacy beliefs, (Unpublished Master Thesis). Kocaeli University Social Sciences Institute. Kocaeli. [Google Scholar]
  15. Cokluk, O. (2003). Burnout in Organizations. Elma. C., Demir. K. (Ed.). Contemporary Approaches in Management, (109-134). Second Edition. Ankara: Anı Publishing. [Google Scholar]
  16. Deniz Kan, Ü. (2008). An analysis of burnout at a group of preschool education teachers. Kastamonu Education Journal, 16 (2), 431-438. [Google Scholar]
  17. Dolunay, A. B. and Piyal, B. (2003). Teachers burnout according to some professional spesifications. Journal of Crisis, 11 (1), 35-48. [Google Scholar]
  18. Ergin, C. (1992). Burnout in doctors and nurses and applying the Maslach Burnout Scale. In VII Scientific Studies of the National Congress of Psychology. Ed R. Bayraktar, I. Dağ. (pp. 143-151), Ankara. [Google Scholar]
  19. Farber, B. A. (1984). Stress and burnout in suburban teachers. Journal of Educational Research, 77 (6), 325-332. [Google Scholar]
  20. Fiorilli, C., Albanese, O., Gabola, P. and Pepe, A. (2016). Teachers’ emotional competence and social support: assessing the mediating role of teacher burnout. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 61 (2), 127-138.  [Google Scholar]
  21. Garwood, J. D., Werts, M. G., Varghese, C., and Gosey, L. (2018). Mixed-Methods Analysis of Rural Special Educators’ Role Stressors, Behavior Management, and Burnout. Rural Special Education Quarterly, 37(1), 30-43 [Google Scholar]
  22. Girgin, G. (1995). An analysis of the variables affecting the development of job burnout in primary school teachers and a model proposal (rural and urban region comparison in İzmir province), (Unpublished Doctoral Thesis). Dokuz Eylul University Social Sciences Institute, İzmir. [Google Scholar]
  23. Gluschkoff, K., Elovainio, M., Kinnunen, U., Mullola, S., Hintsanen, M.,  Keltikangas-Järvinen, L. and Hintsa, T. (2016). Work stress. poor recovery and burnout in teachers. Occupational Medicine, 66 (7), 564-570. [Google Scholar]
  24. Guler, A., Halicioglu, M. B. and Tasgin, S. (2013). Qualitative research methods in the social sciences. Ankara: Seckin Publishing.  [Google Scholar]
  25. Gunduz, B. (2005). Burnout of teachers in basic education. Mersin University Journal of the Faculty of Education, 1 (1), 152-166. [Google Scholar]
  26. Haran, S., Devrimci Ozguven, H., Olmez, S. and Sayil, I. (1998). Burnout in medical doctors and nurses of Ankara University Medical School and Ankara Numune Hospitals. Journal of Crisis, 6 (1), 75-84. [Google Scholar]
  27. Jennings, P. A., & Greenberg, M. T. (2009). The prosocial classroom: Teacher social and emotional competence in relation to student and classroom outcomes. Review of Educational Research, 79, 491–525  [Google Scholar]
  28. Kabakli Cimen, L. (2016). The relationship between preschool teachers’ tendency of liking children and the levels of professional burnout. Journal of Education and Human Development, 5 (1), 220-239. [Google Scholar]
  29. Kim, H. G. (2016). Effects of childcare teacher’s perception of organizational justice. collectivism and job burnout on turnover ıntention. Journal of Economics, Marketing and Management, 4 (3), 25-32. [Google Scholar]
  30. Kucuksuleymanoglu, R. (2007). Burnout levels of Education Faculty academicians. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research (EJER), 7 (28). 101-112. [Google Scholar]
  31. Lasota, D., Goniewicz, K., Goniewicz, M., and Czerski, R. (2018). Analysis of the professional burnout syndrome in selected groups, Journal of Educatıon, Health and Sport, 8 (8), 81-96. [Google Scholar]
  32. Maslach, C. and Jackson, S. E. (1986). Maslach burnout inventory manual. (2nd. Ed.) Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologist Press.  [Google Scholar]
  33. Metin, S. and Sacan, S. (2017). An analysis of the effects of preschool teachers’ burnout levels on job satisfaction. International Journal of Family, Child and Education, 11, 44-67. [Google Scholar]
  34. Oberle, E. and Schonert-Reichl, K. A. (2016). Stress contagion in the classroom? The link between classroom teacher burnout and morning cortisol in elementary school students. Social Science &Medicine, 159, 30-37. [Google Scholar]
  35. Oram, L., Owens, S., & Maras, M. (2016). Functional behavior assessments and behavior intervention plans in rural schools: An exploration of the need, barriers, and recommendations. Preventing School Failure, 60, 305–310. [Google Scholar]
  36. Oruc, S. (2007). Examining the burnout levels of teachers employed in the special education schools with some variables, (Unpublished Master Thesis). Cukurova University Social Sciences Institute, Adana. [Google Scholar]
  37. Otacioglu, S. G. (2008). Burnout syndrome among music teachers and triggering factors. Journal of Inonu University Education Faculty, 9 (15), 103–116. [Google Scholar]
  38. Ozturk, A. and Deniz, M. E. (2008). Analysis of emotional intelligence job satisfaction and burnout levels of preschool teachers according to some variables. Elementary Education Online, 7 (3), 578-599. [Google Scholar]
  39. Park, J. and Lee, J. (2016). Measuring the impact of organizational culture on burnout and turnover intention among early childhood teachers. Information, 19 (4), 1077-1082. [Google Scholar]
  40. Platsidou, M. and Daniilidou, A. (2016). Three scales to measure burnout of primary school teachers: Empirical evidence on their adequacy. International Journal of Educational Psychology, 5 (2), 164-186. doi: 10.17583/ijep.2015.1810 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  41. Rey, L.. Extremera, N. and Pena, M. (2016). Emotional competence relating to perceived stress and burnout in Spanish teachers: A mediator model. PeerJ 4:e2087; DOI 10.7717/peerj.2087 [Google Scholar]
  42. Roslan, N. A., Ho, J. A., Ng, S. I. and Sambasivan, M. (2015). Job demands and job resources: Predicting burnout and work engagement among teachers. International Proceedings of Economics Development and Research, 84, 138-145.  [Google Scholar]
  43. Sadeghi, K. and Khezrlou, S. (2016). The experience of burnout among English language teachers in Iran: Self and other determinants. Teacher Development, 20 (5), 631-647.  [Google Scholar]
  44. Sari, H. (2004). An analysis of burnout and job satisfaction among Turkish special school headteachers and teachers. and the factors affecting their burnout and job satisfaction. Educational Studies, 30 (3), 291-306. [Google Scholar]
  45. Sayil, I., Haran, S., Olmez, S. and Ozguven Devrimci, H. (1997). Burnout in medical doctors and nurses of Ankara University Medical School. Journal of Crisis, 5 (2), 71-77. [Google Scholar]
  46. Seferoglu, S. S., Yildiz, H. and Avci Yucel, Ü. (2014). Teachers’ burnout: Indicators of burnout and investigation of the indicators in terms of different variables. Education and Science, 39 (174), 348-364. [Google Scholar]
  47. Shaheen, F. and Mahmood, N. (2016). Demographic variables as determinants of emotional burnout among public school teachers. Journal of Research and Reflections in Education, 10 (1), 37-50. [Google Scholar]
  48. Sucuoglu, B. and Kuloglu, N. (1996). Assessment of burnout in teachers working with disabled children. Journal of Turkish Psychology, 10 (36), 44-60. [Google Scholar]
  49. Surgevil, O. (2006). Burnout syndrome in working life, fighting techniques with burnout. Ankara: Nobel Publishing. [Google Scholar]
  50. Taormina, R.J. and Law, C.M. (2000). Approaches to preventing burnout: the effects of personal stress management and organizational socialization. Journal of Nursing Management, 8 (2), 89-99. [Google Scholar]
  51. Tugrul, B. and Celik, E. (2002). Determine factors that was related primary school women teachers’ burnouts. Journal of Pamukkale University Education Faculty, 2 (12), 1-11.  [Google Scholar]
  52. Tumkaya, S. and Turker, P. (2010). The analysis of primary school teachers' perceptions of problem behavior levels according to the socio demographic variants and burnout. Cukurova University Faculty of Education Journal, 3 (38), 92-109. [Google Scholar]
  53. Tuna, M. and Cimen, Z. (2013). The analysis of the burnout level of physical education teachers workıing in Ankara. Pamukkale Journal of Sport Sciences, 4 (2), 60-78. [Google Scholar]
  54. Ulutasdemir, N. and Deveci, S. E. (2015). The burnout level of the teachers who work in the centre of Kilis and the research of the factors effecting them. Electronic International Journal of Educatino, Arts and Science, 1 (2), 97-120. [Google Scholar]
  55. Wang, H., Hall, N. C. and Rahimi, S. (2015). Self-efficacy and causal attributions in teachers: Effects on burnout, job satisfaction, illness, and quitting intentions. Teaching and Teacher Education, 47, 120-130. [Google Scholar]
  56. Yerlikaya, A. (2000). The Study of level of exhaustion of primary school teachers working at villages and in cities, (Unpublished Master Thesis). Ataturk University, Social Sciences Institute, Erzurum. [Google Scholar]