International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 1554-5210

Original article | International Journal of Progressive Education 2014, Vol. 10(3) 60-71

The Third Way: A Call for Breaking the Dependency on the Mainstream English Language Teaching

Hossein Davari, Ferdows Aghagolzadeh, Arsalan Golfam, & Aliyeh Kord Zafaranlu Kambuziya

pp. 60 - 71   |  Manu. Number: ijpe.2014.038

Published online: October 15, 2014  |   Number of Views: 1  |  Number of Download: 20


Abstract

The worldwide spread of English, especially through the tenets and assumptions of the mainstream English language teaching (ELT) has had ideological, socio-cultural and political implications in the field of education. Reviewing these tenets and assumptions, this paper attempts to reveal this growing industry through publicizing the spread of Center-created methods, materials, curriculum and expertise as well as legitimizing only the Center’s linguistic and cultural norms, introduces itself not only as a merely educational and value-free trend, but hides its biased exclusive and hegemonic nature. Then, to reveal its hidden nature and functions, it attempts to introduce and problematize some important assumptions of ELT taken for granted. Finally, through some practical and defensible suggestions, the rationale for applying critical pedagogy or in Canagarajah’s (1999) words, “the third way” as a panacea to breaking the dependency on the mainstream Center-based pedagogy as an exclusive tradition in Periphery countries is introduced and discussed.

Keywords: critical pedagogy, mainstream ELT, culture, Center, Periphery


How to Cite this Article?

APA 6th edition
Davari, H., Aghagolzadeh, F., Golfam, A. & Kambuziya, A.K.Z. (2014). The Third Way: A Call for Breaking the Dependency on the Mainstream English Language Teaching . International Journal of Progressive Education, 10(3), 60-71.

Harvard
Davari, H., Aghagolzadeh, F., Golfam, A. and Kambuziya, A. (2014). The Third Way: A Call for Breaking the Dependency on the Mainstream English Language Teaching . International Journal of Progressive Education, 10(3), pp. 60-71.

Chicago 16th edition
Davari, Hossein, Ferdows Aghagolzadeh, Arsalan Golfam and Aliyeh Kord Zafaranlu Kambuziya (2014). "The Third Way: A Call for Breaking the Dependency on the Mainstream English Language Teaching ". International Journal of Progressive Education 10 (3):60-71.

References
  1. Akbari, R. (2008). Transforming lives: introducing critical pedagogy into ELT classrooms. ELT Journal, 62(3), 276-283. [Google Scholar]
  2. Altbach, P. G. (2007). The imperial tongue: English as the dominating academic language. Economic and Political Weekly, 27 (3), 3608-3611. [Google Scholar]
  3. Anderson, C. (2003). Phillipson's children. Language and Intercultural Communication. 3 (1),  81-95. [Google Scholar]
  4. Baladi, N. (2007). Critical Pedagogy in the ELT Industry: Can a Socially Responsible Curriculum Find  its  Place  in  a  Corporate  Culture?   Unpublished  MA  Thesis,  McGill      University. [Google Scholar]
  5. Bailey, R. W., and Görlach, M. (Eds.) (1982). English as a World Language. Ann Arbor: University  of Michigan Press. [Google Scholar]
  6. Block, D. and Cameron, D. (Eds.) (2002). Globalization and Language Teaching. London: Routledge. [Google Scholar]
  7. Brown, H. D. (2001). Teaching by Principles: An Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy. White Plains, NY: Pearson Education. [Google Scholar]
  8. Brutt-Griffler, J. (2002). World English: A Study of its Development. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters Ltd. [Google Scholar]
  9. Canagarajah, A. (1995). Review of linguistic imperialism. Language in Society, 24, 590-595. [Google Scholar]
  10. Canagarajah, A. S. (1999). Resisting Linguistic Imperialism in English Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press. [Google Scholar]
  11. Cheshire, J. (Ed.) (1991). English around the World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [Google Scholar]
  12. Crystal, D. (1997). English as a Global Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Dua, H. (1994). Hegemony of English. Maysore: Yashoda Publications. [Google Scholar]
  13. Edge, J. (Ed.) (2006). (Re)locating TESOL in an Age of Empire. London: Palgrave. [Google Scholar]
  14. Ghaffar Samar, R. and Davari, H. (2011). Liberalist or alarmist: Iranian ELT community's attitude to mainstream ELT vs. critical ELT, Asian TESOL Journal, 5 (2), 63-91. .< http://www.tesol- journal.com/PDF/A6_V5_TESOL.pdf> [Google Scholar]
  15. Graddol, D. (1997). The Future of English. London: British Council. Graddol, D. (2006). English Next. London: British Council. [Google Scholar]
  16. Gray, J. (2002). The global coursebook in English language teaching. In D. Block and D. Cameron (Eds), Globalization and Language Teaching (pp. 151-167). London: Routledge. [Google Scholar]
  17. Hellinger, M. (2005). The problem of world English: Reflecting on Crystal and Phillipson. Retrieved May 12, 2008 from http://chorpita.com/uni/chorpita_douglas_world_english [Google Scholar]
  18. Holborrow, M.(1999). The Politics of English: a Marxist view of language. London: Sage. [Google Scholar]
  19. Holliday, A. (2005). The Struggle to Teach English as an International Language. Oxford: Oxford University Press. [Google Scholar]
  20. Jenkins, J. (1995). The Triumph of English. The Times, 25 February. [Google Scholar]
  21. Jenkins, J. (2003). World Englishes: A Resource Book for Students. London: Routledge. [Google Scholar]
  22. Jenkins, J. (2007). English as a Lingua Franca: Attitudes and Identity. Oxford: Oxford University Press. [Google Scholar]
  23. Johnston, B. (2003). Values in English Language Teaching. Mahawah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Association. [Google Scholar]
  24. Kelly Hall, J. and Eggington, W. G. (2000). The Socio- politics of English Language Teaching. Clevedon and Buffalo: Multilingual Matters Ltd. [Google Scholar]
  25. Kubota, R. (2002). The impact of globalization on language teaching in Japan. In D. Block and D. Cameron (Eds).  Globalization and Language Teaching (pp. 13-28). London: Routledge. [Google Scholar]
  26. Kumaravadivelu,  B.  (2006).  Dangerous liaison:  globalization, empire  & TESOL.  In  J.  Edge (Ed), (Re)locating TESOL in an Age of Empire (pp. 1-26). Palgrave. [Google Scholar]
  27. Kumaravadivelu, B. (2012). Individual identity, cultural globalization, and teaching English as an international language. In Alsagoff, et. al (Eds), Principles and Practices for Teaching English as an International Language (pp. 9-27). New York: Routledge. [Google Scholar]
  28. Larsen-Freeman, D. (2000). Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. New York: Oxford University Press. [Google Scholar]
  29. Mair, Ch. (2004). The Politics of English as a World Language: New Horizons in Postcolonial Cultural Studies. Amsterdam: Radopi. [Google Scholar]
  30. Matsuda, A. (2006). Negotiating ELT assumptions in EIL classrooms. In J. Edge (Ed.). (Re)Locating TESOL in an Age of Empire (pp.158-170). London: Palgrave. [Google Scholar]
  31. Matsuda, A. (2012). Teaching Materials in EIL. In Alsagoff, et. al (Eds), Principles and Practices for Teaching English as an International Language (pp. 168- 185). New York: Routledge. [Google Scholar]
  32. McCrum, R. Cran, W. and MacNeil, R. (1992). The Story of English. London: Faber and Faber. [Google Scholar]
  33. Mckay, S. (2002). Teaching English as an International Language. Oxford: Oxford University Press. [Google Scholar]
  34. Mckay, S. (2012). Principles of teaching English as an international language. In Alsagoff, et. al (Eds), Principles and Practices for Teaching English as an International Language (pp. 28-46). New York: Routledge. [Google Scholar]
  35. Meierkord, C. (1996). Language stripped bare or linguistic masala? Culture in lingua franca communication. In K. Knapp and C. Meierkord (Eds.), Lingua Franca Communication (pp.109-133). Frankfort A.M.: Peter Lang. [Google Scholar]
  36. Mesthire,  R.  and  Bhatt,  M.  R.  (2008).World  Englishes:  The  Study  of  New  Linguistic  Varieties. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [Google Scholar]
  37. Mirabela, P. (2006). Globalization of English. Retrieved April 20, 2009 from steconomic.uoradea.ro/anale/volume/2006/impactul-limbilor/13pdf. [Google Scholar]
  38. Modiano, M. (1999). Standard English(es) and educational practices for the world's lingua franca. English Today, 15(4): 22-34. [Google Scholar]
  39. Mühlhäusler, P. (1996). Linguistic Ecology: Language Change and Linguistic Imperialism in the Pacific Region, London: Routledge. [Google Scholar]
  40. Nunan, D. (2003). The impact of English as a global language on educational policies and practices in the Asia-Pacific region. TESOL Quarterly, 37(4), 589-613. [Google Scholar]
  41. Pennycook, A. (1994). The Cultural Politics of English as an International Language. Essex:  Longman Group Ltd. [Google Scholar]
  42. Pennycook, A. (1995). English in the world/the world in English. In J. W. Tollefson (Ed.), Power and inequality in language education (pp. 34–58). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [Google Scholar]
  43. Pennycook, A. (1998). English and the Discourse of Colonialism. London: Routledge. [Google Scholar]
  44. Pennycook, A. (1999). Introduction: critical approaches to TESOL. TESOL Quarterly, 33, 329-348. [Google Scholar]
  45. Pennycook, A. (2001). Critical Applied Linguistics: A Critical Introduction. Mahawah, NI: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [Google Scholar]
  46. Pennycook. A. (2007). ELT and colonialism. In J. Cummins and C. Davison (Eds.) International Handbook of English Language Teaching (pp. 13-24 ). Springer. [Google Scholar]
  47. Pennycook, A (2010). English and globalization. In J. Maybin and J. Swann, (Eds), The Routledge Companion to English Language Studies (pp. 113-121). Routledge. [Google Scholar]
  48. Phillipson, R. (1992). Linguistic Imperialism. Oxford, Oxford University Press. Phillipson, R. (2009). Linguistic Imperialism Continued, London: Routledge. [Google Scholar]
  49. Phillipson, R. and Skutnabb-Kangas, T. (1996). English only worldwide, or language ecology. TESOL Quarterly, 3(3), 429-452. [Google Scholar]
  50. Pishghadam, R.       and Naji, E. (2011). Applied ELT as  a panacea for linguistic imperialism.  Iranian [Google Scholar]
  51. EFL Journal, 8 (1), 35-58. Platt, J., Weber, H. and Ho, M. L. (1984). The New Englishes. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. [Google Scholar]
  52. Sadeghi, S. (2005). Critical pedagogy in an EFL teaching context: an ignis fatuus or an alternative approach? Journal of Critical Education Policy Studies, 6(1),1-9. [Google Scholar]
  53. Sharifian, F. (Ed.) (2009). English as an International Language: Perspective and Pedagogical Issues. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. [Google Scholar]
  54. Skutnabb-Kangas, T. (1998). Human rights and language wrongs- a future for diversity? Language Sciences, 20, 5-28. [Google Scholar]
  55. Spolsky, B. (2004). Language Policy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [Google Scholar]
  56. Tollefson, J. W. (1991). Planning Language, Planning Inequality: language Policy in the Community. London: Longman. [Google Scholar]
  57. Tsuda, Y. (1994). The diffusion of English: its impact on culture and communication. Keio Communicatio Review, 16, 49-61. [Google Scholar]
  58. Tsuda, Y. (1997). Hegemony of English vs. ecology of language: Building equity in international communication. In L. E. Smith and M. L. Forman (Eds.), World Englishes 2000: Selected Essays (pp. 171-182). Honolulu, HI: College of Language, Linguistics and Literature, University of Hawaii and the East-West Center. [Google Scholar]
  59. Tsuda, Y. (2008). English hegemony and English divide. China Media Research, 4(1), 47-55. [Google Scholar]
  60. Wilson, R. (2005). Imposition or Adoption? The Globalization of ELT Practices. Unpublished MA assignment. University of Essex. [Google Scholar]