International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 2834-7919   |  e-ISSN: 1554-5210

Original article | International Journal of Progressive Education 2012, Vol. 8(3) 32-47

Promoting “Active Citizens”? The Critical Vision of NGOs over Citizenship Education as an Educational Priority across Europe

Ana Bela Ribeiro, Mariana Rodrigues, Andreia Caetano, Sofia Pais, & Isabel Menezes

pp. 32 - 47   |  Manu. Number: ijpe.2012.042

Published online: October 15, 2012  |   Number of Views: 105  |  Number of Download: 346


In the last decades, Citizenship Education (CE) has been at the forefront of both educational policies and international research regarding curriculum design and impact on pupils‘ knowledge, values and skills. However, not only what citizenship ―is‖ is diversely conceived by different democratic traditions (Eisenstadt, 2000; Heater, 1999) but, obviously, CE also involves organisations beyond the walls of schools. This paper confronts educational policies with the views of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in 20 European countries. Results suggest that the vision of CE as a priority in educational policy documents is questioned by NGOs that consider schools are too focused on formal democracy and overemphasize respect for rules, values and responsibilities, rather than promoting critical, informed and active citizens. Especially in countries with an authoritarian past, NGOs consider that models of conformism and submission are still dominant, and emphasize the role of CE in promoting a strong civil society.

Keywords: citizenship education, educational policies, non-governmental organisations

How to Cite this Article?

APA 6th edition
Ribeiro, A.B., Rodrigues, M., Caetano, A., Pais, S. & Menezes, I. (2012). Promoting “Active Citizens”? The Critical Vision of NGOs over Citizenship Education as an Educational Priority across Europe . International Journal of Progressive Education, 8(3), 32-47.

Ribeiro, A., Rodrigues, M., Caetano, A., Pais, S. and Menezes, I. (2012). Promoting “Active Citizens”? The Critical Vision of NGOs over Citizenship Education as an Educational Priority across Europe . International Journal of Progressive Education, 8(3), pp. 32-47.

Chicago 16th edition
Ribeiro, Ana Bela, Mariana Rodrigues, Andreia Caetano, Sofia Pais and Isabel Menezes (2012). "Promoting “Active Citizens”? The Critical Vision of NGOs over Citizenship Education as an Educational Priority across Europe ". International Journal of Progressive Education 8 (3):32-47.

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