International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 2834-7919   |  e-ISSN: 1554-5210

Original article | International Journal of Progressive Education 2022, Vol. 18(1) 285-297

Investigating Speaking Performance in Terms of Cultural Capital

Onur Dölek & Salih Kürşad Dolunay

pp. 285 - 297   |  DOI:   |  Manu. Number: MANU-2107-08-0005.R1

Published online: February 01, 2022  |   Number of Views: 252  |  Number of Download: 390


This study examines whether or not cultural capital has a predictive role in speaking performance. This is a mixed-methods study. Its data were collected from 263 participants (118 females, 145 males) of different ages and professions. The Cultural Capital Scale and a semi-structured interview form were used to collect the data. The participants’ speeches were videotaped and evaluated using the Speaking Performance Rating Scale. The study data were evaluated using correlation analysis (r), simple linear regression and content analysis. This study found a positive, significant relationship between cultural capital and speaking performance (r=0.878, p<0.001). Cultural capital accounted for 77.2% of the variation in speaking performance, thus significantly predicting speaking performance. Of the participants, 87.07% said that cultural capital affects speaking performance, and 94.29% said that there was parallelism between cultural capital competencies and speaking performance. Cultural capital plays a vital role in improving speaking performance. Cultural activities such as mobile movie theaters, sports facilities, libraries, theater performances and more should be made available to children who live in relatively underprivileged environments in order to increase their cultural capital. With long-term strategies and development policies, educational programs should be restructured to consider cultural capital’s role in linguistic skills. Online practices such as virtual visits to museums and exhibitions, participation in virtual concerts and e-books should be emphasized more. Courses that prioritize cultural content such as music, movies and novels should be designed. The content of textbooks should be enriched by including biographies of important scientists and artists. Researchers should also investigate whether or not cultural capital affects other fundamental linguistic skills.

Keywords: Speaking, Performance, Cultural Capital, Prediction

How to Cite this Article?

APA 6th edition
Dolek, O. & Dolunay, S.K. (2022). Investigating Speaking Performance in Terms of Cultural Capital . International Journal of Progressive Education, 18(1), 285-297. doi: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.426.16

Dolek, O. and Dolunay, S. (2022). Investigating Speaking Performance in Terms of Cultural Capital . International Journal of Progressive Education, 18(1), pp. 285-297.

Chicago 16th edition
Dolek, Onur and Salih Kursad Dolunay (2022). "Investigating Speaking Performance in Terms of Cultural Capital ". International Journal of Progressive Education 18 (1):285-297. doi:10.29329/ijpe.2022.426.16.

  1. Ahmad, S. & Rozimela, Y. (2013). Teaching speaking by using mini musical drama to improve senior high school students’ speaking perfomance. Journal of English Language Teaching, 2(1), 334-345. [Google Scholar]
  2. Andersen, P. L. & Hansen, M. N. (2011). Class and cultural capital—The case of class inequality in educational performance. European sociological review, 28(5), 607-621. [Google Scholar]
  3. Atli, I. & Bergil, A. S. (2012). The effect of pronunciation instruction on students’ overall speaking skills. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 46, 3665- 3671. [Google Scholar]
  4. Avcı, Y. E. & Yaşar, M. (2014). The scale of cultural capital: A reliability and validity study. International Journal of Social Science Research, 3(1), 65-77.  [Google Scholar]
  5. Ayrancı, B. B. (2016). Speaking, speaking training and speaking in Turkish programs. Karaelmas Journal of Educational Sciences, 4(1), 15-24. [Google Scholar]
  6. Başaran, M. & Erdem, İ. (2009). A research about views of teacher candidates on rhetorical speaking skill. Kastamonu Education Journal, 17(3), 743-754.   [Google Scholar]
  7. Bircan, E. (2013). The attitudes of university students towards using speaking skills. Millî Eğitim Dergisi, 43(197), 95-113. [Google Scholar]
  8. Bourdieu, P. (1986). The Forms of Capital. J. G. Richardson (Ed.), In Handbook of theory and research for the sociology of education (pp. 241-258). Connecticut: Greenwood Press. [Google Scholar]
  9. Bourdieu, P. & Passeron, J. (1977). Reproduction in education, society, culture. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. [Google Scholar]
  10. Bourdieu, P. & Passeron, J. (2015). Reproduction: Principles of a theory about the education system. L. Ünsaldı and Ö. Akkaya (Trans.), Ankara: Heretik Publications.  [Google Scholar]
  11. Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2014). Data analysis handbook for social sciences (20. ed.). Ankara: Pegem Academy. [Google Scholar]
  12. Collins, R. (1998). The sociology of philosophies: A global theory of intellectual change. Cambridge: Bellmap Press. [Google Scholar]
  13. Creswell, J. W. (2016). Research Design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (2. ed.). S. B. Demir (Trans. Ed.), Ankara: Eğiten Book. [Google Scholar]
  14. De Graaf, P. M. (1986). The impact of financial and cultural resources on educational attainment in the Netherlands. Sociology of Education, 59(4), 237-246. [Google Scholar]
  15. DiMaggio, P. (1982). Cultural capital and school success: The impact of status culture participation on the grades of U.S. high school students. American Sociological Review. 47, 189-201. [Google Scholar]
  16. DiMaggio, P. & Mohr, J. (1985). Cultural capital, educational attainment, and marital selection. The American Journal of Sociology, 90(6), 1231–1261. [Google Scholar]
  17. Doğan, Y. (2009). Suggested activities to improve speaking skill. The Journal of Turkish Educational Sciences, 7(1), 185-204. [Google Scholar]
  18. Douglas, M. (2004). Traditional culture—let’s hear no more about it. V. Rao and M. Walton (Ed.), Culture and Public Action içinde (ss. 85–109). Stanford University Press, Stanford. [Google Scholar]
  19. Dumais, S. A. (2002). Cultural capital, gender, and school success: The role of habitus. Sociology of education, 75(1), 44-68.  [Google Scholar]
  20. Erdem, A. & Erdem, M. (2015). The Effect of Constructivist Blended Learning Environment on Listening and Speaking Skills. Elementary Education Online, 14(3), 1130-1148. [Google Scholar]
  21. Fernald, A., Marchman, V. A. & Weisleder, A. (2013). SES differences in language processing skill and vocabulary are evident at 18 months. Developmental science, 16(2), 234-248. [Google Scholar]
  22. Fraenkel, J. R, Hyun, H. H. & Wallen, N. E. (2012). How to design and evaluate research in education (8. ed.). New York: McGraw Hill. [Google Scholar]
  23. Gaddis, S. M. (2013). The influence of habitus in the relationship between cultural capital and academic achievement. Social science research, 42(1), 1-13. [Google Scholar]
  24. Gall, M. D., Gall, J. P. & Borg, W. R. (2003). Educational research (7. ed.). USA: Pearson Education. [Google Scholar]
  25. Gans, J. H. (2018). Popular culture and high culture (5. ed.). E. Onaran İncirlioğlu (Trans.). İstanbul: Yapı Kredi Publications.  [Google Scholar]
  26. Ginsborg, J. (2006). The effects of socio-economic status on children’s language acquisition and use. J Clegg and J Ginsborg (Ed.), In Language and Social Disadvantage: Theory into Practice (pp. 9-27), Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. [Google Scholar]
  27. Goodenough, W. H. (1961). Comment on cultural evolution. Daedalus, 90 (52), 1-28. [Google Scholar]
  28. Grenfell, M. (2011). Bourdieu, language and linguistics. New York: Continuum. [Google Scholar]
  29. Günay, D. (1995). A sociolinguistic approach to novel analysis. Language Journal, 35, 5-24.  [Google Scholar]
  30. Güngör, N. (2018). Communication: Theories and approaches (4. Ed.). Ankara: Siyasal Bookstore.  [Google Scholar]
  31. Güvenç, B. (1997). ABC of Culture. İstanbul: Yapı Kredi Publications.  [Google Scholar]
  32. Hamzadayı, E. & Dölek, O. (2017). The approaches of Turkish teachers in evaluating speaking skills. Journal of Language Education and Research, 3(3), 135-151. [Google Scholar]
  33. Harker, R. (1990). Bourdieu: Education and reproduction. R . Harker, C. Mahar and C. Wilkes (Ed.). In An Introduction to the Work of Pierre Bourdieu. The practice of theory (pp. 86-109). Basingstoke and London: The MacMillan Press Ltd.  [Google Scholar]
  34. Harrison, G. (2013). Cultural capital. The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics. DOI: 10.1002/9781405198431.wbeal0295. [Google Scholar]
  35. Heath, S. B. (2012). Language socialization in art and science. A. Duranti, E. Ochs & B. Schieffelin (Ed.). In The handbook of language socialization (pp. 425-442).  Oxford, U.K.: Blackwell Publishing Limited.  [Google Scholar]
  36. Jæger, M. M. (2011). Does cultural capital really affect academic achievement? New evidence from combined sibling and panel data. Sociology of Education. 84(4), 281-298. [Google Scholar]
  37. Janene, T.,  Nicola, S. & Vicki, B. (2013). First steps: Speaking and listening resource book. Department of Education WA.   [Google Scholar]
  38. Jenkins, R. (1992). Pierre Bourdieu. London and New York: Routledge.  [Google Scholar]
  39. Johnson, B. & Christensen, L. (2014). Educational research: Quantitative, qualitative and mixed approaches (4. ed.). S. B. Demir (Trans. Ed.), Ankara: Eğiten Book. [Google Scholar]
  40. Kent, R. D. & Burkard, R. (1981). Changes in the acoustical correlates of speech production. D. S. Beasley and G. A. Davis (Ed.). In Aging: Communication processes and disorders (pp. 47-62). New York: Grune and Stratton. [Google Scholar]
  41. Khameis, M. (2006). Using Creative strategies to promote students’ speaking skills. [Google Scholar]
  42. Koytak, E. (2012). Dominating the domination: Science-society relationship in Bourdieu’s sociology. İstanbul University Journal of Sociology, 3(25), 85-101. [Google Scholar]
  43. Krauss, R. M. & Chiu, C.-Y. (1998). Language and social behavior. D. T. Gilbert, S. T. Fiske and G. Lindzey (Ed.). In Handbook of social psychology (pp. 41-88). New York: McGraw-Hill. [Google Scholar]
  44. Kusnierek, A. (2015). Developing students’ speaking skills through role play. World Scientific News, 7, 74-111.  [Google Scholar]
  45. Lareau, A. (1987). Social class differences in family-school relationships: The importance of cultural capital. Sociology of Education, 60, 73-85. [Google Scholar]
  46. Lareau, A. & Weininger, E. B. (2003). Cultural capital in educational research: A critical assessment. Theory and Society, 32(5-6), 567-606. [Google Scholar]
  47. Lee, J. S. & Bowen, N. K. (2006). Parent involvement, cultural capital, and the achievement gap among elementary school children. American Educational Research Journal, 43(2), 193-218. [Google Scholar]
  48. Lin, N. (1999). Building a network theory of social capital. Connections. 22(1), 28-51. [Google Scholar]
  49. Lourdunathan, J. & Menon, S. (2006). Developing speaking skills through interaction strategy training. The English Teacher, XXXIV, 1-18. [Google Scholar]
  50. Marks, G. (2009). The influence of cultural capital on the early educational and early labour market outcomes of young people in Australia. K. Robinson ve C. Sanders (Ed). In Quantifying Theory: Pierre Bourdieu (pp. 89-103). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer. [Google Scholar]
  51. Marshall, G. (1999). Sosyoloji Sözlüğü. O. Akınhay and D. Kömürcü (Trans.). Ankara: Bilim and Sanat Publications. [Google Scholar]
  52. Matarasso, F. (1997). Use or ornament? The social impact of participation in the arts. Stroud: Comedia.  [Google Scholar]
  53. McTavish, A. (2020). Cultural capital. Retrieved on 12.01.2019 from  [Google Scholar]
  54. McWhorter, J. (2014). The language hoax. Why the world looks the same in any language. London: Routledge. [Google Scholar]
  55. Mosiyenko, L. V. (2014). The problem of classifying eigenfacts in cultural linguistics. O. Kozan (Ed.), In Cultural linguistics, basic concepts and problems (pp. 87-100). Ankara: Gazi Bookstore. [Google Scholar]
  56. Nishioka, S. & Durrani, N. (2019). Language and cultural reproduction in Malawi: Unpacking the relationship between linguistic capital and learning outcomes. International Journal of Educational Research, 93, 1-12. [Google Scholar]
  57. Pace, A., Luo, R., Hirsh-Pasek, K. & Golinkoff, R. M. (2017). Identifying pathways between socioeconomic status and language development. Annual Review of Linguistics, 3, 285-308. [Google Scholar]
  58. Roberts, K. (2004). Leisure inequalities, class divisions and social exclusion in present-day Britain. Cultural Trends, 13(2), 57–71. [Google Scholar]
  59. Robinson, R. V. & Garnier, M. (1985). Class reproduction among men and women in France. American Journal of Sociology, 91, 250-280. [Google Scholar]
  60. Roscigno, V. J. & Ainsworth-Darnell, J. W. (1999). Race, cultural capital, and educational resources: Persistent inequalities and achievement returns. Sociology of education, 72, 158-178. [Google Scholar]
  61. Rowe, M. L. (2008). Child-directed speech: Relation to socioeconomic status, knowledge of child development and child vocabulary skill. Journal of child language, 35(1), 185-205. [Google Scholar]
  62. Roy, P., Chiat, S. & Dodd, B. (2014). Language and socioeconomic disadvantage: From research to practice. London, UK: City University London. [Google Scholar]
  63. Sato, K. (2003). Improving our students’ speaking skills: Using selective error correction and group work to reduce anxiety and encourage real communication. (Report No. FL¬027 636). Akita, Japan: Akita Prefectural Akita Senior High School. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED475518). [Google Scholar]
  64. Schwab, J. F. & Lew‐Williams, C. (2016). Language learning, socioeconomic status, and child‐directed speech. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science, 7(4), 264-275. [Google Scholar]
  65. Schwalbe, M., Godwin, S., Holden, D., Schrock, D., Thompson, S. & Wolkomir, M. (2000). Generic processes in the reproduction of inequality: An interactionist analysis. Social Forces, 79(2), 419–52. [Google Scholar]
  66. Shaw, B. (1951) Pygmalion; a romance in five acts. Baltimore, Penguin Books. [Google Scholar]
  67. Smedley, J. W. & Bayton, J. A. (1978). Evaluative race-class stereotypes by race and perceived class of subject. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36, 530-535. [Google Scholar]
  68. Sullivan, A. (2001). Cultural capital and educational attainment. Sociology, 35(4), 893-912. [Google Scholar]
  69. Swartz, D. (1996). Bridging the study of culture and religion: Pierre Bourdieu's political economy of symbolic power.  Sociology of Religion, 57(1), 71-85. [Google Scholar]
  70. Swidler, A. (1986). Culture in action: Symbols and strategies.  American Sociological Review,  [Google Scholar]
  71. Tekbıyık, A. (2014). Relational research method. Metin, M. (Ed.). In Scientific research methods in education from theory to practice (pp. 99-114).  Ankara: Pegem Academy. [Google Scholar]
  72. Tramonte, L. & Willms, J. D. (2010). Cultural capital and its effects on education outcomes. Economics of Education Review, 29(2), 200-213. [Google Scholar]
  73. Uçgun, D. (2007). The factors affecting the speaking education. Journal of Social Sciences Instıtute, 22(1), 59-67. [Google Scholar]
  74. Vilimec, E. (2006). Developing Speaking Skills. University of Pardubice. [Google Scholar]
  75. Wildhagen, T. (2009). Why does cultural capital matter for high school academic performance? An empirical assessment of teacher-selection and self-selection mechanisms as explanations of the cultural capital effect. The Sociological Quarterly, 50(1), 173-200. [Google Scholar]
  76. Williams R. (1993). Culture. E. Başer (Trans.). İstanbul: İletişim Publications. [Google Scholar]
  77. Yamamoto, Y. & Brinton, M. C. (2010). Cultural capital in East Asian educational systems: The case of Japan. Sociology of Education, 83(1), 67-83 [Google Scholar]
  78. Yanıklar, C. (2010). Cultural Capital, Education and Social Stratification: A Critical View on Pierre Bourdieu’s Reproduction Theory. Journal of Sociology, (22), 121-138. [Google Scholar]
  79. Yaşar, M. R. (2016). The relationship among poverty, academic achievement and cultural capital. Kilis 7 Aralık University Journal of Social Sciences, 6(11), 202-237. [Google Scholar]