International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 2834-7919   |  e-ISSN: 1554-5210

Original article | International Journal of Progressive Education 2024, Vol. 20(2) 22-39

Investigation of Teachers' Views on Classroom Practices to Support Children's Self-Regulation Skills

Elif Sezgin

pp. 22 - 39   |  DOI:   |  Manu. Number: MANU-2303-30-0002.R1

Published online: April 05, 2024  |   Number of Views: 20  |  Number of Download: 146


This research investigates preschool teachers' views on classroom practices to support children's self-regulation skills. The study was conducted with 27 preschool teachers working in the Independent Kindergarten affiliated with the Ministry of National Education in the city center of Bursa in Turkey. Data were obtained from teachers by asking semi-structured questions using the interview technique. Descriptive analysis was used to evaluate the data from the interviews. As a result, the teachers participating in the research stated that self-regulation skills could be gained by teaching children emotion management and self-care skills and supporting their ability to express their feelings and thoughts comfortably and appropriately. In addition, the teachers stated that they mainly included stories, play, and drama activities that support daily life skills in the classroom, and teachers stated that they arranged the materials in the learning centers and other materials in the classroom so children could easily access them.

Keywords: Self-Regulation, Early Childhood Teacher, Practices and Strategies

How to Cite this Article?

APA 6th edition
Sezgin, E. (2024). Investigation of Teachers' Views on Classroom Practices to Support Children's Self-Regulation Skills . International Journal of Progressive Education, 20(2), 22-39. doi: 10.29329/ijpe.2024.657.2

Sezgin, E. (2024). Investigation of Teachers' Views on Classroom Practices to Support Children's Self-Regulation Skills . International Journal of Progressive Education, 20(2), pp. 22-39.

Chicago 16th edition
Sezgin, Elif (2024). "Investigation of Teachers' Views on Classroom Practices to Support Children's Self-Regulation Skills ". International Journal of Progressive Education 20 (2):22-39. doi:10.29329/ijpe.2024.657.2.

  1. Alloway, T. P., Gathercole, S. E., Willis, C., & Adams, A.-M. (2004). A structural analysis of working memory and related cognitive skills in young children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 87, 85–106. doi: 10.1016/j.jecp.2003.10.002 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  2. Aykut, Ç., Apaydın, G & Çelik, A. (2018). Okul Öncesi Öğretmenlerinin Çocukların Öz Düzenleme Becerilerini Desteklemeye Yönelik Sınıf İçi Uygulamalarının Belirlenmesi.  Uluslararası Engelsiz Yaşam ve Toplum Dergisi, Vol. 2 (1),16-34. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  3. Bauer, I., & Baumeister, R. (2011). Self-regulatory strength. In K. Vohs & R. Baumeister (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation (2nd ed.) (pp. 64–82). New York, NY: The Guilford Press. [Google Scholar]
  4. Baumeister, R. F., & Vohs, K. D. (2011). Handbook of self-regulation: Research, theory, and applications (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press. [Google Scholar]
  5. Becker, D. R. McClelland, M., Loprinzi, P., & Trost, S. G. (2014). Physical activity, self-regulation, and early academic achievement in preschool children. Early Education and Development, 25, 56–70. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  6. Barkley, R. A. (2012). Executive functions: What they are, how they work, and how the evolved. New York, NY: The Guilford Press. [Google Scholar]
  7. Blair, C. (2002). School readiness: Integrating cognition and emotion in a neurobiological conceptualization of children's functioning at school entry. American Psychologist, 57, 111–127. . https://doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.57.2.111 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  8. Birch, S. H. , & Ladd , G. W. (1997). The teacher-child relationship and children's early school adjustment. Journal of School Psychology, 35, 61–79. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  9. Bierman , K. L. , Torres , M. M. , Domitrovich , C. E. , Welsh , J. A. , & Gest , S. D. ( 2009 ). Behavioral and cognitive readiness for school: Cross-domain associations for children attending Head Start . Social Development, 18, 305 – 323. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  10. Brinkmann, S. (2013). Qualitative interviewing. Oxford university press. New York [Google Scholar]
  11. Burchinal, M., Peisner-Feinberg, E. S., Bryant, D. M., & Clifford, R. M. (2000). Children's social and cognitive development and child-care quality: Testing for differential associations related to poverty, gender, or ethnicity. Applied Developmental Science, 4(3), 149-165. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  12. Cadima J., Verschueren, K., Leal, T., & Guedes, C. (2016). Classroom interactions, dyadic teacher-child relationships, and self-regulation in socially disadvantaged young children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 44(1), 7-17. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  13. Cameron, C. E., & Morrison, F. J. (2011). Teacher activity orienting predicts preschoolers' academic and self-regulatory skills. Early Education & Development, 22(4), 620-648. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  14. Carlson, S. M., Moses, L. J., & Breton, C. (2002). How specific is the relation between executive function and theory of mind? Contribution of inhibitory control and working memory. Infant and Child Development, 11, 73–92. https:// doi: 10.1002/icd.298 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  15. Chang, F. , & Burns , B. M. ( 2005 ). Attention in preschoolers: Associations with effortful control and motivation. Child Development, 76, 247 – 263. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  16. Connor, C. M., Ponitz, C. C., Phillips, B. M., Travis, Q. M., Glasney, S., & Morrison, F. J. (2010). First graders' literacy and self-regulation gains: The effect of individualizing student instruction. Journal of School Psychology, 48(5), 433-455. https://doi: 10.1016/j.jsp.2010.06.003 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  17. Creswell, J. W. (2016). Nitel araştırma yöntemleri: Beş yaklaşıma göre nitel araştırma ve araştırma deseni. (trans. Edt: M. Bütün & S. B. Demir). Siyasal Kitabevi. [Google Scholar]
  18. Creswell, J. W. (2017). Araştırma deseni, nitel nicel ve karma yöntem yaklaşımları (trans. Edt: S. B. Demir). Eğiten Kitap Publications. [Google Scholar]
  19. Degol, J. L., & Bachman, H. J. (2015). Preschool teachers’ classroom behavioral socialization practices and low-income children's self-regulation skills. Early childhood research quarterly, 31, 89-100. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  20. Diamond, A., & Lee, K. (2011). Interventions shown to aid executive function development in children 4 to 12 years old. Science, 333, 959–964.https://doi: 10.1126/science.1204529 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  21. Dignath, C., & Büttner, G. (2018). Teachers’ direct and indirect promotion of self-regulated learning in primary and secondary school mathematics classes–insights from video-based classroom observations and teacher interviews. Metacognition and Learning, 13(2), 127-157. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  22. Downer, J. T., Sabol, T. J., & Hamre, B. K. (2010). Teacher-child interactions in the classroom: toward a theory of within- and crossdomain links to children’s developmental outcomes. Early Education and Development, 21,699–723. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  23. Ertürk, G. (2013). Öğretmen çocuk etkileşiminin niteliği ile çocukların öz düzenleme becerisi arasındaki ilişkinin incelenmesi. Unpublished Doctorate Thesis. Hacettepe University, Ankara. [Google Scholar]
  24. Eisenhower , A. S. , Baker , B. L. , & Blacher , J. ( 2007 ). Early student-teacher relationships of children with and without intellectual disability: Contributions of behavioral, social, and self-regulatory competence. Journal of School Psychology,  45, 363 – 383. https://doi: 10.1016/j.jsp.2006.10.002 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  25. Eisenberg, N., Valiente, C., & Eggum, N. D. (2010). Self-regulation and school readiness. Early Education and Development, 21(5), 681–698. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  26. Heo, K. H., Cheatham, G. A., Hemmeter, M. L., & Noh, J. (2014). Korean early childhood educators’ perceptions of the importance and implementation of strategies to address young children’s social-emotional competence. Journal of Early Intervention, 36(1), 49–66. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  27. Hughes, J. N., & Kwok, O. ( 2006 ). Classroom engagement mediates the effect of teacher-student support on elementary students’ peer acceptance: A prospective analysis. Journal of School Psychology, pp. 43, 465 – 480. https://doi: 10.1016/j.jsp.2005.10.001 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  28. Jones, S. M., Bub, K. L., & Raver, C. C. (2013). Unpacking the black box of the Chicago school readiness project intervention: the mediating roles of teacher–child relationship quality and self-regulation. Early Education & Development, 24(7), 1043–1064. https://doi:10.1080/10409289.2013.825188 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  29. Kurt, Ş. H., & Sığırtmaç, A. D. (2021). Okul öncesi öğretmenlerinin öz düzenleme becerisi ve öz-düzenlemeli öğrenmeyi destekleyen uygulamalarının sınıf yönetimi becerisi üzerine etkisi. Erken Çocukluk Çalışmaları Dergisi, 5(1), 135-151. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  30. Luo, L., Snyder, P., Huggins-Manley, A. C., Conroy, M., & Hong, X. (2021). Chinese preschool teachers’ implementation of practices to support young children’s social-emotional competence. Early Education and Development, 32(8), 1083-1102. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  31. Lambert, M.C., Cartledge, G., Heward, W. L. & Lo, Y. (2006). Effects of response cards on disruptive behavior and academic responding during math lessons by fourth-grade urban students. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 8(2), 88–99. https://DOI: 10.1177/10983007060080020701 [Google Scholar]
  32. Macklem, G. (2010). Practitioner’s guide to emotional regulation in school-age children. New York: Springer Science + Business Media, LLC. [Google Scholar]
  33. Mashburn, A. J., Pianta, R. C., Hamre, B. K., Downer, J. T., Barbarin, O., Bryant, D., Howes, C.( 2008 ). Measures of classroom quality in prekindergarten and children's development of academic, language, and social skills. Child Development, pp. 79, 732 – 749. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  34. McClelland, M. M., Cameron, C. E., Connor, C. M., Farris, C. L., Jewkes, A. M., & Morrison, F. J. ( 2007 ). Links between behavioral regulation and preschoolers’ literacy, vocabulary, and math skills. Developmental Psychology,.43, pp. 947 – 959. [Google Scholar]
  35. McClelland, M. M., Ponitz, C. C., Messersmith, E. E., & Tominey, S. (2010). Self-regulation: Integration of cognition and emotion. In W. F. Overton & R. M. Lerner (Eds.), The handbook of life-span development, Vol. 1. Cognition, biology, and methods (pp. 509–553). John Wiley & Sons, Inc..  [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  36. Merriam S. B. (2013). Nitel araştırma desen ve uygulama için bir rehber (trans. Edt: S. Turan). Nobel Publications. [Google Scholar]
  37. Miles, M. B. & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. [Google Scholar]
  38. Muenks, K., Wigfield, A., & Eccles, J. S. (2018). I can do this! The development and calibration of children’s expectations for success and competence beliefs. Developmental Review, 48, 24-39. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  39. National Association for the Education of Young Children (2009). Developmentally appropriate practice in early childhood programs serving children from birth through age 8. Retrieved from  [Google Scholar]
  40. Özdemir, M. (2010). Nitel veri analizi: Sosyal bilimlerde yöntembilim sorunsalı üzerine bir çalışma. Eskişehir Osmangazi Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 11(1), 323-343. [Google Scholar]
  41. Raver, C. C., Jones, S. M., Li-Grining, C., Zhai, F., Bub, K., & Pressler, E. ( 2011 ). CSRP's impact on low-income preschoolers’ pre-academic skills: Self-regulation as a mediating mechanism. Child Development,82, 362 – 378. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  42. Rakap, S., Balikci, S., Kalkan, S., & Aydin, B. (2018). Preschool teachers’ use of strategies to support social-emotional competence in young children. International Journal of Early Childhood Special Education, 10(1),1125. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  43. Rimm-Kaufman, S. E., Curby, T. W., Grimm, K. J., Nathanson, L., & Brock, L. L. (2009). The contribution of children’s self-regulation and classroom quality to children’s adaptive behaviors in the kindergarten classroom. Developmental Psychology, 45(4), 958–972. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  44. Robson, D. A., Allen, M. S., & Howard, S. J. (2020). Self-regulation in childhood as a predictor of future outcomes:A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin,146(4). [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  45. Rubin, H. J., & Rubin, I. S. (2012). Qualitative interviewing: The art of hearing data (3rd ed.). Sage Publications [Google Scholar]
  46. Russell, J., Mauthner, N., Sharpe, S., & Tidswell, T. (1991). The ‘window task’ as a measure of strategic deception in preschoolers and autistic subjects. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 9, 331–349. /10.1111/j.2044-835X.1991.tb00881.x [Google Scholar]
  47. Rudasill, K. M. ( 2011 ). Child temperament, teacher-child interactions, and teacher-child relationships: A longitudinal investigations from first to third grade. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 26,147 – 156. /10.1016/j.ecresq.2010.07.002 [Google Scholar]
  48. Posner, M. I. Rothbart, M. K. Sheese, B. E. & Tang, Y. (2007). The anterior cingulate gyrus and the mechanism of self-regulation. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 7(4), 391–395. /10.3758/cabn.7.4.391 [Google Scholar]
  49. Post, Y. Boyer, W. & Brett, L. (2006). A historical examination of self-regulation: Helping children now and in the future. Early Childhood Education Journal, 34(1), 5–14 10.1007/s10643-006-0107-x [Google Scholar]
  50. Saraç, S. & Tarhan, B. (2020). Preschool Teachers' Promotion of Self-Regulated Learning in the Classroom and Role of Contextual and Teacher-Level Factors. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 13(2), 309-322. [Google Scholar]
  51. Savina, E. (2014). Does play promote self-regulation in children? Early Child Development and Care, 184(11), 1692-1705. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  52. Steed, E. A., & Roach, A. T. (2017). Childcare providers' use of practices to promote young children's social–emotional competence. Infants & Young Children, 30(2), 162-171. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  53. Shonkoff, J. P. & Phillips, D. A. (2000). From neurons to neighbourhoods: The science of early childhood development. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. [Google Scholar]
  54. Shields, A. , Dickstein, S. , Seifer, R. , Giusti, L. Magee, K. D. , & Spritz, B. (2001). Emotional competence and early school adjustment: A study of preschoolers at risk. Early Education & Development, 12, 73 – 96. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  55. Stormont, M. Reinke, W. & Herman, K. (2011). Teachers’ knowledge of evidence-based interventions and available school resources for children with emotional and behavioral problems. Journal of Behavioral Education, 20(2), 138-147. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  56. Sylva, K. Melhuish, E., Sammons, P., Siraj-Blatchford, I.,& Taggart, B. (2010). Early childhood matters. Evidence from the effective pre-school and primary education project. London: Routledge. [Google Scholar]
  57. Tillman, C. M., Thorell, L. B., Brocki, K. C., & Bohlin, G. (2008). Motor response inhibition and execution in the stop-signal task: Development and relation to ADHD behaviors. Child Neuropsychology, 14, 42–59. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  58. Thomas, C. D. (2021). Preschool and Kindergarten Teachers’ Perspectives on Effective Strategies and Practices for Supporting Self-Regulation (Doctoral dissertation, Walden University). [Google Scholar]
  59. Iriogbe-Efionayi, S. (2018). An Examination of Early Childhood Teachers' Knowledge of Self-regulation (Doctoral dissertation, Tennessee State University). [Google Scholar]
  60. Uçan, S. (2019). Durum çalışması araştırması. S. Şen & İ. Yıldırım (Ed.) Eğitimde araştırma yöntemleri (pp. 227-248).Nobel Akademik Publications. [Google Scholar]
  61. Ursache, A., Blair, C., & Raver, C. C. (2012). The promotion of self‐regulation as a means of enhancing school readiness and early achievement in children at risk for school failure. Child Development Perspectives, 6(2), 122-128. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  62. Zelazo, P. D. Frye, D., & Rapus, T. (1996). An age-related dissociation between knowing rules and using them. Cognitive Development, 11(1), 37–63. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  63. Webster, M. A. (2015). Teachers' beliefs and practices related to student self-regulation in the classroom (Doctoral dissertation, James Madison University). [Google Scholar]
  64. Webster‐Stratton, C. Jamila Reid, M., & Stoolmiller, M. (2008). Preventing conduct problems and improving school readiness: evaluation of the incredible years teacher and child training programs in high‐risk schools. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49(5), 471-488. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  65. Willis, E. Dinehart, L. & Bliss, L. (2014). Teachers don’t always do what they think they should: A preliminary validation of the early childhood educators’ Knowledge of Self-Regulation Skills Questionnaire. Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education, 35(2), 168-184. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  66. Woodward, L. J., Lu, Z., Morris, A. R., & Healey, D. M. (2017). Preschool self-regulation predicts later mental health and educational achievement in very preterm and typically developing children. Clinical Neuropsychologist, 31(2), 404–422. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  67. Yeşilbaş Özenç, Y. (2022). Eğitim Araştırmalarında Durum Çalışması Deseni Nasıl Kullanılır? Uluslararası Eğitimde Nitel Araştırmalarda Mükemmellik Arayışı Dergisi (UEMAD), 1(2), 57-67. [Google Scholar]
  68. Yin, R. K. (2018). Case study research and applications design and methods (Vol. 6). Sage Publications. [Google Scholar]
  69. Yıldırım, A., & Şimşek, H. (2011). Sosyal Bilimlerde Nitel Araştırma Yöntemleri (8. Baskı). Seçkin Publications [Google Scholar]
  70. Yıldırım, A. ve Şimşek, H. (2018). Sosyal bilimlerde nitel araştırma yöntemleri. Ankara: Seçkin [Google Scholar]
  71. Yıldız, T. G., Kara, H. G. E., Tanrıbuyurdu, E. F., & Gönen, M. (2014). Öz düzenleme becerilerinin öğretmen çocuk etkileşiminin niteliğine göre incelenmesi. Eğitim ve Bilim, 39(176). [Google Scholar]
  72. Yıldırım, A., & Şimşek, H. (2013). Sosyal bilimlerde nitel araştırma yöntemleri. Ankara: Seçkin Publications. [Google Scholar]
  73. Zembylas, M., Charalambous, C., & Charalambous, P. (2014). The schooling of emotion and memory: Analyzing emotional styles in the context of a teacher's pedagogical practices. Teaching and Teacher Education, 44, 69-80. [Google Scholar] [Crossref]