International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 1554-5210

Original article | International Journal of Progressive Education 2022, Vol. 18(1) 194-209

Primary School Students' Images of Scientists and the Sources of These Images

Ebru Buket Aygun & Suat Celik

pp. 194 - 209   |  DOI: https://doi.org/10.29329/ijpe.2022.426.11   |  Manu. Number: MANU-2107-13-0001

Published online: February 01, 2022  |   Number of Views: 31  |  Number of Download: 80


Abstract

The aim of this study is to determine the 4th-grade students’ images of the scientists and the relations between these images and the images of scientists that primary school teachers describe in their classes and the images presented in the 4th-grade textbooks. The sample of the study consisted of 244 4th-grade students, 10 teachers, and 4th grade science and social studies textbooks. The study was designed according to the case study design, which is one of the qualitative research designs. As a result of the study, it has been determined that the students have stereotypical images about gender, age, working environment, and the works of the scientists. While it was determined that 85% of the students draw male scientists. However, contrary to the results commonly seen in the literature, the image of a scientist with a lab coat is found to be at a lower level in this study. In addition, the results obtained in the interviews with the teachers and textbooks examined revealed that there are similarities between these images that the students have and the images that the teachers have taught and the images presented in the textbooks.

Keywords: Images of Scientist, Primary School Students, DAST, Primary School Teacher, Textbooks


How to Cite this Article?

APA 6th edition
Aygun, E.B. & Celik, S. (2022). Primary School Students' Images of Scientists and the Sources of These Images . International Journal of Progressive Education, 18(1), 194-209. doi: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.426.11

Harvard
Aygun, E. and Celik, S. (2022). Primary School Students' Images of Scientists and the Sources of These Images . International Journal of Progressive Education, 18(1), pp. 194-209.

Chicago 16th edition
Aygun, Ebru Buket and Suat Celik (2022). "Primary School Students' Images of Scientists and the Sources of These Images ". International Journal of Progressive Education 18 (1):194-209. doi:10.29329/ijpe.2022.426.11.

References
  1. Akcay, B. (2011). Turkish elementary and secondary students’ views about science and scientist. Asia-Pacific Forum on Science Learning and Teaching, 12(1). [Google Scholar]
  2. Akçay, B. (2014). Fen bilimleri öğretimi [Science teaching ]. Ankara: Pegem Academy Publishing.  [Google Scholar]
  3. American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Science For All Americans. (1990). New York: Oxford University Press. [Google Scholar]
  4. Baday, D. (2019). İlköğretim öğrencilerinin kendileri, fen bilimleri öğretmeni ve bilim insanı ile ilgili imajlarının incelenmesi [Examination of primary school students' images of themselves, science teachers and scientists]. (Master Thesis)  Ağrı İbrahim Çeçen University.  [Google Scholar]
  5. Baybars, M. (2018). Fen bilgisi öğretmen adaylarının bilim insanı farkındalıklarının belirlenmesi  [The reason for science teacher candidates' awareness of scientists]. Trakya Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi [Trakya University Journal of Education Faculty], 8(3), 564–577. [Google Scholar]
  6. Blagdanic, S., Zorica K. (2019). Gender stereotypes in preschoolers’ image of scientists,. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 27(2). [Google Scholar]
  7. Brown, K., Grimbeek, P., Parkinson, P., & Swindell, R. (2004). Assessing the scientific literacy of younger students: Moving on from the stereotypes of the Draw-A-Scientist-Test. Educating: Weaving Research into Practice, 1(144). [Google Scholar]
  8. Buldu, M. (2006). Young children's perceptions of scientists: A preliminary study. Educational Research, 48(1), 121–132.  [Google Scholar]
  9. Büyüköztürk, Ş., Çakmak, E. K., Akgün, Ö. E., Demirel, F., & Karadeniz, Ş. (2010). Bilimsel Araştırma Yöntemleri [Scientific Research Methods]. Ankara: Pegem Academy Publishing. [Google Scholar]
  10. Bybee, R. W. (1995). Achieving scientific literacy. The Science Teacher, 62(7), 28. [Google Scholar]
  11. Camcı-Erdoğan, S. (2013). Üstün zekâlı ve yetenekli öğrencilerin bilim insanlarına yönelik algıları [The perceptions of gifted and talented students towards scientists]. Turkish Journal of Giftedness and Education 3(1), 13–37.  [Google Scholar]
  12. Chambers, D.W. (1983). Stereotypic images of the scientist: The draw-a-scientist test. Science Education, 67(2), 255–265.  [Google Scholar]
  13. Chiang, C. L., & Guo, C. J. (1996). A Study of the Images of the Scientist for Elementary School Children. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching.  (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No ED399148). [Google Scholar]
  14. Creswell, J. W. (2013). Nitel araştırma yöntemleri: Beş yaklaşıma göre nitel araştırma ve araştırma deseni (3. bs.) [Qualitative research methods: Qualitative research and research design according to five approaches (3th ed.)] (M. Bütün & S.B. Demir trans.). Ankara: Political Publication Distribution. [Google Scholar]
  15. Çakıcı, E. (2018). Farklı Öğretim Kademelerindeki Öğrencilerde Bilim İnsanı Algısının Belirlenmesi [Determination of Scientist Perception in Students at Different Education Levels]. (Master Thesis), Mersin University, Mersin. [Google Scholar]
  16. Çermik, H. (2013). Öğretmen Adaylarının Zihinlerinde Canlanan Resimdeki Bilim İnsanı [The Pictured Scientist Revived in the Minds of Teacher Candidates]. Pamukkale Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi [Pamukkale University Journal of Education], 33, 139–153. [Google Scholar]
  17. Demirbas, M. (2009). The relationships between the scientist perception and scientific attitudes of science teacher candidates in Turkey: A case study. Scientific Research and Essays, 4(6), 565–576.  [Google Scholar]
  18. Doğan, N., Çakıroğlu, J., Bilican, K. ve Çavuş, S. (2009). Bilimin Doğası ve Öğretimi [Nature and Teaching of Science]. Ankara: Pegem Academy. [Google Scholar]
  19. Doğan, H. (2015). Farklı ülkelerden 11-13 yaş aralığındaki öğrencilerin bilim ve bilim insanı hakkındaki görüşleri [Views of 11-13 year old students from different countries about science and scientist ]. (Master Thesis) Akdeniz Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Enstitüsü [Akdeniz University Institute of Educational Sciences], Antalya. [Google Scholar]
  20. Driver, R., Leach, J., & Millar, R. (1996). Young people's images of science. McGraw-Hill Education (UK). [Google Scholar]
  21. Evirgen, Ö., Özdural, Z., Özkan, J., Öztürk, S. (2017). İlkokul 4.Sınıf sosyal bilgiler ders kitabı. [Primary school, 4th grade social studies textbook.](Altun, A., Elmacı, S., Beldağ, A. Ed.) (MEB Yayınları) [MEB publications]. [Google Scholar]
  22. Finson, K.D..; Beaver, J.D.. & Cramond, B.L. (1995). Development and field test of a checklist for the draw-a-scientist test. School Science and Mathematics, 95(4), 195–206. [Google Scholar]
  23. Finson, K. D. (2002). Drawing a scientist: What we do and do not know after fifty years of drawings. School Science and Mathematics, 102(7), 335-345. [Google Scholar]
  24. Gheith, E., Aljaberi, N. M. (2019). The ımage of scientists among pre-service classroom and child education teachers in Jordan. International Journal of Instruction, 12(4). [Google Scholar]
  25. Hurd, P. D. (1998). Scientific literacy: New minds for a changing world. Science education, 82(3), 407-416. [Google Scholar]
  26. Kara, B., ve Akarsu, B. (2013). Ortaokul öğrencilerinin bilim insanına yönelik tutum ve imajının belirlenmesi [Determining the attitude and image of secondary school students towards scientists]. Journal of European Education 3(1), 8–15. [Google Scholar]
  27. Kathryn W., Andri C., Willeke R., Jenny B., Janice B. Griffiths & Marcus M. Grace (2016) Meet the scientist: The value of short ınteractions between scientists and students, International Journal of Science Education, Part B, 6 (1), 89-113. [Google Scholar]
  28. Kaya, N., Doğan, A. ve Öcal, E., Turkish elementary school students’ images of scientists (2008) Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 32, 83–100.  [Google Scholar]
  29. Kaya, T. (2017). İlkokul 4.sınıf fen bilimleri 2.kitap [Primary school 4th grade science 2nd book]. (N. Yıldız, Ed.) İstanbul: Fenbil Publishing. [Google Scholar]
  30. Korkmaz, H. ve Kavak, G. (2010). İlköğretim öğrencilerinin bilime ve bilim insanına yönelik imajları [Primary school students' images towards science and scientists], Elementary Education Online 9(3), 1055–1079. [Google Scholar]
  31. Küçük, M. ve Bağ, H. (2016). 4 ve 5. sınıf öğrencilerinin bilim insanı imajlarının karşılaştırılması [Comparison of 4th and 5th grade students' images of scientists]. Bayburt Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi [Journal of Bayburt Education Faculty], 7 (2), 125-138. [Google Scholar]
  32. Lee, E., & Kwon, H. (2019). How Korean middle school students see inventors: the images of the inventor. International Journal of Technology and Design Education, 29(4), 655-668. [Google Scholar]
  33. McComas, W.F. (2002). The Nature of Science in Science Education Rationales and Strategies. Kluwer Academic Publisher. [Google Scholar]
  34. McComas, W. F. (2017). Understanding how science works: the nature of science as the foundation for science teaching and learning. School Science Review, 98(365), 71-76. [Google Scholar]
  35. Mead, M., & Metraux, R. (1957). Image of the Scientist among High-School Students: A Pilot Study. Science, 126(3270), 384–390.  [Google Scholar]
  36. Miller, D. I., Nolla, K. M., Eagly, A. H., & Uttal, D. H. (2018). The development of children's gender science stereotypes: A meta analysis of 5 decades of US Draw a Scientist studies. Child Development, 89(6), 1943-1955. [Google Scholar]
  37. Narayan, R., Park, S., & Peker, D. (1983). Sculpted by Culture : Students ’ Embodied Images of Scientists. EpiSTEME 3, 45–51.  [Google Scholar]
  38. Newton, L. D., & Newton, D. P. (1998). Primary children's conceptions of science and the scientist: is the impact of a National Curriculum breaking down the stereotype?. International Journal of Science Education, 20(9), 1137-1149.  [Google Scholar]
  39. Newton, D. P., & Newton, L. D. (1992). Young children's perceptions of science and the scientist. International Journal of Science Education, 14(3), 331-348. [Google Scholar]
  40. National Research Council. NRC (1996) National science education standards. National Academy of Sciences. [Google Scholar]
  41. Nuhoğlu, H., ve Afacan, Ö. (2011). İlköğretim öğrencilerinin bilim insanına yönelik düşüncelerinin değerlendirilmesi [Evaluation of primary school students' thoughts about scientists]. Ahi Evran Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi [Ahi Evran University Journal of Education Faculty], 12(3), 279–298.  [Google Scholar]
  42. Oğuz Ünver, A. (2010). Perceptions of scientists: A comparative study of fifth-graders and fourth-year student teachers. Necatibey Faculty of Education Electronic Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 4(1), 11–28.  [Google Scholar]
  43. Özdeş, S., & Aslan, O. (2019). Kız öğrencilerin bilim insanı cinsiyetine yönelik algılarını ve bilim insanı olma isteklerini etkileyen faktörler [Factors affecting female students' perceptions of the gender of scientists and their willingness to become scientists]. Ondokuz Mayıs Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi [Ondokuz Mayıs University Journal of Education Faculty], 38(1), 190–214.  [Google Scholar]
  44. Özel, M., Doğan, A. (2013). "Gifted students' perceptions of scientists,". The New Educational Review 31(1) 216–228.  [Google Scholar]
  45. Özel, M. (2012). Children’s ımages of scientists: does grade level make a difference?, Educational Sciences: Theory& Practice 12(SUPPL. 4), 3187–3198.  [Google Scholar]
  46. Özgelen, S. (2012). Turkish young children ’ s views on science and scientists. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice - Special Issue, 12(4), 3211–3225.  [Google Scholar]
  47. Ruiz-Mallén, I. & Escalas, M. (2012). Scientists seen by children: A case study in Catalonia, Spain. Science Communication, 34(4), 520–545. [Google Scholar]
  48. She, H. C. (1995). Elementary and middle school students' image of science and scientists related to current science textbooks in Taiwan. Journal of science education and technology, 4(4), 283-294. [Google Scholar]
  49. Schibeci, R. (2006). Student images of scientists: What are they? do they matter? Teaching Science, 52(2), 12-16.  [Google Scholar]
  50. Toğrol, A. (2000). Öğrencilerin bilim ınsanları ıle ılgili ımgeleri [Students' images about scientists]. Eğitim Bilim [Education Science], 25(118).  [Google Scholar]
  51. Toǧrol, A. (2013). Turkish students’ images of scientists. Journal of Baltic Science Education, 12(3), 289–298. [Google Scholar]
  52. Tuckey, C. J. (1992). Who is a scientist? Children's drawings reveal all. International Journal of Primary, Elementary and Early Years Education, 20(2), 30-32. [Google Scholar]
  53. Türkmen, H. (2008). Turkish primary students’ perceptions about scientist and what factors affecting the ımage of the scientists. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics Science & Technology Education, 4(1), 55–61.  [Google Scholar]
  54. Yalçin, F. A. (2012). Investigation of Prospective Teachers’ Image of Scientist with Respect to Some Variables. Elementary Education Online, 11(3), 611–628. [Google Scholar]
  55. Yıldırım, A., Şimşek, H. (2016). Sosyal bilimlerde nitel araştırma yöntemleri [Qualitative research methods in the social sciences]. Ankara: Seckin publishing. [Google Scholar]