International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 2834-7919   |  e-ISSN: 1554-5210

Original article | International Journal of Progressive Education 2022, Vol. 18(1) 435-447

A Study of the Effects of Parental Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Parental Emotion Regulation Processes on Adolescent Self-Regulation Skills

Zeynep Gültekin-Ahçı, Seher Akdeniz & Hatice Harmancı

pp. 435 - 447   |  DOI:   |  Manu. Number: MANU-2105-13-0003.R1

Published online: February 01, 2022  |   Number of Views: 44  |  Number of Download: 207


Self-regulation is a concept that is frequently studied in the literature and is crucial for humans in their capacity as beings with deliberate will. However, there is a lack of research examining ADHD, which is characterized by difficulties in self-regulation and emotion regulation, particularly in terms of adolescent self-regulation skills via parenting practices. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between parents' emotion regulation approaches toward their children and children's self-regulation skills based on a comparison of self-regulation skills in adolescent children of parents who met and did not meet ADHD diagnostic criteria. 572 parents and their 12-15-year-old children took part in the study. The study was designed as a correlational survey model. The data collected from children and their parents who met and did not meet the ADHD diagnostic criteria were compared using the T-test and then subjected to stepwise regression analyses separately. According to the study's findings, the children of parents who met the diagnostic criteria had lower self-regulation success scores than those who did not. The study discovered that avoidance and orientation to a child's emotions by parents who met ADHD diagnostic criteria were determinants of self-regulation failure. Another finding from the study was that avoidance of emotions by parents who met the ADHD diagnostic criteria was negatively related to self-regulation success. The findings for parents who did not meet ADHD diagnostic criteria revealed that no emotion regulation approach of such parents had a significant contribution to self-regulation failure, whereas the emotion orientation approach had a positive and significant contribution to adolescents' self-regulation success. Finally, the study discusses the findings in light of previous research findings and makes some recommendations for future work.

Keywords: Self-Regulation, Adult ADHD, Parental Emotion Regulation

How to Cite this Article?

APA 6th edition
Gultekin-Ahci, Z., Akdeniz, S. & Harmanci, H. (2022). A Study of the Effects of Parental Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Parental Emotion Regulation Processes on Adolescent Self-Regulation Skills . International Journal of Progressive Education, 18(1), 435-447. doi: 10.29329/ijpe.2022.426.24

Gultekin-Ahci, Z., Akdeniz, S. and Harmanci, H. (2022). A Study of the Effects of Parental Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Parental Emotion Regulation Processes on Adolescent Self-Regulation Skills . International Journal of Progressive Education, 18(1), pp. 435-447.

Chicago 16th edition
Gultekin-Ahci, Zeynep, Seher Akdeniz and Hatice Harmanci (2022). "A Study of the Effects of Parental Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Parental Emotion Regulation Processes on Adolescent Self-Regulation Skills ". International Journal of Progressive Education 18 (1):435-447. doi:10.29329/ijpe.2022.426.24.

  1. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5®). American Psychiatric Pub. [Google Scholar]
  2. Bailen, N. H., Green, L. M., & Thompson, R. J. (2019). Understanding emotion in adolescents: A review of emotional frequency, intensity, instability, and clarity. Emotion Review, 11(1), 63-73. [Google Scholar]
  3. Barkley, R. A. (2011). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, self-regulation, and executive functioning. In K. D. Vohs & R. F. Baumeister (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation: Research, theory, and applications (p. 551–563). Guilford Press. [Google Scholar]
  4. Barkley, R. A. (2014). Emotional Dysregulation is a core component of ADHD. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Handbook for Diagnosis and Treatment. Guilford Press [Google Scholar]
  5. Barkley, R. A., & Fischer, M. (2010). The unique contribution of emotional impulsiveness to impairment in major life activities in hyperactive children as adults. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 49(5), 503–513. [Google Scholar]
  6. Biederman, J., Faraone, S. V., & Monuteaux, M. C. (2002). Impact of exposure to parental attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder on clinical features and dysfunction in the offspring. Psychological Medicine, 32(5), 817-827. [Google Scholar]
  7. Boden, M. T., & Thompson, R. J. (2015). Facets of emotional awareness and associations with emotion regulation and depression. Emotion, 15(3), 399. [Google Scholar]
  8. Brand, A. E., & Klimes-Dugan, B. (2010). Emotion socialization in adolescence: The roles of mothers and fathers. A. Kennedy Root & S. Denham (Ed.), The role of gender in the socialization of emotion: Key concepts and critical issues. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development içinde, (128, pp.85–100). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. [Google Scholar]
  9. Breaux, R. P., Brown, H. R., & Harvey, E. A. (2017). Mediators and moderators of the relation between parental ADHD symptomatology and the early development of child ADHD and ODD symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 45(3), 443-456. [Google Scholar]
  10. Brown, T. E. (2009). Developmental complexities of attentional disorders. In T. E. Brown (Ed.), ADHD Comorbidities: Handbook for ADHD Complications in Children and Adults. American Psychiatric Pub. [Google Scholar]
  11. Buckholdt, K. E., Parra, G. R., & Jobe-Shields, L. (2014). Intergenerational transmission of emotion dysregulation through parental invalidation of emotions: Implications for adolescent internalizing and externalizing behaviours. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 23(2), 324-332. [Google Scholar]
  12. Bunford, N., Evans, S. W., & Wymbs, F. (2015b). ADHD and emotion dysregulation among children and adolescents. Clinical Child and Family Psychological Review, 18(3), 185–217. [Google Scholar]
  13. Dix, T. (1991). The affective organization of parenting: Adaptive and maladaptative processes. Psychological Bulletin, 110(1), 3-25. [Google Scholar]
  14. Doan, S. N., Fuller-Rowell, T. E., & Evans, G. W. (2012). Cumulative risk and adolescent's internalizing and externalizing problems: The mediating roles of maternal responsiveness and self-regulation. Developmental Psychology, 48(6), 1529. [Google Scholar]
  15. Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., & Murphy, B. C. (1996). Parents' reactions to children's negative emotions: Relations to children's social competence and comforting behaviour. Child Development, 67(5), 2227-2247. [Google Scholar]
  16. Eisenberg, N., Smith, C. L., & Spinrad, T. L. (2011). Effortful control: Relations with emotion regulation, adjustment, and socialization in childhood. In K. D. Vohs & R. F. Baumeister (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation: Research, theory, and applications (p. 263–283). Guilford Press. [Google Scholar]
  17. Eisenberg, N., & Spinrad, T. L. (2004). Emotion‐related regulation: Sharpening the definition. Child Development, 75(2), 334-339. [Google Scholar]
  18. Endler, N. S., & Kocovski, N. L. (2000). Self-regulation and distress in clinical psychology. In M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich, & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation (pp. 569-599). Academic Press. [Google Scholar]
  19. Faraone, S. V., & Larsson, H. (2019). Genetics of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Molecular Psychiatry, 24(4), 562-575.  [Google Scholar]
  20. Finkenauer, C., Engels, R. & Baumeister, R. (2005) Parenting behaviour and adolescent behavioural and emotional problems: The role of self-control, International Journal of Behavioral Development, 29(1), 58-69. [Google Scholar]
  21. Garner, P. W., Dunsmore, J. C., & Southam‐Gerrow, M. (2008). Mother–child conversations about emotions: Linkages to child aggression and prosocial behaviour. Social Development, 17(2), 259-277. [Google Scholar]
  22. Guilmette, M., Mulvihill, K., Villemaire-Krajden, R., Barker, E. T. (2019). Past and present participation in extracurricular activities is associated with adaptive self-regulation of goals, academic success, and emotional wellbeing among university students, Learning and Individual Differences, 73, 8-15. [Google Scholar]
  23. Gültekin Ahçı, Z.., Akdeniz, S., Harmancı, H., Akaroğlu, E. G., & Seçer, İ. (2020). The validity and reliability study of the Turkish version of Parent Emotion Regulation Scale. European journal of Education Studies. 6(11), 221-229. [Google Scholar]
  24. Gürbüz, S. and Şahin,F.(2017). Sosyal Bilimlerde Araştırma Yöntemleri: Felsefe-Yöntem-Analiz (2. Basım). Ankara: Seçkin Yayınları. [Google Scholar]
  25. Harma, M. (2008). The impact of parental control and marital conflict on adolescents’ self-regulation and adjustment (Master’s Thesis). Middle East Technical University, Ankara. [Google Scholar]
  26. Havighurst, S., & Kehoe, C. (2017). The role of parental emotion regulation in parent emotion socialization: Implications for intervention. In Parental stress and early child development (pp. 285-307). Springer, Cham. [Google Scholar]
  27. Holmes, C., Brieant, A., Kahn, R., Deater-Deckard, K., & Kim-Spoon, J. (2019). Structural Home Environment Effects on Developmental Trajectories of Self-Control and Adolescent Risk Taking. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 48(1), 43–55.  [Google Scholar]
  28. Humphreys, K. L., Mehta, N. & Lee, S. S. (2012). Association of parental ADHD and depression with externalizing and internalizing dimensions of child psychopathology, Journal of Attention Disorders, 16(4), 267–275 [Google Scholar]
  29. Johnston, C., & Mash, E. J. (2001). Families of children with Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder: Review and recommendations for future research. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 4(3), 183–207. [Google Scholar]
  30. Koole, S. L., Van Dillen, L. F., & Sheppes, G. (2011). The self-regulation of emotion. Handbook of self-regulation: Research, theory, and applications, 2, 22-40. [Google Scholar]
  31. Kooij, S., Buitelaar, J.K., van den Oord, E.J., Furer, J.W., Rijnders, C.A., Hodiamont, P.P. (2005). Internal and external validity of attentiondefiicit/hyperactivity disorder in a population-based sample of adults. Psychological Medicine, 35:817-827. [Google Scholar]
  32. Lengua, L. J. (2003). Associations among emotionality, self-regulation, adjustment problems, and positive adjustment in middle childhood. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 24(5), 595-618. [Google Scholar]
  33. Lunkenheimer, E. S., Shields, A. M., & Cortina, K. S. (2007). Parental emotion coaching and dismissing in family interaction. Social Development, 16(2), 232-248. [Google Scholar]
  34. McQuillan M.E., Bates J.E. (2017) Parental Stress and Child Temperament. In: Deater-Deckard K., Panneton R. (Eds) Parental Stress and Early Child Development. Springer, Cham.  [Google Scholar]
  35. Metin, B., Alpuğan, Z., Burkovik, H. Y., Çengel, S. M., Yılmazer, E., Aydın, M., Sunar, M., Esenkaya, İ. C., Arslan, L., Metin, S. Z., Tarhan, N. (2018). DEHB DSM Ölçeğinin Türkçe geçerlilik ve güvenilirlik çalışması. The Journal of Neurobehavioral Sciences, 5(1), 3-7. [Google Scholar]
  36. Minde K, Eakin L, Hechtman L, Ochs E, Bouffard R, Greenfield B, Looper K. (2003) The psychosocial functioning of children and spouses of adults with ADHD. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44(4), 637-46. [Google Scholar]
  37. Moilanen, K. L. (2007). The adolescent self-regulatory inventory: The development and validation of a questionnaire of short-term and long-term self-regulation. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 36(6), 835-848. [Google Scholar]
  38. Mokrova, I., O'Brien, M., Calkins, S., & Keane, S. (2010). Parental ADHD symptomology and ineffective parenting: The connecting link of home chaos. Parenting: Science and Practice, 10(2), 119-135. [Google Scholar]
  39. Murphy, P., & Schachar, R. (2000). Use of self-ratings in the assessment of symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157(7), 1156–1159. [Google Scholar]
  40. Nigg, J. T. (2017). Annual Research Review: On the relations among self‐regulation, self‐control, executive functioning, effortful control, cognitive control, impulsivity, risk‐taking, and inhibition for developmental psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 58(4), 361-383. [Google Scholar]
  41. Nigg, J. T., Hinshaw, S. P., & Huang-Pollack, C. (2006). Disorders of attention and impulse regulation. In D. Cicchetti & D. J. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology: Vol. 3. Risk, disorder, and adaptation (2nd ed., pp. 358–403). New York: Wiley. [Google Scholar]
  42. Park, J. L., Hudec, K. L., & Johnston, C. (2017). Parental ADHD symptoms and parenting behaviors: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 56, 25-39.  [Google Scholar]
  43. Pereira, A. I., Barros, L., Roberto, M. S. and Marques, T. (2017). Development of the Parent Emotion Regulation Scale (PERS): Factor structure and psychometric qualities. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 26(12), 3327-3338. [Google Scholar]
  44. Raver, C.C., Jones, S.M., Li‐Grining, C., Zhai, F., Bub, K. and Pressler, E. (2011), CSRP’s Impact on Low‐Income Preschoolers’ Preacademic Skills: Self‐Regulation as a Mediating Mechanism. Child Development, 82, 362-378. [Google Scholar]
  45. Robson, D. A., Allen, M. S., & Howard, S. J. (2020). Self-regulation in childhood as a predictor of future outcomes: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 146(4), 324–354 [Google Scholar]
  46. Sanders, M. R., & Mazzucchelli, T. G. (2013). The promotion of self-regulation through parenting interventions. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 16(1), 1–17. [Google Scholar]
  47. Shaw, P., Stringaris, A., Nigg, J., & Leibenluft, E. (2014). Emotion dysregulation in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 171(3), 276-293. [Google Scholar]
  48. Shipman, K. L., Schneider, R., Fitzgerald, M. M., Sims, C., Swisher, L., & Edwards, A. (2007). Maternal emotion socialization in maltreating and non‐maltreating families: Implications for children's emotion regulation. Social Development, 16(2), 268-285. [Google Scholar]
  49. Spruijt, A. M., Dekker, M. C., Ziermans, T. B., & Swaab, H. (2018). Attentional control and executive functioning in school-aged children: Linking self-regulation and parenting strategies. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 166, 340-359. [Google Scholar]
  50. Suveg, C., Sood, E., Barmish, A., Tiwari, S., Hudson, J. L., & Kendall, P. C. (2008). " I'd rather not talk about it": Emotion parenting in families of children with an anxiety disorder. Journal of Family Psychology, 22(6), 875 [Google Scholar]
  51. Thompson, R. A. (1994). Emotion regulation: a theme in search of definition. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 59(2–3), 25–52. [Google Scholar]
  52. Thompson, R. A. (2011). Emotion and emotion regulation: Two sides of the developing coin. Emotion Review, 3(1), 53–61. [Google Scholar]
  53. Tung, I., Brammer, W. A., Li, J. J., & Lee, S. S. (2015). Parenting behaviour mediates the intergenerational association of parent and child offspring ADHD symptoms. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 44(5), 787-799.  [Google Scholar]
  54. Vohs, K. D. and Baumeister, R. F. (2004). Understanding Self-Regulation: An Introduction. In Baumeister, R. F., & Vohs, K. D. (Eds.). Handbook of self-regulation: Research, theory, and applications. The Guilford Press. [Google Scholar]
  55. White, B. A., Jarrett, M. A., & Ollendick, T. H. (2013). Self-regulation deficits explain the link between reactive aggression and internalizing and externalizing behaviour problems in children. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioural Assessment, 35(1), 1-9. [Google Scholar]